Encyclopedia of Violence Peace and Conflict

Encyclopedia of Violence  Peace  and Conflict

The 2nd edition of Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict provides timely and useful information about antagonism and reconciliation in all contexts of public and personal life.


Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123739853

Category: Social Science

Page: 2750

View: 882

The 2nd edition of Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict provides timely and useful information about antagonism and reconciliation in all contexts of public and personal life. Building on the highly-regarded 1st edition (1999), and publishing at a time of seemingly inexorably increasing conflict and violent behaviour the world over, the Encyclopedia is an essential reference for students and scholars working in the field of peace and conflict resolution studies, and for those seeking to explore alternatives to violence and share visions and strategies for social justice and social change. Covering topics as diverse as Arms Control, Peace Movements, Child Abuse, Folklore, Terrorism and Political Assassinations, the Encyclopedia comprehensively addresses an extensive information area in 225 multi-disciplinary, cross-referenced and authoritatively authored articles. In his Preface to the 1st edition, Editor-in-Chief Lester Kurtz wrote: "The problem of violence poses such a monumental challenge at the end of the 20th century that it is surprising we have addressed it so inadequately. We have not made much progress in learning how to cooperate with one another more effectively or how to conduct our conflicts more peacefully. Instead, we have increased the lethality of our combat through revolutions in weapons technology and military training. The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict is designed to help us to take stock of our knowledge concerning these crucial phenomena." Ten years on, the need for an authoritative and cross-disciplinary approach to the great issues of violence and peace seems greater than ever. More than 200 authoritative multidisciplinary articles in a 3-volume set Many brand-new articles alongside revised and updated content from the First Edition Article outline and glossary of key terms at the beginning of each article Entries arranged alphabetically for easy access Articles written by more than 200 eminent contributors from around the world
Categories: Social Science

Violence in Student Writing

Violence in Student Writing

Instead. of. Violence. Writing, as a practice, can also be utilized as a form of
therapy or violence prevention. Writing, after all, is completely self-driven and
created by the author. Without the author, there is no story. Shortly after the
Columbine ...

Author: Gretchen A. Oltman

Publisher: Corwin Press

ISBN: 9781452279213

Category: Education

Page: 144

View: 402

Your guide to action when student writing crosses the line At what point should violent student expressions be considered a legitimate threat? This legal handbook delves into the real-life experiences of administrators, teachers, and students to help you apply caution and logic in protecting your students' freedom of speech while also protecting the safety of everyone in the building. Gretchen Oltman, an experienced educator and licensed attorney, shows you how to: Prevent violence by creating a positive and safe school environment Guide teachers in assessing written threats of violence Evaluate writing outside the classroom, including texting and Facebook postings
Categories: Education



In that instant of hearing her, with all the emotion of the telling, I felt as if my
collaborator and I should be asking instead what violence feels like at home.
Songs of bravery are sung when lmurran have gone off in the heat of their
wildness to ...

Author: Parvis Ghassem-Fachandi

Publisher: Berg

ISBN: 9781847886255

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 489

Violence takes many forms. From large-scale acts of terrorism to assaults on single individuals, violence is a defining force in shaping human experience and a central theme in anthropological study. Violence: Ethnographic Encounters presents a set of vivid first-hand accounts of fieldwork experiences of violence. The examples range across Latin America, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, and illustrate instances of state terror, insurgency, communal violence, war, prison violence, class conflict, security measures, and sexual violence. How do these anthropologists come to know a place through such violent experience? Why do they not leave such scenes? What insights follow from such experience? Violence: Ethnographic Encounters offers readers a broad anthropological study of violence through personal encounters.
Categories: Social Science

Violence Instead of Vigilance

Violence Instead of Vigilance

"This report was researched and written by Maria Burnett ... and significantly assisted by Soo-Ryun Kwon"--P. 55.

Author: Maria Burnett


ISBN: UCBK:C106259310

Category: Detention of persons

Page: 55

View: 166

"This report was researched and written by Maria Burnett ... and significantly assisted by Soo-Ryun Kwon"--P. 55.
Categories: Detention of persons

Violent Societies

Violent Societies

Violence. In February 2011, four men in Guatemala City were apprehended by a
group of local residents, beaten, drenched in petrol and set alight. They had been
accused of ... at political opponents, but instead, this violence has social aims.

Author: C. Steenkamp

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137290656

Category: Political Science

Page: 179

View: 919

This book investigates the relationships between political violence, social violence and economic violence using examples from South Africa, Northern Ireland, Lebanon and Syria. It examines the cultural impact of war and argues that a culture of violence can explain the high levels of violence which are frequently found in post-war societies.
Categories: Political Science

Racial Conflicts and Violence in the Labor Market

Racial Conflicts and Violence in the Labor Market

This possibility is less reasonable given the clear empirical association between
strikebreaking and racial violence. It is more difficult to justify the assumption that
the BOs and BOr combinations would lead to racial violence. Instead, those ...

Author: Cliff Brown

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317776505

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 897

First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Categories: History

Conquest of Violence

Conquest of Violence

He reminds us that Gandhi strove for "the greatest good of all" and held that this
end could be realized "only in the classless and Stateless democracy of
autonomous village communities based on non-violence instead of coercion, on
service ...

Author: Joan Valérie Bondurant

Publisher: Univ of California Press


Category: Passive resistance

Page: 271

View: 430

Categories: Passive resistance

A Cry Instead of Justice

A Cry Instead of Justice

Simplistic notions of forgiveness and reconciliation do not work in families that a
ravaged by violence and abuse. The rush to reunite a family affected by
interpersonal violence merely affords the batterer a further opportunity to do yet
more ...

Author: Dereck Daschke

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 9780567514615

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 886

Within a book widely touted as the path to peace, violence has incongruously been central to the Bible and how it is used. This collection book examines the manifestations of violence in Scripture, and the ways that Scripture itself - whether violent in content or not - can be used to justify violence and aggression in specific social circumstances today. The book is divided into two parts. The first half explores some incidents of Biblical violence that, rather than appearing at the forefront of the narrative, reflect that ancient Jewish culture (including the early Christian movement recorded in the New Testament) treats violence as an undeniable fact of the social world in which biblical figures live. In these essays, psychological theory and interpretation focus on the effect of this culture of violence in the behavior, expectations, and failures of Biblical figures, in order to re-evaluate the messages of these texts in light of their accepted, but largely unacknowledged,aggression. The second half uses psychological models to understand how Biblical doctrine and ideals shape the world in which we live, and introduce patterns of aggression and acceptance of violence into family, cultural, and political situations. Altogether, this collection of essays seeks to shed light on how the Bible relates to violence - and how many people relate to violence, consciously or not, through the stories and dynamics.
Categories: Religion

Violence and Phenomenology

Violence and Phenomenology

The generality of this argument about the nihilism of violence should be
emphasized: it does not limit itself to any debate about the putative decadence of
the age, but instead insists that “violence” and “affirmation of the inessentiality of
things” ...

Author: James Dodd

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135214296

Category: Philosophy

Page: 190

View: 565

This book pursues the problem of whether violence can be understood to be constitutive of its own sense or meaning, as opposed to being merely instrumental. Dodd draws on the resources of phenomenological philosophy, and takes the form of a series of dialogues between figures both inside and outside of this tradition. The central figures considered include Carl von Clausewitz, Carl Schmitt, Hannah Arendt, Jean-Paul Sartre, Ernst Jünger, and Martin Heidegger, and the study concludes with an analysis of the philosophy of Jan Patocka.
Categories: Philosophy

Violence as a Generative Force

Violence as a Generative Force

Instead of viewing and arranging the past in Manichean terms, in which ethnic
group x has “always” targeted ethnic group y (or vice versa), we should ask: “How
do those who employ violence to achieve various objectives end up producing a

Author: Max Bergholz

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9781501706431

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 750

During two terrifying days and nights in early September 1941, the lives of nearly two thousand men, women, and children were taken savagely by their neighbors in Kulen Vakuf, a small rural community straddling today’s border between northwest Bosnia and Croatia. This frenzy—in which victims were butchered with farm tools, drowned in rivers, and thrown into deep vertical caves—was the culmination of a chain of local massacres that began earlier in the summer. In Violence as a Generative Force, Max Bergholz tells the story of the sudden and perplexing descent of this once peaceful multiethnic community into extreme violence. This deeply researched microhistory provides provocative insights to questions of global significance: What causes intercommunal violence? How does such violence between neighbors affect their identities and relations? Contrary to a widely held view that sees nationalism leading to violence, Bergholz reveals how the upheavals wrought by local killing actually created dramatically new perceptions of ethnicity—of oneself, supposed "brothers," and those perceived as "others." As a consequence, the violence forged new communities, new forms and configurations of power, and new practices of nationalism. The history of this community was marked by an unexpected explosion of locally executed violence by the few, which functioned as a generative force in transforming the identities, relations, and lives of the many. The story of this largely unknown Balkan community in 1941 provides a powerful means through which to rethink fundamental assumptions about the interrelationships among ethnicity, nationalism, and violence, both during World War II and more broadly throughout the world.
Categories: History

Female Identity Formation and Response to Intimate Violence

Female Identity Formation and Response to Intimate Violence

Indeed, I suggest that the seemingly normal functionality of the survivors be
viewed instead as an expression of their ... This shift of paradigm on how to
understand survivors of violence results from insights gained through examining
their ...

Author: Anne Kiome-Gatobu

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 9781621895664

Category: Religion

Page: 234

View: 535

This book is a vital resource for intervention programs, educators, social workers, counselors, psychotherapists, pastoral counselors, and survivors of intimate violence and their families. It gives the reader access to the inner emotions and psychological mechanisms of survivors of intimate violence in collective cultures that work to hold them captive in violent relationships. The author integrates the psychological developmental theories of Heinz Kohut and Erik Erikson with social, cultural, and religious aspects to demonstrate the collusive power of what she calls the orienting system (psychosocial and religious cultural force) in the formation of a female sense of self, to investigate the peculiar range of responses of females to intimate violence. Using theoretical and empirical research, the author claims that the demeanor and functionality of the female survivor of intimate violence is an adaptation that enables her to retain her socially prescribed roles, which she appropriates as a social identity and sense of self. A surprising aspect of this work is the transformative power of religion, also resourced in the orienting system, in transforming the psychic hold of survivors to cathected self-objects, to self-images that approximate a self in healthy relationship with God. Consequently the energies and investment released can be redirected to cohere in self-identities that can optimize drive, thrive and relationality.
Categories: Religion

Anti Refugee Violence and African Politics

Anti Refugee Violence and African Politics

antirefugee violence seen in Conakry. Instead, we see in the literature indications
that there was in fact no such violence. McGovern's account is important because
he was living in a village inMacenta Prefecturewhen allof this washappening ...

Author: Ato Kwamena Onoma

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107276864

Category: Political Science


View: 122

Using comparative cases from Guinea, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, this study explains why some refugee-hosting communities launch large-scale attacks on civilian refugees whereas others refrain from such attacks even when encouraged to do so by state officials. Ato Kwamena Onoma argues that such outbreaks only happen when states instigate them because of links between a few refugees and opposition groups. Locals embrace these attacks when refugees are settled in areas that privilege residence over indigeneity in the distribution of rights, ensuring that they live autonomously of local elites. The resulting opacity of their lives leads locals to buy into their demonization by the state. Locals do not buy into state denunciation of refugees in areas that privilege indigeneity over residence in the distribution of rights because refugees in such areas are subjugated to locals who come to know them very well. Onoma reorients the study of refugees back to a focus on the disempowered civilian refugees that constitute the majority of refugees even in cases of severe refugee militarization.
Categories: Political Science

Life and Words

Life and Words

Weaving anthropological and philosophical reflections on the ordinary into her analysis, Das points toward a new way of interpreting violence in societies and cultures around the globe.

Author: Professor of Anthropology and Professor of Humanities Veena Das

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520247444

Category: History

Page: 281

View: 805

In this powerful, compassionate work, one of anthropology’s most distinguished ethnographers weaves together rich fieldwork with a compelling critical analysis in a book that will surely make a signal contribution to contemporary thinking about violence and how it affects everyday life. Veena Das examines case studies including the extreme violence of the Partition of India in 1947 and the massacre of Sikhs in 1984 after the assassination of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In a major departure from much anthropological inquiry, Das asks how this violence has entered "the recesses of the ordinary" instead of viewing it as an interruption of life to which we simply bear witness. Das engages with anthropological work on collective violence, rumor, sectarian conflict, new kinship, and state and bureaucracy as she embarks on a wide-ranging exploration of the relations among violence, gender, and subjectivity. Weaving anthropological and philosophical reflections on the ordinary into her analysis, Das points toward a new way of interpreting violence in societies and cultures around the globe. The book will be indispensable reading across disciplinary boundaries as we strive to better understand violence, especially as it is perpetrated against women.
Categories: History

Children Behaving Badly

Children Behaving Badly

On the basis of population data, it was predicted that youth
violencewouldincreasesubstantially but, instead, youth violence coverage
increased substantially.Thismisledmany into believing youth were more violent
than was the case. Second ...

Author: Christine Barter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119996066

Category: Psychology

Page: 262

View: 194

Children Behaving Badly? is the first publication to directly address the complexity of peer violence from a range of disciplines and perspectives. Provides important insights into theoretical understanding of the issue and produces significant and far reaching implications for policy and practice developments Based on up-to-date research evidence and includes some unpublished findings from recognized experts in multidisciplinary fields Challenges many populist and damaging representations of youth violence and the associated narratives of modern youth as essentially ‘evil’
Categories: Psychology

Violence on Television

Violence on Television

Concern about violence on television has its roots in a familiar societal response
to the appearance of any new form of ... The critics of television accuse the
medium of presenting too much violence and of cynically using violence instead
of ...

Author: Barrie Gunter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135653408

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 320

View: 505

Concern about violence on television has been publicly debated for the past 50 years. TV violence has repeatedly been identified as a significant causal agent in relation to the prevalence of crime and violence in society. Critics have accused the medium of presenting excessive quantities of violence, to the point where it is virtually impossible for viewers to avoid it. This book presents the findings of the largest British study of violence on TV ever undertaken, funded by the broadcasting industry. The study was carried out at the same time as similar industry-sponsored research was being conducted in the United States, and one chapter compares findings from Britain and the U.S.A. The book concludes that it is misleading to accuse all broadcasters of presenting excessive quantities of violence in their schedules. This does not deny that problematic portrayals were found. But the most gory, horrific and graphic scenes of violence were generally contained within broadcasts available on a subscription basis or in programs shown at times when few children were expected to be watching. This factual analysis proves that broadcasters were meeting their obligations under their national regulatory codes of practice.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Impact of Family Violence on Children and Adolescents

The Impact of Family Violence on Children and Adolescents

In contrast to the nonviolence contract , one family systems approach to family
violence involves not directly setting the goal with the family of ceasing the
violence immediately . Instead , the clinician uses indirect methods , such as
paradox ...

Author: Javad H. Kashani

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761908986

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 111

View: 996

Examining family violence and its effects on children, this volume presents various definitions of family violence and theories for the origin of the problem. The authors: discuss different types of intrafamilial violence, and the effects of each on children and adolescents; explore family violence in non-western contexts; offer clinical and legal intervention and prevention strategies; and suggest future directions for research.
Categories: Family & Relationships

Peace Culture and Violence

Peace  Culture  and Violence

Instead, they recommend that we “disaccustom ourselves to violence” and
replace this inclination by cultivating the practice and then the habit of conflict
transformation.90 Instead of seeking to eliminate or administer conflict, conflict ...

Author: Fuat Gursozlu

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004361911

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 356

Peace, Culture, and Violence is a collection of essays that examine the forms of violence that permeate everyday life and explore sources of non-violence by considering topics such as thug culture, language, hegemony, police violence, war, terrorism, gender, and anti-Semitism.
Categories: Social Science

The Web of Violence

The Web of Violence

Jennifer Turpin and Lester R. Kurtz Warfare, terrorism, urban violence, woman
abuse: violence today is pervasive and ... Ironically, the very structures
supposedly created to provide security against violence instead threaten
everyone. Violence ...

Author: Jennifer E. Turpin

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252065611

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 576

"An excellent representation of the interdisciplinary thrust of peace studies." -- Paul Joseph, Tufts University Violence is a topic of concern everywhere--in the media, in churches, in the halls of governments. In every land and in every culture violence is considered by most to be taboo, a last resort. Yet under certain conditions, from the level of the family to the level of nations, violence is used as a mechanism of social control. Various rationalizations thus emerge to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate violence. The Web of Violence explores the interrelationship among personal, collective, national, and global levels of violence. This unique collection brings together a number of internationally known contributors to address the genesis and manifestations of violence in the search for a remedy for this confounding social problem. As the global community becomes more intimate, we must better understand the nature of violence. The Web of Violence supports this aim by examining the dangerous human phenomenon from many perspectives, at different levels, and using multiple methodologies. CONTRIBUTORS: Robert Jay Lifton, Christopher G. Ellison, John P. Bartkowski, Yuan-Horng Chu, Philip Smith, Robert Elias, Birgit Brock-Utne, Riane Eisler, Johan Galtung
Categories: Social Science

Violence in Colombia 1990 2000

Violence in Colombia  1990 2000

In this case, its pretended “justice” tends to become instead a form of violence
and arbitrariness visited on its weakest citizens. The State ceases to be judge
and transforms itself instead into archetype, model, and promoter of crime.
Judicial ...

Author: Charles Bergquist

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 9781461646693

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 870

Violence In Colombia provides students with a deeper understanding of the crisis facing Colombia today. The book focuses on the 1990s, a decade that witnessed a strengthening of the oldest and largest guerrilla insurgency in the Americas and the emergence of a powerful paramilitary right. The decade also saw a dramatic rise in homicide, kidnapping, and human rights violations that made Colombia by far the most violent nation in the hemisphere. But the 1990s was also about negotiating peace. The decade began with negotiations between the government and some of the guerrilla groups that led to their demobilization and to the important reforms codified in the Constitution of 1991. It ended with another serious attempt at negotiating peace, a historic agreement between the government and the largest and most powerful of the guerrilla groups to put a range of social and economic reforms on the negotiating table. For many, the crisis in Colombia is understood in terms of the drug trade. To be sure, the drug trade is implicated in every aspect of the crisis. And despite (or because of?) escalating efforts by the Colombian and U.S. governments to curb the trade, Colombia's role as the leading supplier of cocaine, and increasingly of heroin, to the U.S. market continues to expand. But the drug trade, by itself, cannot explain the crisis. If it could, why have other Latin American drug-producing and trafficking nations not experienced a fate like Colombia's? To answer this question, the book presents some of the best recent work by Colombian scholars on the crisis facing the nation. Violence in Colombia also includes a large section devoted to primary documents, which enables students to get a feel for the views of the protagonists in the conflict and judge for themselves the meaning of what they say. Examples include the negotiating positions of the government, the guerrillas, and the paramilitary right; testimony by kidnap victims and human rights lawyers; and assessments by U.S. officials and Colo
Categories: History