Handbook of Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Handbook of Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Included in the Handbook's broad-based coverage: Designing curriculum programs for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mainstream education for children with ASD. Teaching independent living skills to children with ASD.

Author: Jonathan Tarbox

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781493904013

Category: Psychology

Page: 653

View: 548

Current rates of autism diagnoses have been cause for concern and research as well as rumor and misinformation. Important questions surround the condition: how early can an accurate diagnosis be made? At what age should intervention start? How can parents recognize warning signs? And what causes autism in the first place? There are no easy answers, but the Handbook of Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders gives researchers, practitioners, and academics the science and guidance to better understand and intervene. Background chapters survey the history of professional understanding of the disorders and the ongoing debate over autism as a single entity or a continuum. Chapters on best methods in screening, assessment, and diagnosis reflect the transition between the DSM-V and older diagnostic criteria. And at the heart of the book, the intervention section ranges from evidence-based strategies for developing core skills to ethical concerns, cultural considerations, and controversial treatments. Included in the Handbook's broad-based coverage: Designing curriculum programs for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mainstream education for children with ASD. Teaching independent living skills to children with ASD. Social skills and play. Behavioral and mental health disorders in children with ASD. Training and supporting caregivers in evidence-based practices. Teaching cognitive skills to children with ASD. The Handbook of Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders is a comprehensive reference for researchers, professors, and graduate students as well as clinicians and other scientist-practitioners in clinical child and school psychology, child and adolescent psychiatry, social work, rehabilitation, special education, and pediatric medicine.
Categories: Psychology

Clinical Assessment and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Clinical Assessment and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Communication intervention is thus likely to be a vital component in the overall
habilitative plan for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thus, it is
clear that communication intervention is likely to be a high priority for a large ...

Author: Johnny L. Matson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080559808

Category: Psychology

Page: 446

View: 331

Autism spectrum disorder has received increasing research in recent years, with more information on assessment and treatment than can be readily assimilated from primary literature by clinicians. Clinical Assessment and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders summarizes evidence-based assessments and intervention for Autism across the life-span, providing clinicians with a practical overview of how best to assess and treat this disorder. The book begins with a discussion of what warrants a determination of being "evidence based" and a description of the disorder from a life span perspective. The book also provides a chapter on differential diagnosis of autism relative to other disorders. What follows are separate sections on assessment and intervention. These chapters discuss first how to assess and then separately how to treat behavioral problems, communication and social skills issues, academic and vocational skills, and the use of pharmacology and an assessment of possible pharmacological effects. Intended for practitioners assessing and treating children with developmental delays, the book provides clinicians with best practices for assessing and treating delays associated with autism. Covers the full range of Autism Spectrum Disorders Covers the lifespan Focuses on evidence-based assessment and treatment
Categories: Psychology

Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders

It is the limited drive to connect, socialize, relate, and be with others that defines
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Helping individuals with ASD overcome these
behaviors forms the basis of all intervention programs. Children with ASD ...

Author: Sam Goldstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461453017

Category: Psychology

Page: 354

View: 127

Children are being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at a staggering rate—as many as one in 110, according to some studies. To this sobering statistic add the familiar figures of the toddler disengaged from his peers, the middle schooler shunned in the lunchroom, and the adult struggling with social cues on the job, and professionals are faced with a mounting challenge: to assist and support young people with these disorders to ensure their successful transition to adolescence and adulthood. The first volume dedicated solely to its topic, Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders provides a comprehensive overview of programs currently in use. Contributors explore programs focusing on long-term outcomes, home- and classroom-based strategies, resilience training for parents, and pharmacological management of symptoms. Background chapters review issues in reliability and validity of interventions and evaluating treatment effectiveness. And an especially cogent chapter discusses the centrality of treatment integrity to best practice. Comprehensive programs and targeted interventions covered include: The Early Start Denver Model for young children. The TEACCH program for children, adults, and families. The Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD) and CARD eLearning. PROGress: a program for remediating and expanding social skills. Evidence-based strategies for repetitive behaviors and sensory issues. Self-regulation strategies for students with autism spectrum disorders. Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders is an essential resource for researchers, professionals/practitioners, and clinicians in a wide array of fields, including clinical child, school, and developmental psychology; child and adolescent psychiatry; education; rehabilitation medicine/therapy; social work; and pediatrics.
Categories: Psychology

Dietary Interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Dietary Interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders

2006), all 15 of the late detected and late treated cases in this series had learning
difficulties and an ASD, while none of the other 131 had such diagnoses.
Randomized controlled studies of additional treatment strategies are possible in
PKU; ...

Author: Kenneth Aitken

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

ISBN: 1846428602

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 941

'Given the increased interest in the relationship between diet and autism spectrum conditions, this is a timely publication which is both thorough and balanced in content. Parents and professionals alike will find this book of use by virtue of Ken's meticulous reviews of current scientific evidence for a variety of diets combined with practical advice on the application of such interventions.' - Dr. Paul Whiteley, Autism Research Unit 'Dr. Aitken provides a timely synthesis of diet interventions in autistic spectrum disorders set within a framework of historical and political references. This informative work offers invaluable assistance to the wider clinical team, further enabling effective support and guidance to the ASD community in its quest for a healthy future.' - Rosemary Kessick, former CEO of AiA (Allergy Induced Autism) Research in autism increasingly indicates the existence of different forms of the condition, and the possibility of dietary interventions having a positive effect on symptoms and behaviours associated with autism. The author explores the main dietary approaches that have been advocated in ASD. For each approach, the author explores the potential benefits; evidence for and against the diet and its relation to different genetic conditions; and information, where available, on relevant publications, web resources and support groups. The author proposes an approach, the Simple Restriction Diet (SRD), which he describes in detail, explaining how to implement this approach and how to use it to work out whether a dietary approach is of benefit. This book will be a valuable resource for families, individuals and professionals wishing to understand and explore the possibilities of dietary interventions and the benefits they can have for those on the autism spectrum.
Categories: Psychology

Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

The bulk of the treatment research on autism and related conditions in the
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) spectrum have come from the United
States and thus the operant point of view is dominant in the psychological
treatment ...

Author: Johnny L. Matson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080458246

Category: Psychology

Page: 156

View: 384

Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders is the first in a series aimed at addressing the rapidly expanding field of assessment and treatment of children with mental health issues and/or development disabilities. Early Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders is aimed at the researcher of practitioner who works with those young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In addition to covering major research developments in differential diagnosis and early intervention, the author's provide a critical review and analysis of core concept that define this area. The first chapter of the book reviews the development of definitions of autism along with early methods for diagnosing this area of developmental disabilities. Chapter two covers some of the most discussed theories of etiology along with a review of prevalence and the author's opinions on why the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder has increased markedly in recent years. A chapter on the most commonly used assessment methods and a critique of the psychometric properties of each is followed by three chapters on treatment. We have broken the treatment chapters down based on type of intervention. The first treatment chapter covers specific target behaviors or small sets of behaviors. A second chapter covers training for the packaged comprehensive treatment models with particular emphasis on the TEACCH, UCLA-YAP and the University of California Santa Barbara Autism Research and Training Program. Each of these programs gives a unique perspective on treatment for these young children. The final treatment chapter covers the recent developments in pharmacotherapy for autism spectrum disorder, with a critical analysis and review of the data. We hope the overview presented proves to be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the field. We present one perspective on this exciting and innovative area of research and treatment. Hopefully, it will serve as one useful source to those who wish to provide the most up to date evidence based intervention to these young developmentally challenged children. The first of a new series that is intended to expand knowledge of the assessment and treatment of children with developmental disabilities and/or mental health issues Provides definitions, addresses diagnosis, intervention, and treatments Of particular importance to researchers and practitioners who work with children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Categories: Psychology

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders

This book is appropriate for anyone--students, practitioners, or parents--who must provide care for an autistic child.

Author: Dianne Zager

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135623852

Category: Education

Page: 608

View: 483

The field of autism has been growing at an unprecedented rate in recent years. In addition to an actual rise in the number of classic DSM-IV cases, broadened diagnostic criteria have uncovered a wider range of autistic behaviors and ability levels. The third edition of this well-known text continues the mission of its predecessors--to present a comprehensive, readable, up-to-date overview of the field of autism, one that links research, theory, and practice in ways that are accessible to both practitioners and parents. Key features include: *Expanded Coverage--To accommodate the recent explosion of research, the book has been expanded from 11 to 14 chapters that examine the impact of autism on the individual and the family from infancy through adulthood. *Expertise--Internationally recognized experts offer cutting-edge treatment and educational information on topics such as early diagnosis, medical treatment, assessment, educational methods, language development, behavior regulation, and family support. *Neurobiological Research--Comprehensive medical research and treatment chapters provide an understandable overview of neurobiological research and current treatments including when and how medication can be employed as part of a treatment plan. *Focus on Early Years--Old sections I and III have been combined and a new 3-chapter section on early identification and intervention added. *Focus on Parents and Families--In addition to a chapter on the evolving role of families, a new chapter addresses family needs during the preschool years. *Integration of Assessment and Intervention--The chapters on assessment and intervention have been reorganized and more closely integrated in keeping with current thinking about their inter-relatedness. *Future Directions--Two chapters discuss emerging directions in this exploding field and how to make informed decisions among a variety of approaches. This book is appropriate for anyone--students, practitioners, or parents--who must provide care for an autistic child.
Categories: Education

Autism Spectrum Disorders Practical Overview For Pediatricians An Issue of Pediatric Clinics E Book

Autism Spectrum Disorders  Practical Overview For Pediatricians  An Issue of Pediatric Clinics   E Book

Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorders: what do we know? Rev Clin
Psychol 2010;6:447–68. Lovaas OI. Behavioral treatment and normal
educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. J Consult Clin
Psychol ...

Author: Dilip R Patel

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781455743025

Category: Medical

Page: 245

View: 447

The Guest Editors have assembled expert authors to cover the full clinical span of the topic autism and autism spectrum disorders. An historical perspective of the evolution of the disorder opens the issue. Next, comprehensive coverage is given to an article on the definitions, diagnostic criteria, and clinical features of autism spectrum disorders. Other articles in the issue cover the relevant topics like epidemiology, genetic syndromes and genetic testing, early diagnosis and diagnostic evaluation, and neuroimaging and neurochemistry of autism. Authors also present information on tsocial skills for the autistic child, behavioral interventions, and transitioning the autistic child into adulthood, to name a few. This issue should be very well received by pediatricians.
Categories: Medical

Handbook of Social Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Handbook of Social Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 111–126. Carr, T., & Lord, C. (2016).
A pilot study promoting participation of families with limited resources in early
autism intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 25, 87–96. Carr, T.

Author: Justin B. Leaf

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319629957

Category: Psychology

Page: 445

View: 920

This handbook identifies the various social deficiencies widely associated with children and youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It discusses possible causes as well as the lifelong effects if these deficiencies are not addressed. The handbook presents current behavioral and curriculum-based methods for assessing social deficits. Chapters examine the various interventions that have been used to improve social skills and behavior, including video modeling, peer-mediated interventions, and script fading. Chapters also assess various interventions using empirically based procedures, evaluate the research of each of these procedures, provide guidelines for treatment planning, and offer clinical recommendations. The handbook concludes with future directions for the development of both social behavior and clinical social skills interventions. Topics featured in the Handbook include: Impairments in social behavior that may result in negative outcomes such as depression, loneliness, and suicide in individuals with ASD. Bullying among youth with ASD. Behavioral skills training to promote social behavior of individuals with ASD. The Early Start Denver Model approach to helping young children with ASD. The implementation of social skills groups for individuals diagnosed with ASD. The Handbook of Social Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorder is a must-have resource for researchers, clinicians/professionals, and graduate students in clinical child, school, and developmental psychology, behavioral therapy, and social work, as well as such interrelated disciplines as child and adolescent psychiatry, rehabilitation medicine/therapy, pediatrics, and special education/educational psychology.
Categories: Psychology

The TEACCH Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders

The TEACCH Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders

Intervention planning for the family of the autistic child: A multilevel assessment of
the family system. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 10, ... Journal of Autism
and Developmental Disorders, 11, 373–384. Helm, D.T. & Kozloff, M.A. (1986).

Author: Gary B. Mesibov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306486470

Category: Medical

Page: 212

View: 671

- Professionals can be trained in the program and its methods - Translates scientific knowledge so that practitioners and parents can easily understand the current state of knowledge - Offers strategies that can be tailored to an individual's unique developmental and functional level - Advises parents on how to become involved in all phases of intervention as collaborators, co-therapists, and advocates. - Details how the program can be introduced and adapted for individuals of all ages, from preschooler to adult
Categories: Medical

Designing Comprehensive Interventions for High functioning Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Designing Comprehensive Interventions for High functioning Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Structure and visual / tactile supports increase the ability of individuals on the
spectrum to predict and understand the world around ... The use of psychotropic
medications is one of the most common forms of treatment for individuals with
ASD .

Author: Ruth Aspy

Publisher: AAPC Publishing

ISBN: 1934575976

Category: Asperger's syndrome

Page:

View: 561

Categories: Asperger's syndrome

Group Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Group Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

His seminal 1943 paper, entitled, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact” (
Kanner 1973), described a childhood disturbance not previously understood or
acknowledged. Kanner's description of 11 children focused on the core issues he
 ...

Author: Albert J. Cotugno

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

ISBN: 9781843109105

Category: Psychology

Page: 206

View: 853

Cotugno describes the theoretical underpinnings of an intervention model based on cognitive developmental principles, and explains why a group approach is best suited to address an ASD child's social deficiencies. He shows how to implement skill-based instructional approaches and assess the short and long-term effectiveness of this type of therapy.
Categories: Psychology

Play based Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Play based Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

if you enjoy play and strive to bring this important experience to children with
autism spectrum disorders and other special needs, you will find PlayBased
Interventions for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders
compelling.

Author: Loretta Gallo-Lopez

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415890755

Category: Psychology

Page: 369

View: 586

"Play-Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum explores the most recognized, researched, and practical methods for using play therapy with the increasing number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), and shows clincians how to integrate these methods into their practices. Using a diverse array of play-based approaches, the book brings together the voices of researchers and practicing clinicians who are successfully utilizing play and play-based interventions with children and adolescents on the autism spectrum. It also examines the neurobiological underpinnings of play in children on the autism spectrum and the overall effect of play on neuro-typical and neuro-atypical development. Finally, through careful integration of theory with real-world clinical case application, each chapter also shows clinicians how to incorporate a particular treatment approach and make it a viable and effective part of their work with this challenging clinical population"--Provided by publisher.
Categories: Psychology

Practical Social Skills for Autism Spectrum Disorders Designing Child Specific Interventions

Practical Social Skills for Autism Spectrum Disorders  Designing Child Specific Interventions

How do we help children or teens with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) lead a life
of full engagement with their family and ... can make excellent progress learning
new social behaviors, if provided with a comprehensive intervention program.

Author: Kathleen Koenig

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393707748

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 500

Building a child’s “social repertoire” for more effective autism treatment. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an alarmingly prevalent topic of conversation in the news, in pediatrician and therapists’ offices, in classrooms, among concerned parents, and at home, within families. The rate of diagnoses seems only to rise. It’s not surprising that professionals who work with kids on the autism spectrum are eager for effective resources on how to help children and their parents or caregivers manage it. And with this book, readers have a new tool to add to their arsenal. Drawing on her work at the Yale Child Study Center, Koenig explains how critical it is for kids to not simply learn new social skills that fit their individual needs, but to be able to seamlessly integrate them into a range of day-to-day situations, from the classroom to the lunchroom to the dinner table at home. Building their "social repertoire" in this way, she argues, is key to effective autism treatment. Unlike other autism books that tend to be prescriptive in their approach to social skills training, this one teaches that the best social interventions are evidence-based, child-specific, and meaningfully integrated. Guiding readers through the overarching considerations and principles for designing successful social interventions, Koenig presents a host of specific techniques—visual strategies and supports, scripts and role play, developmental play approaches, video modeling, peer mediated approaches, technology-based instruction, group instruction, self-monitoring strategies, parent-delivered interventions, and much more. Case vignettes illustrate how each intervention can be implemented, and what trouble-shooting techniques can be used when a child isn’t responding well. Koenig also provides advice on how parents and professionals can work together as a team, how to help kids “generalize” their newly learned skills across contexts, and how to measure progress in a sensible way. With a foreword by renowned child psychiatrist Fred Volkmar, Practical Social Skills for Autism Spectrum Disorders is sophisticated in its methodology but highly accessible, hands-on, and user-friendly. An invaluable manual for clinicians, educators, school counselors and administrators, parents, and all those who work with kids on the autism spectrum, it unravels the nuances of effective social skills training by showing how to really create intervention programs that take kids' own aptitudes and needs into account. With time, the right teaching, and compassion, they can achieve a life of full engagement with their families and communities.
Categories: Psychology

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Interventions and Treatments for Children and Youth Richard L. Simpson With
Coauthors, Sonja de Boer-Ott, Deborah E. ... (8) methods for evaluating the
effectiveness of the intervention or treatment with individuals with ASD; (9)
conclusions ...

Author: Richard L. Simpson With Coauthors

Publisher: Corwin Press

ISBN: 9781452222264

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 775

How can you best help children with autism reach their full potential? Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present a perplexing challenge for parents and school professionals. This essential resource was developed to respond directly to the difficulty school professionals and families face in selecting and applying appropriate interventions and treatments for the children in their care. The information is presented in a straightforward format, practical for finding answers to complex questions, and includes: A description of the intervention or treatment Reported benefits and effects associated with its use A synthesis of how the outcomes relate to individuals with ASD Potential costs and risks
Categories: Education

Textbook of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Textbook of Autism Spectrum Disorders

538 TEXTBOOK OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS Educational Approaches
539 540. AUTISM. is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. Although there is
no known cure, interventions have been shown to result in significant behavioral
 ...

Author: Eric Hollander

Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub

ISBN: 9781585623419

Category: Medical

Page: 603

View: 252

More patients are diagnosed with autism, and at earlier ages, than ever before, and these patients and their families receive services in increasingly diverse settings. Destined to become a classic, this is the volume for which patients, families, and clinicians have been waiting.
Categories: Medical

Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD

Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  ASD

Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a state-of-the-art volume of 15 chapters across four thematic sections that reflect the current convention of viewing autism along a continuum of presenting symptoms.

Author: James K. Luiselli

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199941575

Category: Psychology

Page: 266

View: 117

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a relatively new diagnostic label which reflects the variability and differentiation of symptomatology among children and youth commonly described as having autistic disorder, high-functioning autism (HFA), and Asperger's syndrome. Current best practices have emerged from decades of evidence-based research, research-to-practice translation of empirically supported procedures, and consensus-driven recommendations from multiple disciplines. As a result, practitioners have many educational and intervention choices for children and youth with ASD--what is critical is that these options are informed by empirical outcomes that have been replicated in experimental trials (group and single-case) and disseminated to professionals and researchers alike. Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a state-of-the-art volume of 15 chapters across four thematic sections that reflect the current convention of viewing autism along a continuum of presenting symptoms. Skillfully edited by James K. Luiselli, sections cover diagnosis, assessment, and measurement; evidence-based practices; health and development; and additional topics such as mindful caregiving and support, CBT, and behavioral family intervention. Compiling the most up-to-date advances in approaches toward diagnosis, education, treatment, and program development, Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will be a valuable resource for professionals and trainees in the ASD field including psychologists, educators, therapists, behavior analysts, and similar practitioners. It is also appropriate for academic researchers and courses devoted to clinical psychology, special education, developmental disabilities, and special topics.
Categories: Psychology

Handbook of Evidence Based Practice in Clinical Psychology Child and Adolescent Disorders

Handbook of Evidence Based Practice in Clinical Psychology  Child and Adolescent Disorders

Autism/pervasive developmental disorders, assessment and intervention for
young children (ages 0–3 years). ... Behavioral and developmental interventions
for autism spectrum disorder: A clinical systematic review. PLoS ONE, 3(11).

Author: Michel Hersen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118144725

Category: Psychology

Page: 752

View: 453

Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology, Volume 1 covers the evidence-based practices now identified for treating children and adolescents with a wide range of DSM disorders. Topics include fundamental issues, developmental disorders, behavior and habit disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, and eating disorders. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of the evidence-based practice literature for each disorder and then covers several different treatment types for clinical implementation. Edited by the renowned Peter Sturmey and Michel Hersen and featuring contributions from experts in the field, this reference is ideal for academics, researchers, and libraries.
Categories: Psychology

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Visual Impairment

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Visual Impairment

Available : www.paleodiet.com/autism . Web Sites Autism Web . Special Diet for
Autism and PDD . www.autismweb.com/diet.htm . GFCF Diet . Gluten Free ,
Cassein Free : Dietary Intervention for Autistic Spectrum Disorders . www.gfcfdiet.
com ...

Author: Marilyn H. Gense

Publisher: American Foundation for the Blind

ISBN: 0891288805

Category: Autism in children

Page: 339

View: 417

When a child with an autism spectrum disorder is also visually impaired, the effects on learning and behavior and complex and varied. Two exceptional educators condense their years of personal and professional experience into a one-of-a-kind handbook of effective ways to work with such students, including suggetions and approaches for assessment, instruction, and program planning; forms and tools for capturing vital information; information on assessment instruments, instructional materials, and web sites rich in important advice. Professionals and educators, as well as parents, will find critical guiding principles and valuable strategies.
Categories: Autism in children