Intension and Decision

Intension and Decision

We may also ask in what sense if any the definitions for the various types of subjective intension might be said to be adequate.

Author: Richard Milton Martin

Publisher: Ardent Media

ISBN:

Category: Semantics (Philosophy).

Page: 159

View: 631

This book looks at semantics, the interconnections between signs in a language, and also between the sign and the physical object it represents.
Categories: Semantics (Philosophy).

Linguistics of American Sign Language

Linguistics of American Sign Language

Extension versus Intension Phrase Extension Intension Prime Minister of Great Britain World Series champions ( 1988 ) capital of California leader of the ...

Author: Clayton Valli

Publisher: Gallaudet University Press

ISBN: 1563680971

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 493

View: 576

New 4th Edition completely revised and updated with new DVD now available; ISBN 1-56368-283-4
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Principles of Reasoning

Principles of Reasoning

V. KO Dove , b earlier , larger one is not a definitive intension after all , because it is not a smallest intension ? Not at all ! In the preceding section ...

Author: Henry Siggins Leonard

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015062981769

Category: Logic

Page: 620

View: 585

Categories: Logic

Introduction to Logic

Introduction to Logic

3.5 The Structure of Definitions: Extension and Intension The extension of a term (its membership) is determined by its intension. The intension of the term ...

Author: Irving M. Copi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351386975

Category: Philosophy

Page: 696

View: 965

For more than six decades, and for thousands of students, Introduction to Logic has been the gold standard in introductory logic texts. In this fifteenth edition, Carl Cohen and Victor Rodych update Irving M. Copi’s classic text, improving on its many strengths and introducing new and helpful material that will greatly assist both students and instructors. In particular, chapters 1, 8, and 9 have been greatly enhanced without disturbing the book’s clear and gradual pedagogical approach. Specifically: Chapter 1 now uses a simpler and better definition of "deductive validity," which enhances the rest of the book (especially chapters 1 and 8-10, and their new components). Chapter 8 now has: Simpler definitions of "simple statement" and "compound statement" More and more detailed examples of the Complete Truth-Table Method. Chapter 9 now has: A detailed, step-by-step account of the Shorter Truth-Table Method (with detailed step-by-step examples for conclusions of different types) A more complete and detailed account of Indirect Proof A detailed justification for Indirect Proof treating each of the three distinct ways in which an argument can be valid A new section on Conditional Proof, which complements the 19 Rules of Inference and Indirect Proof Explications of proofs of tautologies using both Indirect Proof and Conditional Proof A new section at the end of the chapter explaining the important difference between sound and demonstrative arguments. The Appendices now include: A new appendix on making the Shorter Truth-Table Technique (STTT) more efficient by selecting the most efficient sequence of STTT steps A new appendix on Step 1 calculations for multiple-line shorter truth tables A new appendix on unforced truth-value assignments, invalid arguments, and Maxims III-V. In addition, a Companion Website will offer: for Students: A Proof Checker Complete Truth Table Exercises Shorter Truth-Table Exercises A Truth-Table Video Venn Diagram Testing of Syllogisms Hundreds of True/False and Multiple Choice Questions for Instructors: An Instructor’s Manual A Solutions Manual www.routledge.com/cw/9781138500860
Categories: Philosophy

The Conscious Mind

The Conscious Mind

This intension picks out reference in counterfactual worlds. An immediate consequence is that the primary intension and secondary intension coincide in ...

Author: David J. Chalmers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199839353

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 251

What is consciousness? How do physical processes in the brain give rise to the self-aware mind and to feelings as profoundly varied as love or hate, aesthetic pleasure or spiritual yearning? These questions today are among the most hotly debated issues among scientists and philosophers, and we have seen in recent years superb volumes by such eminent figures as Francis Crick, Daniel C. Dennett, Gerald Edelman, and Roger Penrose, all firing volleys in what has come to be called the consciousness wars. Now, in The Conscious Mind, philosopher David J. Chalmers offers a cogent analysis of this heated debate as he unveils a major new theory of consciousness, one that rejects the prevailing reductionist trend of science, while offering provocative insights into the relationship between mind and brain. Writing in a rigorous, thought-provoking style, the author takes us on a far-reaching tour through the philosophical ramifications of consciousness. Chalmers convincingly reveals how contemporary cognitive science and neurobiology have failed to explain how and why mental events emerge from physiological occurrences in the brain. He proposes instead that conscious experience must be understood in an entirely new light--as an irreducible entity (similar to such physical properties as time, mass, and space) that exists at a fundamental level and cannot be understood as the sum of its parts. And after suggesting some intriguing possibilities about the structure and laws of conscious experience, he details how his unique reinterpretation of the mind could be the focus of a new science. Throughout the book, Chalmers provides fascinating thought experiments that trenchantly illustrate his ideas. For example, in exploring the notion that consciousness could be experienced by machines as well as humans, Chalmers asks us to imagine a thinking brain in which neurons are slowly replaced by silicon chips that precisely duplicate their functions--as the neurons are replaced, will consciousness gradually fade away? The book also features thoughtful discussions of how the author's theories might be practically applied to subjects as diverse as artificial intelligence and the interpretation of quantum mechanics. All of us have pondered the nature and meaning of consciousness. Engaging and penetrating, The Conscious Mind adds a fresh new perspective to the subject that is sure to spark debate about our understanding of the mind for years to come.
Categories: Medical

Multi Dimensional Summarization in Cyber Physical Society

Multi Dimensional Summarization in Cyber Physical Society

Definition (Summarization as citation): The summarization S of a set of representations P is defined by its intension Intension(P) and extension ...

Author: Hai Zhuge

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 9780128034644

Category: Computers

Page: 204

View: 616

Text summarization has been studied for over a half century, but traditional methods process texts empirically and neglect the fundamental characteristics and principles of language use and understanding. Automatic summarization is a desirable technique for processing big data. This reference summarizes previous text summarization approaches in a multi-dimensional category space, introduces a multi-dimensional methodology for research and development, unveils the basic characteristics and principles of language use and understanding, investigates some fundamental mechanisms of summarization, studies dimensions on representations, and proposes a multi-dimensional evaluation mechanism. Investigation extends to incorporating pictures into summary and to the summarization of videos, graphs and pictures, and converges to a general summarization method. Further, some basic behaviors of summarization are studied in the complex cyber-physical-social space. Finally, a creative summarization mechanism is proposed as an effort toward the creative summarization of things, which is an open process of interactions among physical objects, data, people, and systems in cyber-physical-social space through a multi-dimensional lens of semantic computing. The author’s insights can inspire research and development of many computing areas. The first book that proposes the method for the summarization of things in cyber-physical society through a multi-dimensional lens of semantic computing. A transformation from the traditional application-driven research paradigm into a data-driven research paradigm for creative summarization through information modeling, cognitive modeling and knowledge modeling. A multi-dimensional methodology for studying, managing, creating and applying methods.
Categories: Computers

Husserl and Intentionality

Husserl and Intentionality

This revised notion of comprehension preserves Lewis' claims that the intension of an expression determines its comprehension and that its comprehension ...

Author: D.W Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401093835

Category: Philosophy

Page: 446

View: 687

This book has roots in our respective doctoral dissertations, both completed in 1970 at Stanford under the tutelage of Professors Dagfmn F øllesdal, John D. Goheen, and Jaakko Hintikka. In the fall of 1970 we wrote a joint article that proved to be a prolegomenon to the present work, our 'Intentionality via Intensions', The Journal of Philosophy 68 (1971). Professor Hintikka then suggested we write a joint book, and in the spring of 1971 we began writing the present work. The project was to last ten years as our conception of the project continued to grow at each stage. Our iritellectual debts follow the history of our project. During our dis sertation days at Stanford, we joined with fellow doctoral candidates John Lad and Michael Sukale and Professors Føllesdal, Goheen, and Hintikka in an informal seminar on phenomenology that met weekly from June of 1969 through March of 1970. During the summers of 1973 and 1974 we regrouped in another informal seminar on phenomenology, meeting weekly at Stanford and sometimes Berkeley, the regular participants being ourselves, Hubert Dreyfus, Dagfmn Føllesdal, Jane Lipsky McIntyre, Izchak Miller, and, in 1974, John Haugeland.
Categories: Philosophy

The Grammar pragmatics Interface

The Grammar pragmatics Interface

Carnap ( 1947/1967 ) suggested that the sense ( ~ Frege's Sinn ) of an expression , for which he used the term intension , is a function from possible ...

Author: Nancy Ann Hedberg

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027253986

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 345

View: 737

This collection of papers celebrates the work of Jeanette K. Gundel, who has contributed to the field of grammar-pragmatics interface through her publications on the syntactic realization of topic and comment and the cognitive status of referring expressions, as well as by inspiring colleagues to make contributions to the overall field of pragmatics. This volume collects together papers from colleagues and former students on pragmatics and syntax, pragmatics and reference, and pragmatics and social variables. The volume includes papers devoted to explicating the grammar-pragmatics interface, with the focus of the papers ranging from Gricean and post-Gricean pragmatics, construction grammar, and genre theory to formal semantics, as well as papers devoted to expanding on Gundel's own original approach to factors such as the cognitive status decisions underlying speakers' choice of referring expression and the topic and focus decisions underlying speakers' choice of referring expression and the topic and focus decisions underlying speakers' choice of syntactic construction.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

The three terms connotation , intension , and comprehension are commonly employed almost synonymously , and there will certainly be a gain in endeavouring ...

Author: John Neville Keynes

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015048988276

Category: Logic

Page: 476

View: 171

Categories: Logic

Meaning Context and Methodology

Meaning  Context and Methodology

It is obvious that proponents of twodimensional semantics are meaning pluralists because they believe that a sentence expresses at least a 1-intension and a ...

Author: Sarah-Jane Conrad

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9781501504235

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 237

View: 915

What methodological impact does Contextualism have on the philosophy of language? This collection sets out to provide some answers. The authors in this volume question three ultimately connected assumptions of the philosophy of language. The first assumption relates to the predominant status of referential semantics and its power to explain truth-conditional meaning. This assumption has come under attack by the context thesis and a number of papers pursue the question of whether this is justified. The second assumption gives priority to assertive sentences when considering language use. The context thesis changes our understanding of language use altogether; possible implications from this methodological shift are addressed in this volume. According to the third assumption, philosophical analysis amounts to nothing more than conceptual analysis. The context thesis risks undermining this project. Whether conceptual analysis can still be defended as a methodological tool is discussed in this volume.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Everything that Linguists Have Always Wanted to Know about Logic But Were Ashamed to Ask

Everything that Linguists Have Always Wanted to Know about Logic       But Were Ashamed to Ask

Grammar 14.1 Intensional Logic The notion of intension that figures in much modern work in logic is , in a sense , a compromise between the traditional ...

Author: James D. McCawley

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226556107

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 633

View: 805

McCawley supplements his earlier book—which covers such topics as presuppositional logic, the logic of mass terms and nonstandard quantifiers, and fuzzy logic—with new material on the logic of conditional sentences, linguistic applications of type theory, Anil Gupta's work on principles of identity, and the generalized quantifier approach to the logical properties of determiners.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Logic

Logic

We now define the notion of an intension for these kinds of expressions. An intension is a function from wws to values.6 Thus, the intension of a name is a ...

Author: Nicholas J.J. Smith

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691151632

Category: Philosophy

Page: 528

View: 470

Provides an essential introduction to classical logic.
Categories: Philosophy

A Concise Introduction to Logic

A Concise Introduction to Logic

While these terms have empty extension, however, they do not have empty intension. “Currently living dodo bird” and “current king of France,” as well as ...

Author: Patrick J. Hurley

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781285965567

Category: Education

Page: 736

View: 357

Unsurpassed for its clarity and comprehensiveness, Hurley's A CONCISE INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC is the #1 introductory logic textbook on the market. In this Twelfth Edition, Hurley continues to build upon the tradition of a lucid, focused, and accessible presentation of the basic subject matter of logic, both formal and informal. The edition's new Previews connect a section's content to real-life scenarios pertinent to students' lives, using everyday examples to translate new notions and terms into concepts that readers unfamiliar with the subject matter can relate to. Hurley's extensive, carefully sequenced exercises guide students toward greater proficiency with the skills they are learning. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Categories: Education

Phenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal Knowledge

Phenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal Knowledge

Definition 1: The secondary intension SIC of a given concept C is defined as follows: For every w, SIC (w) = FC (w actual, w) where wactual is the actual ...

Author: Torin Alter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190291365

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 945

Consciousness has long been regarded as the biggest stumbling block for the view that the mind is physical. This volume collects thirteen new papers on this problem by leading philosophers including Torin Alter, Ned Block, David Chalmers, Daniel Dennett, John Hawthorne, Frank Jackson, Janet Levin, Joseph Levine, Martine Nida-Rümelin, Laurence Nemirow, Knut Nordby, David Papineau, and Stephen White.
Categories: Philosophy

Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

The three terms connotation, intension, and comprehension are commonly employed almost synonymously, and there will certainly be a gain in endeavouring to ...

Author: John Neville Keynes

Publisher: Good Press

ISBN: EAN:4057664632951

Category: Fiction

Page: 1443

View: 734

"Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic" by John Neville Keynes. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.
Categories: Fiction

Expressing the Self

Expressing the Self

The centered intension of q is added to au(c)'s discourse commitments. • The singleton set containing the centered intension of b, {[b]"), is pushed on the ...

Author: Minyao Huang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198786658

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 352

View: 850

This book addresses different linguistic and philosophical aspects of referring to the self in a wide range of languages from different language families, including Amharic, English, French, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Newari (Sino-Tibetan), Polish, Tariana (Arawak), and Thai. In the domain of speaking about oneself, languages use a myriad of expressions that cut across grammatical and semantic categories, as well as a wide variety of constructions. Languages of Southeast and East Asia famously employ a great number of terms for first person reference to signal honorification. The number and mixed properties of these terms make them debatable candidates for pronounhood, with many grammar-driven classifications opting to classify them with nouns. Some languages make use of egophors or logophors, and many exhibit an interaction between expressing the self and expressing evidentiality qua the epistemic status of information held from the ego perspective. The volume's focus on expressing the self, however, is not directly motivated by an interest in the grammar or lexicon, but instead stems from philosophical discussions on the special status of thoughts about oneself, known as de se thoughts. It is this interdisciplinary understanding of expressing the self that underlies this volume, comprising philosophy of mind at one end of the spectrum and cross-cultural pragmatics of self-expression at the other. This unprecedented juxtaposition results in a novel method of approaching de se and de se expressions, in which research methods from linguistics and philosophy inform each other. The importance of this interdisciplinary perspective on expressing the self cannot be overemphasized. Crucially, the volume also demonstrates that linguistic research on first-person reference makes a valuable contribution to research on the self tout court, by exploring the ways in which the self is expressed, and thereby adding to the insights gained through philosophy, psychology, and cognitive science.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence

New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence

intension,” “sense” and “concept” are used interchangeably, as opposed to objects that they denote. We argued in Zhou and Mao ([14]) that intension, ...

Author: Takashi Washio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540699019

Category: Computers

Page: 404

View: 224

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed joint post-proceedings of three international workshops organized by the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, held in Tokyo, Japan in June 2006 during the 20th Annual Conference JSAI 2006. The volume starts with eight award winning papers of the JSAI 2006 main conference that are presented along with the 21 revised full workshop papers, carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the volume.
Categories: Computers

Attitude Problems

Attitude Problems

More generally, the intension ∧e of any expression e is the set of pairs 〈u, ∨ue〉, where ∨ue is the extension of e at the world u.

Author: Graeme Forbes

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199274949

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 194

View: 353

Ascriptions of mental states to oneself and others give rise to many interesting logical and semantic problems. Attitude Problems presents an original account of mental state ascriptions that are made using intensional transitive verbs such as 'want', 'seek', 'imagine', and 'worship'. Forbes offers a theory of how such verbs work that draws on ideas from natural language semantics, philosophy of language, and aesthetics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Elements of Logic

The Elements of Logic

But the intension of “ steel ” will be greater than that of " iron , " and the intension of " matter ” less than that of “ metal . ” The same comparison can ...

Author: James Hervey Hyslop

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X004431972

Category: Electronic books

Page: 403

View: 978

"All who have had anything to do with Logic will recognize, without being told it, the extent to which I am indebted to Jevons for both matter and method in the treatment of this subject. But they will quite as readily perceive the deviations from him, and the additions which I have made with the hope of improving upon his work. Jevons designed his 'Elementary Lessons' to direct the student in practical reasoning and correct thinking in professional vocations. I have intended the present work to serve the same end, and, if possible, more completely than Jevons. For this reason I have been determined in the development of the subject by the questions constantly put me by students. As far as possible I have endeavored to answer all questions likely to be raised when framing rules about the logical treatment of conceptions and propositions. It will be apparent, therefore, that the plan has necessitated many judicious omissions both of irrelevant matter in Jevons and others, and of certain theoretical discussions peculiar to the scientific rather than the practical aspect of Logic. With a view to the student's guidance and mental discipline I have added a large number of practical questions and exercises at the close of the book"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Categories: Electronic books

Time and Space

Time and Space

Categorical on the intension ; all those objects in which the qualities of the intension are found united , no more and no fewer , are included in the ...

Author: Shadworth Hollway Hodgson

Publisher:

ISBN: BSB:BSB10043470

Category: Metaphysics

Page: 587

View: 209

Categories: Metaphysics