The Undecidable

Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems and Computable Functions

Author: Martin Davis

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486432281

Category: Mathematics

Page: 413

View: 5436

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"A valuable collection both for original source material as well as historical formulations of current problems." — The Review of Metaphysics "Much more than a mere collection of papers. A valuable addition to the literature." — Mathematics of Computation An anthology of fundamental papers on undecidability and unsolvability by major figures in the field , this classic reference is ideally suited as a text for graduate and undergraduate courses in logic, philosophy, and foundations of mathematics. It is also appropriate for self-study. The text opens with Godel's landmark 1931 paper demonstrating that systems of logic cannot admit proofs of all true assertions of arithmetic. Subsequent papers by Godel, Church, Turing, and Post single out the class of recursive functions as computable by finite algorithms. Additional papers by Church, Turing, and Post cover unsolvable problems from the theory of abstract computing machines, mathematical logic, and algebra, and material by Kleene and Post includes initiation of the classification theory of unsolvable problems. Supplementary items include corrections, emendations, and added commentaries by Godel, Church, and Kleene for this volume's original publication, along with a helpful commentary by the editor.
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Mechanism, Mentalism and Metamathematics

An Essay on Finitism

Author: J. Webb

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940157653X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 6330

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This book grew out of a graduate student paper [261] in which I set down some criticisms of J. R. Lucas' attempt to refute mechanism by means of G6del's theorem. I had made several such abortive attempts myself and had become familiar with their pitfalls, and especially with the double edged nature of incompleteness arguments. My original idea was to model the refutation of mechanism on the almost universally accepted G6delian refutation of Hilbert's formalism, but I kept getting stuck on questions of mathematical philosophy which I found myself having to beg. A thorough study of the foundational works of Hilbert and Bernays finally convinced me that I had all too naively and uncritically bought this refutation of formalism. I did indeed discover points of surprisingly close contact between formalism and mechanism, but also that it was possible to under mine certain strong arguments against these positions precisely by invok ing G6del's and related work. I also began to realize that the Church Turing thesis itself is the principal bastion protecting mechanism, and that G6del's work was perhaps the best thing that ever happened to both mechanism and formalism. I pushed these lines of argument in my dis sertation with the patient help of my readers, Raymond Nelson and Howard Stein. I would especially like to thank the latter for many valuable criticisms of my dissertation as well as some helpful suggestions for reor ganizing it in the direction of the present book.
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Mathematical Logic

Author: Stephen Cole Kleene

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486317072

Category: Mathematics

Page: 416

View: 6717

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Contents include an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order; formal number theory; surveys of the work by Church, Turing, and others, including Gödel's completeness theorem, Gentzen's theorem, more.
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Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Fourth Edition

Author: Elliott Mendelson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780412808302

Category: Mathematics

Page: 440

View: 2935

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The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in mathematical logic. This edition includes an extensive appendix on second-order logic, a section on set theory with urlements, and a section on the logic that results when we allow models with empty domains. The text contains numerous exercises and an appendix furnishes answers to many of them. Introduction to Mathematical Logic includes: propositional logic first-order logic first-order number theory and the incompleteness and undecidability theorems of Gödel, Rosser, Church, and Tarski axiomatic set theory theory of computability The study of mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, and computability theory provides an understanding of the fundamental assumptions and proof techniques that form basis of mathematics. Logic and computability theory have also become indispensable tools in theoretical computer science, including artificial intelligence. Introduction to Mathematical Logic covers these topics in a clear, reader-friendly style that will be valued by anyone working in computer science as well as lecturers and researchers in mathematics, philosophy, and related fields.
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Nonstandard Analysis, Axiomatically

Author: Vladimir Kanovei,Michael Reeken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540222439

Category: Mathematics

Page: 408

View: 2066

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The book is devoted to nonstandard set theories that serve as foundational basis for nonstandard mathematics. Several popular and some less known nonstandard theories are considered, including internal set theory IST, Hrbacek set theory HST, and others. The book presents the basic structure of the set universe of these theories and methods to effectively develop "applied" nonstandard analysis, metamathematical properties and interrelations of these nonstandard theories between each other and with ZFC and some variants of ZFC, foundational problems of the theories, including the problem of external sets and the Power Set problem, and methods of their solution. The book is oriented towards a reader having some experience in foundations (set theory, model theory) and in nonstandard analysis.
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Advanced Logic for Applications

Author: R.E. Grandy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401011915

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 2335

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This book is intended to be a survey of the most important results in mathematical logic for philosophers. It is a survey of results which have philosophical significance and it is intended to be accessible to philosophers. I have assumed the mathematical sophistication acquired· in an introductory logic course or in reading a basic logic text. In addition to proving the most philosophically significant results in mathematical logic, I have attempted to illustrate various methods of proof. For example, the completeness of quantification theory is proved both constructively and non-constructively and relative ad vantages of each type of proof are discussed. Similarly, constructive and non-constructive versions of Godel's first incompleteness theorem are given. I hope that the reader· will develop facility with the methods of proof and also be caused by reflect on their differences. I assume familiarity with quantification theory both in under standing the notations and in finding object language proofs. Strictly speaking the presentation is self-contained, but it would be very difficult for someone without background in the subject to follow the material from the beginning. This is necessary if the notes are to be accessible to readers who have had diverse backgrounds at a more elementary level. However, to make them accessible to readers with no background would require writing yet another introductory logic text. Numerous exercises have been included and many of these are integral parts of the proofs.
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