Introduction to Liquid Crystals

Chemistry and Physics

Author: Peter J. Collings,Michael Hird

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351988786

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 8648

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This text relies on only introductory level physics and chemistry as the foundation for understanding liquid crystal science. Liquid crystals combine the material properties of solids with the flow properties of fluids. As such they have provided the foundation for a revolution in low- power, flat-panel display technology LCDs. In this book, the essential elements of liquid crystal science are introduced and explained from the perspectives of both the chemist and the physicist.; The text begins with an historical account of the discovery of liquid crystals and continues with a description of how different phases are generated and how different molecular architectures affect liquid crystalline properties. The rest of the book is concerned with understanding and explaining the properties of the various types of liquid crystals, and in the final part of the book, the technology of LCDs is discussed and illustrated.
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Liquid Crystals in the Nineties and Beyond

Author: Satyen Kumar

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810221928

Category: Science

Page: 457

View: 1174

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This book is a collection of 13 articles, written by experts, on different aspects of the physics and applications of liquid crystals. In addition to giving self-contained review articles with good bibliography, the authors have discussed the anticipated or highly important and desirable breakthroughs in the near future in their respective fields. The book should provide readers with a good starting point, insight, and an indicator of what current important problems are. Good researchers should benefit in fine tuning their efforts to test the ideas put forward by the authors.
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Liquid Crystals

Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions

Author: Satyen Kumar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521461320

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 4131

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Originally published in 2001, this book describes in detail various experimental techniques used in the study of liquid crystals. It will be indispensable for established workers in the field as well as students embarking on liquid crystal research. Each chapter in the book is dedicated to an important experimental technique used in the study and characterisation of liquid crystalline systems. Use of these techniques on liquid crystals requires modifications of traditional experiments, special sample handling and a fresh a approach to data analysis. In addition, general routes used to synthesise liquid crystals and tools to characterise liquid crystal phases are described. Attempts are also made to show structure property relationships for well known systems. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students in physics and chemistry as well as established researchers in the fields of liquid crystals and soft condensed matter.
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Solid State Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080921558

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 5212

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Solid state physics is the branch of physics primarily devoted to the study of matter in its solid phase, especially at the atomic level. This prestigious serial presents timely and state-of-the-art reviews pertaining to all aspects of solid state physics.
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Liquid Crystals

Applications and Uses

Author: Birenda Bahadur

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810229757

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 2268

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1. Types and classification of liquid crystals / D. Demus -- 2. Theories of liquid crystals / N.V. Madhusudana -- 3. Chemical structure, molecular engineering and mixture formulation / D. Coates -- 4. Physical properties of liquid crystals / L. Pohl and U. Finkenzeller -- 7. Materials and assembling process of LCDs / S. Morozumi -- 9. Dynamic scattering mode LCDs / B. Bahadur -- 10. Twisted nematic and supertwisted nematic mode LCDs / T. Scheffer and J. Nehring -- 12. Smectica LCDs / D. Coates -- 13. Ferroelectric LCDs / J. Dijon -- 14. Polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays / J.W. Doane -- 15. Active matrix LC displays / F.C. Luo -- 16. Light valve and projection mode LCDs / S.E. Shields and W.P. Bleha -- 18. The nonlinear optical response of liquid crystals / P. Palffy-Muhoray
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Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors

Materials, properties and applications

Author: Richard J. Bushby,Stephen M. Kelly,Mary O'Neill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048128730

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 274

View: 552

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This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of the difficult issues of controlling crystal growth and morphology. Liquid crystals self-organise, they can be aligned by fields and surface forces and, because of their fluid nature, defects in liquid crystal structures readily self-heal. With these matters in mind this is an opportune moment to bring together a volume on the subject of ‘Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors’. The field is already too large to cover in a comprehensive manner so the aim has been to bring together contributions from leading researchers which cover the main areas of the chemistry (synthesis and structure/function relationships), physics (charge transport mechanisms and optical properties) and potential applications in photovoltaics, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). This book will provide a useful introduction to the field for those in both industry and academia and it is hoped that it will help to stimulate future developments.
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Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals

Author: Giovanni Barbero,Luiz Roberto Evangelista

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420037456

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 8873

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Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals. The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage dependence influence the uniform alignment of liquid crystals and affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. They also discuss fundamental equations regulating the adsorption phenomenon and the dynamic aspects of ion adsorption phenomenon in liquid crystalline systems. Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals serves as an excellent source of reference for graduates and researchers working in liquid crystals, complex fluids, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, chemical engineering, and electronic engineering, as well as providing a useful general introduction to and background information on the nematic liquid crystal phase.
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Liquid Crystals, Laptops and Life

Author: Michael R. Fisch

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812389015

Category: Science

Page: 355

View: 1157

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Life, Laptops and Liquid Crystals connects the science of one of the icons of the digital age, the laptop computer, with life itself via liquid crystals, the phase of matter essential to both. The book begins with a review of basic chemistry and physics, then goes on to discuss semiconductors, polymers, liquid crystals, and the molecules of life. Applications of these basic concepts to electronic devices, liquid crystal displays, art, and of course the laptop computer, complete the text. Physics, chemistry, materials science, electronics, and biology are all essential to understanding those topics. The necessary concepts in each field are developed with an eye to emphasizing molecules and molecular interactions. Each chapter concludes with review exercise, as well as references and research questions that encourage the reader to explore the topics in more depth.
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Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals

From Monomers to Polymers

Author: Sandeep Kumar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439811450

Category: Science

Page: 519

View: 8817

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The self-contained properties of discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) render them powerful functional materials for many semiconducting device applications and models for energy and charge migration in self-organized dynamic functional soft materials. The past three decades have seen tremendous interest in this area, fueled primarily by the possibility of creating a new generation of organic semiconductors and wide viewing displays using DLCs. While a number of books on classical calamitic liquid crystals are available, there are, as yet, no books that are dedicated exclusively to the basic design principles, synthesis, and physical properties of DLCs. The first reference book to cover DLCs, Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals: From Monomers to Polymers highlights the chemistry and thermal behavior of DLCs. Divided into six chapters, each with a general description, background, and context for the concepts involved, the book begins with a basic introduction to liquid crystals, describing molecular self-assembly and various types of liquid crystals. It outlines their classification, covers their history and general applications, and focuses on DLCs and their discovery, structure, characterization, and alignment. The book goes on to examine the chemistry and physical properties of various monomeric DLCs, including 25 sections describing the synthesis and mesomorphic properties of monomeric DLCs formed by different cores. The bulk of the book covers the chemistry and mesomorphism of discotic dimers, oligomers, and polymers and concludes with a look at some applicable properties of DLCs. A comprehensive and up-to-date resource, this book is designed to be accessible and of value not just for students and researchers but also to the directors and principal investigators working in this field, providing the foundation and fuel to advance this fast-growing technological field.
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The Molecular Dynamics of Liquid Crystals

Author: G.R. Luckhurst,C.A. Veracini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401111685

Category: Science

Page: 610

View: 2569

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Liquid-crystalline phases are now known to be formed by an ever growing range of quite diverse materials, these include those of low molecular weight as well as the novel liquid-crystalline polymers, such phases can also be induced by the addition of a solvent to amphiphilic systems leading to lyotropic liquid crystals. Irrespective of the structure of the constituent molecules these numerous liquid-cl)'Stailine phases are characterised by their long range orientational order. In addition certain phases exhibit elements of long range positional order. Our understanding, both experimental and theoretical, at the molecular level of the static behaviour of these fascinating and important materials is now well advanced. In contrast the influence of the long range order; both orientational and positional, on the molecular dynamics in liquid Cl)'Stais is less well understood. In an attempt to address this situation a NATO Advanced Study Institute devoted to liquid ctystal dynamics was held at n Ciocco, Barga, Italy in September 1989. This brought together experimentalists and theoreticians concerned with the various dynamical processes occurring in all liquid crystals. The skills of the participants was impressively wide ranging; they spanned the experimental techniques used in the study of molecular dynamics, the nature of the systems investigated and the theoretical models employed to understand the results. While much was learnt it was also recognised that much more needed to be done in order to advance our understanding of molecular dynamics in liquid Cl)'Stais.
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