Seventeen Equations that Changed the World

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 1847657699

Category: Mathematics

Page: 342

View: 6048

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From Newton's Law of Gravity to the Black-Scholes model used by bankers to predict the markets, equations, are everywhere -- and they are fundamental to everyday life.Seventeen Equations that Changed the World examines seventeen ground-breaking equations that have altered the course of human history. He explores how Pythagoras's Theorem led to GPS and Satnav; how logarithms are applied in architecture; why imaginary numbers were important in the development of the digital camera, and what is really going on with Schrdinger's cat. Entertaining, surprising and vastly informative, Seventeen Equations that Changed the World is a highly original exploration -- and explanation -- of life on earth.
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The Jurisprudence of Style

A Structuralist History of American Pragmatism and Liberal Legal Thought

Author: Justin Desautels-Stein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108598595

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6414

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In the contemporary domain of American legal thought there is a dominant way in which lawyers and judges craft their argumentative practice. More colloquially, this is a dominant conception of what it means to 'think like a lawyer'. Despite the widespread popularity of this conception, it is rarely described in detail or given a name. Justin Desautels-Stein tells the story of how and why this happened, and why it matters. Drawing upon and updating the work of Harvard Law School's first generation of critical legal studies, Desautels-Stein develops what he calls a jurisprudence of style. In doing so, he uncovers the intellectual alliance, first emerging at the end of the nineteenth century and maturing in the last third of the twentieth century, between American pragmatism and liberal legal thought. Applying the tools of legal structuralism and phenomenology to real-world cases in areas of contemporary legal debate, this book develops a practice-oriented understanding of legal thought.
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Arrival of the Fittest

Solving Evolution's Greatest Puzzle

Author: Andreas Wagner

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101628162

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 7108

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“Natural selection can preserve innovations, but it cannot create them. Nature’s many innovations—some uncannily perfect—call for natural principles that accelerate life’s ability to innovate.” Darwin’s theory of natural selection explains how useful adaptations are preserved over time. But the biggest mystery about evolution eluded him. As genetics pioneer Hugo de Vries put it, “natural selection may explain the survival of the fittest, but it cannot explain the arrival of the fittest.” Can random mutations over a mere 3.8 billion years really be responsible for wings, eyeballs, knees, camouflage, lactose digestion, photosynthesis, and the rest of nature’s creative marvels? And if the answer is no, what is the mechanism that explains evolution’s speed and efficiency? In Arrival of the Fittest, renowned evolutionary biologist Andreas Wagner draws on over fifteen years of research to present the missing piece in Darwin's theory. Using experimental and computational technologies that were heretofore unimagined, he has found that adaptations are not just driven by chance, but by a set of laws that allow nature to discover new molecules and mechanisms in a fraction of the time that random variation would take. Consider the Arctic cod, a fish that lives and thrives within six degrees of the North Pole, in waters that regularly fall below 0 degrees. At that temperature, the internal fluids of most organisms turn into ice crystals. And yet, the arctic cod survives by producing proteins that lower the freezing temperature of its body fluids, much like antifreeze does for a car’s engine coolant. The invention of those proteins is an archetypal example of nature’s enormous powers of creativity. Meticulously researched, carefully argued, evocatively written, and full of fascinating examples from the animal kingdom, Arrival of the Fittest offers up the final puzzle piece in the mystery of life’s rich diversity.
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Professor Stewart's Incredible Numbers

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 1782831584

Category: Mathematics

Page: 456

View: 4695

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Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to 10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of -- real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative -- along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes, Sudoku, Rubik's Cube, music, primes and pi. You may be surprised to find you live in eleven-dimensional space, that of the twenty-three people on a football pitch two are more likely than not to share the same birthday, and that forty-two is a very interesting number. Professor Stewart's Incredible Numbers will delight everyone who loves numbers -- including those who currently think they don't.
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Physical Chemistry

Multidisciplinary Applications in Society

Author: Kenneth S Schmitz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128005998

Category: Science

Page: 1200

View: 5249

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The advancements in society are intertwined with the advancements in science. To understand how changes in society occurred, and will continue to change, one has to have a basic understanding of the laws of physics and chemistry. Physical Chemistry: Multidisciplinary Applications in Society examines how the laws of physics and chemistry (physical chemistry) explain the dynamic nature of the Universe and events on Earth, and how these events affect the evolution of society (multidisciplinary applications). The ordering of the chapters reflects the natural flow of events in an evolving Universe: Philosophy of Science, the basis of the view that natural events have natural causes - Cosmology, the origin of everything from the Big Bang to the current state of the Universe - Geoscience, the physics and chemistry behind the evolution of the planet Earth from its birth to the present - Life Science, the molecules and mechanisms of life on Earth - Ecology, the interdependence of all components within the Ecosphere and the Universe - Information Content, emphasis on how words and phrases and framing of issues affect opinions, reliability of sources, and the limitations of knowledge. Addresses the four Ws of science: Why scientists believe Nature works the way it does, Who helped develop the fields of science, What theories of natural processes tell us about the nature of Nature, and Where our scientific knowledge is taking us into the future Gives a historical review of the evolution of science, and the accompanying changes in the philosophy of how science views the nature of the Universe Explores the physics and chemistry of Nature with minimal reliance on mathematics Examines the structure and dynamics of the Universe and our Home Planet Earth Provides a detailed analysis of how humans, as members of the Ecosphere, have influenced, and are continuing to influence, the dynamics of events on the paludarium called Earth Presents underlying science of current political issues that shape the future of humankind Emphasizes how words and phrases and framing of issues can influence the opinions of members of society Makes extensive use of metaphors and everyday experiences to illustrate principles in science and social interactions
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