Introduction to Liquid Crystals

Chemistry and Physics

Author: Peter J. Collings,Michael Hird

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351988786

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 8040

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This text relies on only introductory level physics and chemistry as the foundation for understanding liquid crystal science. Liquid crystals combine the material properties of solids with the flow properties of fluids. As such they have provided the foundation for a revolution in low- power, flat-panel display technology LCDs. In this book, the essential elements of liquid crystal science are introduced and explained from the perspectives of both the chemist and the physicist.; The text begins with an historical account of the discovery of liquid crystals and continues with a description of how different phases are generated and how different molecular architectures affect liquid crystalline properties. The rest of the book is concerned with understanding and explaining the properties of the various types of liquid crystals, and in the final part of the book, the technology of LCDs is discussed and illustrated.
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Liquid Crystals in the Nineties and Beyond

Author: Satyen Kumar

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810221928

Category: Science

Page: 457

View: 3945

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This book is a collection of 13 articles, written by experts, on different aspects of the physics and applications of liquid crystals. In addition to giving self-contained review articles with good bibliography, the authors have discussed the anticipated or highly important and desirable breakthroughs in the near future in their respective fields. The book should provide readers with a good starting point, insight, and an indicator of what current important problems are. Good researchers should benefit in fine tuning their efforts to test the ideas put forward by the authors.
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Liquid Crystals

Applications and Uses

Author: Birenda Bahadur

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810229757

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 2751

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1. Types and classification of liquid crystals / D. Demus -- 2. Theories of liquid crystals / N.V. Madhusudana -- 3. Chemical structure, molecular engineering and mixture formulation / D. Coates -- 4. Physical properties of liquid crystals / L. Pohl and U. Finkenzeller -- 7. Materials and assembling process of LCDs / S. Morozumi -- 9. Dynamic scattering mode LCDs / B. Bahadur -- 10. Twisted nematic and supertwisted nematic mode LCDs / T. Scheffer and J. Nehring -- 12. Smectica LCDs / D. Coates -- 13. Ferroelectric LCDs / J. Dijon -- 14. Polymer dispersed liquid crystal displays / J.W. Doane -- 15. Active matrix LC displays / F.C. Luo -- 16. Light valve and projection mode LCDs / S.E. Shields and W.P. Bleha -- 18. The nonlinear optical response of liquid crystals / P. Palffy-Muhoray
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Solid State Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080921558

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 4191

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Solid state physics is the branch of physics primarily devoted to the study of matter in its solid phase, especially at the atomic level. This prestigious serial presents timely and state-of-the-art reviews pertaining to all aspects of solid state physics.
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Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors

Materials, properties and applications

Author: Richard J. Bushby,Stephen M. Kelly,Mary O'Neill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048128730

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 274

View: 4240

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This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of the difficult issues of controlling crystal growth and morphology. Liquid crystals self-organise, they can be aligned by fields and surface forces and, because of their fluid nature, defects in liquid crystal structures readily self-heal. With these matters in mind this is an opportune moment to bring together a volume on the subject of ‘Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors’. The field is already too large to cover in a comprehensive manner so the aim has been to bring together contributions from leading researchers which cover the main areas of the chemistry (synthesis and structure/function relationships), physics (charge transport mechanisms and optical properties) and potential applications in photovoltaics, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). This book will provide a useful introduction to the field for those in both industry and academia and it is hoped that it will help to stimulate future developments.
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The Static and Dynamic Continuum Theory of Liquid Crystals

A Mathematical Introduction

Author: Iain W. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203646335

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 7273

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Given the widespread interest in macroscopic phenomena in liquid crystals, stemming from their applications in displays and devices. The need has arisen for a rigorous yet accessible text suitable for graduate students, whatever their scientific background. This book satisfies that need. The approach taken in this text, is to introduce the basic continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals in equilibria, then it proceeds to simple application of this theory- in particular, there is a discussion of electrical and magnetic field effects which give rise to Freedericksz transitions, which are important in devices. This is followed by an account of dynamic theory and elementary viscometry of nemantics Discussions of backflow and flow-induced instabilities are also included. Smetic theory is also briefly introduced and summarised with some examples of equilibrium solutions as well as those with dynamic effects. A number of mathematical techniques, such as Cartesian tensors and some variational calculus, are presented in the appendices.
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Liquid Crystals, Laptops and Life

Author: Michael R. Fisch

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812389015

Category: Science

Page: 355

View: 8305

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Life, Laptops and Liquid Crystals connects the science of one of the icons of the digital age, the laptop computer, with life itself via liquid crystals, the phase of matter essential to both. The book begins with a review of basic chemistry and physics, then goes on to discuss semiconductors, polymers, liquid crystals, and the molecules of life. Applications of these basic concepts to electronic devices, liquid crystal displays, art, and of course the laptop computer, complete the text. Physics, chemistry, materials science, electronics, and biology are all essential to understanding those topics. The necessary concepts in each field are developed with an eye to emphasizing molecules and molecular interactions. Each chapter concludes with review exercise, as well as references and research questions that encourage the reader to explore the topics in more depth.
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Alignment Technology and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices

Author: Kohki Takatoh,Masanori Sakamoto,Ray Hasegawa,Mitsushiro Koden,Nobuyuki Itoh,Masaki Hasegawa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420023015

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 7768

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Alignment phenomena are characteristic of liquid crystalline materials, and understanding them is critically important in understanding the essential features and behavior of liquid crystals and the performance of Liquid Crystal Devices (LCDs). Furthermore, in LCD production lines, the alignment process is of practical importance. Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices demonstrates both the fundamental and practical aspects of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The physical basis of alignment phenomena is first introduced in order to aid the understanding of the various physical phenomena observed in the interface between liquid crystalline materials and alignment layer surfaces. Methods for the characterization of surfaces, which induce the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are introduced. These methods are useful for the research of liquid crystalline materials and devices in academic research as well as in industry. In the practical sections, the alignment methods used in the LCD production lines are introduced with various other trials for the alignment technologies. LCD performances are also discussed in relation to alignment phenomena. The authors have a wide range of experience in both academic research and in industry. This book will be of interest to researchers and engineers working in the LCD industry, and for physics and chemistry researchers studying liquid crystalline materials.
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The Molecular Dynamics of Liquid Crystals

Author: G.R. Luckhurst,C.A. Veracini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401111685

Category: Science

Page: 610

View: 8958

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Liquid-crystalline phases are now known to be formed by an ever growing range of quite diverse materials, these include those of low molecular weight as well as the novel liquid-crystalline polymers, such phases can also be induced by the addition of a solvent to amphiphilic systems leading to lyotropic liquid crystals. Irrespective of the structure of the constituent molecules these numerous liquid-cl)'Stailine phases are characterised by their long range orientational order. In addition certain phases exhibit elements of long range positional order. Our understanding, both experimental and theoretical, at the molecular level of the static behaviour of these fascinating and important materials is now well advanced. In contrast the influence of the long range order; both orientational and positional, on the molecular dynamics in liquid Cl)'Stais is less well understood. In an attempt to address this situation a NATO Advanced Study Institute devoted to liquid ctystal dynamics was held at n Ciocco, Barga, Italy in September 1989. This brought together experimentalists and theoreticians concerned with the various dynamical processes occurring in all liquid crystals. The skills of the participants was impressively wide ranging; they spanned the experimental techniques used in the study of molecular dynamics, the nature of the systems investigated and the theoretical models employed to understand the results. While much was learnt it was also recognised that much more needed to be done in order to advance our understanding of molecular dynamics in liquid Cl)'Stais.
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Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals

From Monomers to Polymers

Author: Sandeep Kumar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439811450

Category: Science

Page: 519

View: 5873

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The self-contained properties of discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) render them powerful functional materials for many semiconducting device applications and models for energy and charge migration in self-organized dynamic functional soft materials. The past three decades have seen tremendous interest in this area, fueled primarily by the possibility of creating a new generation of organic semiconductors and wide viewing displays using DLCs. While a number of books on classical calamitic liquid crystals are available, there are, as yet, no books that are dedicated exclusively to the basic design principles, synthesis, and physical properties of DLCs. The first reference book to cover DLCs, Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals: From Monomers to Polymers highlights the chemistry and thermal behavior of DLCs. Divided into six chapters, each with a general description, background, and context for the concepts involved, the book begins with a basic introduction to liquid crystals, describing molecular self-assembly and various types of liquid crystals. It outlines their classification, covers their history and general applications, and focuses on DLCs and their discovery, structure, characterization, and alignment. The book goes on to examine the chemistry and physical properties of various monomeric DLCs, including 25 sections describing the synthesis and mesomorphic properties of monomeric DLCs formed by different cores. The bulk of the book covers the chemistry and mesomorphism of discotic dimers, oligomers, and polymers and concludes with a look at some applicable properties of DLCs. A comprehensive and up-to-date resource, this book is designed to be accessible and of value not just for students and researchers but also to the directors and principal investigators working in this field, providing the foundation and fuel to advance this fast-growing technological field.
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