Hypnosis in Europe

Hypnosis in Europe

Current Influences During the past 15 years or so Kraków has become the main
centre of both hypnotherapy and experimental ... Aleksandrowicz and Siuta are
the Polish representatives of the Group for the European Society of Hypnosis .

Author: Peter J. Hawkins

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: UOM:39015041792485

Category: Medical

Page: 226

View: 603

The last 40 years have witnessed an upsurge of interest and activity in the field of hypnosis amongst academic and applied psychologists, medical practitioners from a wide range of specialities, dentists and many other health service professionals, as well as the public at large.
Categories: Medical

Hypnosis in Anaesthesiology

Hypnosis in Anaesthesiology

An International Symposium Held at the First European Congress of
Anaesthesiology of the World Federation of Societes ... To our knowledge, as
practised in Europe today, hypnosis aims less at anesthesia than at the
establishment of a good ...

Author: Jean Lassner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642460036

Category: Medical

Page: 52

View: 859

During the First European Congress of Anesthesiology, held in Vienna, Austria, in September, 1962, panel discussions on nineteen different subjects were held, each lasting approxi mately three hours. One, concerning Controversial Aspects of Resuscitation, was later edited by its chairman, PETER SAFAR, and published in 1963. At the request of the publisher, the discussion on hypnosis has been edited in a similar manner. The participants in the discussion on Hypnosis in Anes thesiology had agreed, prior to the meeting, on a list of questions to be debated, and Dr. STOKVIS' introductory statement on the nature of hypnosis was circulated among them in appropriate translations in order to give the debate a starting point. It had also been agreed that no formal papers should be read after this introduction, and that the participants should use at will the German, English or French language. Following each contribution it was the chairman's task to give a brief summary in the two other languages. Discussion was therefore somewhat slowed down and occasionally rendered difficult by misunderstandings or the omission of details. Drs. GUEGUEN, MOSCONI, and VOLGYESI, who were not able. to attend, had sent written contributions which the chairman presented briefly during the discussion. The present text has been worked out of the tape recording of the discussion and the chairman's correspondence with the panelists some time after the meeting. Whenever the original contributions were in French or German, the English translation has been the chairman's.
Categories: Medical

Biological Rhythms Sleep and Hypnosis

Biological Rhythms  Sleep and Hypnosis

What are the differences between the USA and Europe that might explain it? □
People in the USA are in general more aware of psychological health and
conditions such as SAD. They might be more prepared to describe such

Author: Simon Green

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9780230364790

Category: Psychology

Page: 200

View: 103

Like food and water, sleep is essential for all. In this excellent study aid, the author looks at the nature and purpose of sleeping andrelated disorders, dreamingand hypnosis. This clear and focused introductionprovides a fantasticentry point for studentsseeking a deeper understanding of altered states of awareness.
Categories: Psychology

Multiple Personality Allied Disorders and Hypnosis

Multiple Personality  Allied Disorders  and Hypnosis

There were the Crusades , which disrupted European nations for two centuries
with the loss of about 7 million lives . People ... In 1260 there appeared the holy
insanity of the flagellants , first in Italy , but soon spreading throughout Europe .

Author: Eugene L. Bliss

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195036581

Category: Psychology

Page: 271

View: 963

Since the time of Mesmer, in the late eighteenth century, spectacular feats of hypnosis have been documented by respected scientific researchers, yet hypnosis has remained divorced from the main body of science. In this groundbreaking work, Dr. Eugene Bliss shows that the hypnotic capability of the mind is important to the theory and practice of psychiatry, and suggests that it deserves much more attention and research. In Multiple Personality, Allied Disorders and Hypnosis, Bliss explores both the nature of multiple personality and hypnosis, and discusses how an understanding of the latter can provide insight into the nature of certain psychiatric disorders. For instance, he views multiple personality as a form of self-hypnosis, an instance of learned schizophrenia rather than an organic disorder, as is generally thought. He outlines the trace elements involved in multiple personality and other psychiatric disorders, provides a fascinating history of the origins and current ideas about hypnosis, and gives a detailed account of the use of hypnosis in the treatment of multiple personality. Based on thirty years of clinical experience, and filled with insightful personal observations, Multiple Personality, Allied Disorders and Hypnosis is an informative, fascinating book for psychiatrists, psychologists, and anyone intrigued by hypnosis and its possible beneficial use.
Categories: Psychology

The Realities of Witchcraft and Popular Magic in Early Modern Europe

The Realities of Witchcraft and Popular Magic in Early Modern Europe

Recent brain-imaging studies have shown that cerebral activity in hypnotizable
people is markedly different under hypnosis than when they are consciously role-
playing, indicating that while some people may role-play dissociated states for ...

Author: E. Bever

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230582118

Category: History

Page: 627

View: 429

Exploring the elements of reality in early modern witchcraft and popular magic, through a combination of detailed archival research and broad-ranging interdisciplinary analyses, this book complements and challenges existing scholarship, and offers unique insights into this murky aspect of early modern history.
Categories: History

Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights Annuaire de la convention europeenne des droits de l homme Volume 2 Volume 2 1959

Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights Annuaire de la convention europeenne des droits de l homme   Volume 2 Volume 2  1959

Council of Europe. oset , methoor its ader had 1952 , asked for sentences of life
imprisonment not only for the Applicant but also Hardrup ; that this appeared to
be an indication that the question of hypnosis would not be relied upon by the ...

Author: Council of Europe

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9024709466

Category: Political Science

Page: 684

View: 284

This volume of the "Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights," prepared by the Directorate of Human Rights of the Council of Europe, relates to 2001. Its presentation follows that of previous volumes. Part one contains basic texts and information of a general nature; part two deals with the European Commission of Human Rights; part three with the European Court of Human Rights; part four with the Resolutions of the Committee of Ministers; and parts five and six with the other work of the Council of Europe in the field of human rights, the situation in the Member States, and developments within the European Communities. A bibliography and index are included.
Categories: Political Science

Hypnotherapy For Dummies

Hypnotherapy For Dummies

h r12 Finding a Hypnotherapist In This Chapter > Demystifying the hypnotherapy
market > 'Interviewing' for a ... of this book includes a list of professional
organisations of hypnotherapists throughout Europe, the US, Canada, and

Author: Mike Bryant

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119996724

Category: Psychology

Page: 328

View: 342

An easy-to-follow, reassuring and responsible guide that shows how you can use hypnotherapy to identify and overcome unhealthy modes of thinking, deal with emotional issues, improve performance, and banish bad habits. Whether you’re seeking to overcome anxiety or depression, improve your performance professionally or personally, lose weight or beat an addiction, hypnotherapy can help you make the changes you want.
Categories: Psychology

Hypnosis and Stress

Hypnosis and Stress

In fact, hypnosis, when applied properly by experienced clinicians, may be
beneficial to many suffering individuals and may improve human well-being. ...
Portugal and Spain, from central Europe to Finland, as well as Italy and Greece.
He has ...

Author: Peter J. Hawkins

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470031599

Category: Psychology

Page: 276

View: 176

Hypnosis and Stress provides a practical approach to using hypnosis with patients suffering from a wide range of stress related problems. Innovative in its approach, this book integrates traditional approaches in hypnosis with Ericksonian and Rossi's approach to hypnotherapy. The most up-to-date research is discussed and a flexible, 'hands-on' framework is provided for practicing hypnotherapy, including: detailed guidelines on conducting clinical interviews examples of preparing the patient for hypnosis templates of clinical 'scripts' for use in sessions solutions for dealing with catharsis discussion of inter-professional collaboration. Interventions are suggested for a wide range of stress problems in both adults and children, including anxiety, sexual dysfunctions, sleeping problems, pain and other psychosomatic conditions. This practical guide provides a useful introduction to hypnotherapy for professionals such as counsellors, psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists and physicians. The breadth of information included ensures it will also appeal to the more experienced clinician.
Categories: Psychology

Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy

Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy

He has also presented national and regional workshops on integrating hypnosis
and hypnotic techniques in the ... on the use of indigenous hypnotic-like
procedures, especially in S apmi (arctic Europe) and the Southwestern United
States; ...

Author: Deirdre Barrett

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9780313356322

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 378

View: 300

Once thought pure entertainment akin to magic acts, hypnosis is now a growing field being practiced by psychologists, psychiatrists, and medical doctors. Across all ages—from children to adults and the elderly—patients are finding professional, therapeutic hypnosis can help them recover from mental maladies ranging from addiction to depression and psychosis, and from physical illnesses from chronic pain to obesity and skin disorders. Studies show hypnosis can even speed healing from broken bones, burns, and surgery. These unprecedented volumes, including some of the best-known experts in the field hailing from Harvard, Stanford and other top universities, cover the newest research and practice in this intriguing arena. Edited by a psychologist at Harvard Medical School, this set explains developments in hypnosis, from its colorful if misguided inception with Anton Mesmer, across clinical techniques developed for health care in the 20th century, to emerging research showing new potential applications to aide mental and physical health. Chapters also highlight what psychologists, neurologists, physicians, and scientists have discovered about how personality, cognition, and brain functions affect, and are affected by, hypnosis. An appendix explains how to tell the difference between an entertainer or charlatan and a practitioner who is trained, credentialed, and practicing research-backed hypnosis. Universities with hypnotherapy programs and courses are also included.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Hypnosis

Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Hypnosis

A Critical Evaluation of the Pavlovian Theory of Hypnosis JIRí HoskovEC Charles
University, Prague The work of PAvLov has been strongly influential in Eastern
Europe, in research and theory concerning hypnosis, and has also influenced ...

Author: Leon Chertok

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642880025

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 658

It seemed appropriate for the First International Symposium on the Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Hypnosis to be held in France, the country where hypnosis was rediscovered with the work of MESMER and where somnambulism was first described by his student, the MARQUIS DE PUYSEGUR. The classic studies of such authorities as CHARCOT, JANET, BERN HEIM, BINET, and FERE, as well as many lesser known French scholars, have provided many of the concepts that remain significant to this day. There have been many periods in the history of hypnosis when out standing members of the scientific community became intrigued and fascinated with the phenomenon, only to lose interest and allow it to become the province of the charlatan and fiction writer. The Second W orId War provided considerable impetus to the clinical use of hypnosis and since then there has been an enduring revival of both scientific and clinical interest. Nevertheless, though research using hypnosis or attempting to clarify its nature has become recognized as an appropriate scientific endeavour in much of the world, a great many barriers of communication, including not only those of language but, perhaps even more troublesome, those of theoretical orientation and disciplinary interest, have remained a serious impediment to progress.
Categories: Psychology

The Roots of Modern Hypnosis

The Roots of Modern Hypnosis

From Esdaile to the 1961 International Congress on Hypnosis Dr. Milton V. Kline.
in a listless indifferent humour about ... by the processes of Mesmerism. The
persons to whom Europe owes its knowledge of Mesmerism, uncontaminated by

Author: Dr. Milton V. Kline

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781465322852

Category: Medical

Page: 534

View: 950

The Roots of Modern Hypnosis is a compendium of three classic volumes on hypnosis, written by some of its most important practitioners. Read in sequence, these books provide a fascinating explication of the history of hypnosis, from the animal magnetism, mesmerism, and universal fluid of Franz Anton Mesmer as utilized by Dr. James Esdaile in his surgical facilities in India, to the First Modern (1961) International Congress on Hypnosis in New York City. The three texts contained in The Roots of Modern Hypnosis are: Hypnosis in Medicine and Surgery (originally entitled Mesmerism in India), by James Esdaile, M.D. The book contains an introduction and Supplemental Reports on Hypnoanesthesia by William S. Kroger, M.D. The original text was published in 1850; a revised edition, containing Dr. Krogers introduction and notes, was published in 1957 by The Institute for Research in Hypnosis Publication Society and The Julian Press, Inc. The Fundamental Principles of Hypnosis (originally entitled The Law of Suggestion) by Stanley L. Krebs, Ph.D., published in 1906. The work was revised by Henry Guze, Ph.D., and republished in 1957, with a new introduction by Milton V. Kline, Ph.D., by The Institute for Research in Hypnosis Publication Society and The Julian Press, Inc. The Nature of Hypnosis: Transactions of the 1961 [First Modern] International Congress on Hypnosis, edited and with an introduction by Milton V. Kline, Ph.D., Director of The Institute for Research in Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, and a Foreword by Lewis Wolberg, M.D., of The Postgraduate Center for Psychotherapy. The book was jointly published by the Institute and the Center. Milton V. Kline, Ph.D., Director of The Institute for Research in Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, and of The Institute for Research in Hypnosis Publication Society, conceived the idea of publishing the current edition of each of these texts under a single title, The Roots of Modern Hypnosis. Dr. Kline has been widely acknowledged as one of the foremost experts on medical, psychological, clinical, therapeutic and experimental hypnotherapy and hypnoanalysis, with more than 50 years of experience in using, teaching and conducting research in hypnosis. His recognition and honors have been worldwide. Hypnosis in Medicine and Surgery by James Esdaile, M.D. James Esdaile, M.D., was a young surgeon who was put in charge of a hospital for paupers and criminals in Hooghly, India, and then in charge of a medical facility in Calcutta, in the 1840s. While in India, he made some of the most significant contributions to the history and evolution of hypnosis as a technique for pain control since it was discovered by Franz Anton Mesmer, circa 1775. In addition, despite the conditions under which he worked (heat, lack of proper sanitation, etc.), Dr. Esdaile proved conclusively that hypnosis was a reliable and relatively risk-free method for inducing deep anesthesia under which surgical operations could take place. While in India, Dr. Esdaile performed approximately 300 major operations, as well as many more minor procedures, on patients under the Mesmeric trance. Among the cases which he treated were the removal of tumors from even the most sensitive parts of the body; the amputation of legs, arms and breasts; the extraction of teeth; the repair of bent limbs; and the cure of headaches, colic, eye inflammations, convulsions and nerve pain. In some cases, Dr. Esdaile was able to hypnotize his patients so deeply that their pupils failed to contract even when exposed to bright sunlight. As Dr. Kroger points out in his introduction to the revised edition of Hypnosis in Medicine and Surgery, one of the most important aspects of Dr. Esdailes work involves the induction of an extraordinarily deep state of hypnosi
Categories: Medical

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

The medical practice of what came to be known as hypnosis continued to grow
throughout Europe, Britain, and later the United States in the 19th century while
academic theories came and went as to its true nature. At the same time hypnosis

Author: Tim Bayne

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191021039

Category: Psychology

Page: 670

View: 226

Consciousness is undoubtedly one of the last remaining scientific mysteries and hence one of the greatest contemporary scientific challenges. How does the brain's activity result in the rich phenomenology that characterizes our waking life? Are animals conscious? Why did consciousness evolve? How does science proceed to answer such questions? Can we define what consciousness is? Can we measure it? Can we use experimental results to further our understanding of disorders of consciousness, such as those seen in schizophrenia, delirium, or altered states of consciousness? These questions are at the heart of contemporary research in the domain. Answering them requires a fundamentally interdisciplinary approach that engages not only philosophers, but also neuroscientists and psychologists in a joint effort to develop novel approaches that reflect both the stunning recent advances in imaging methods as well as the continuing refinement of our concepts of consciousness. In this light, the Oxford Companion to Consciousness is the most complete authoritative survey of contemporary research on consciousness. Five years in the making and including over 250 concise entries written by leaders in the field, the volume covers both fundamental knowledge as well as more recent advances in this rapidly changing domain. Structured as an easy-to-use dictionary and extensively cross-referenced, the Companion offers contributions from philosophy of mind to neuroscience, from experimental psychology to clinical findings, so reflecting the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of the domain. Particular care has been taken to ensure that each of the entries is accessible to the general reader and that the overall volume represents a comprehensive snapshot of the contemporary study of consciousness. The result is a unique compendium that will prove indispensable to anyone interested in consciousness, from beginning students wishing to clarify a concept to professional consciousness researchers looking for the best characterization of a particular phenomenon.
Categories: Psychology

Buchanan s Journal of Man

Buchanan s Journal of Man

Hypnotism in Europe . THE International Congress of Experimental and
Therapeutic Hypnotism which met at Paris in the middle of August , was an
important occasion , mainly for the reason that it is one of the steps in the slow
snail like ...



ISBN: CHI:42568836

Category: Phrenology


View: 725

Categories: Phrenology

Why Do I Keep Doing This

Why Do I Keep Doing This

End Bad Habits, Negativity and Stress with Self-Hypnosis and NLP Judith E
Pearson ... For over four decades, professional training institutes for
hypnotherapy have been established in Europe and the U.S., with recognition by
professional ...

Author: Judith Pearson

Publisher: Crown House Publishing

ISBN: 9781845907907

Category: Self-Help

Page: 288

View: 943

What prevents people from doing what they sincerely want to do?You can come up with all sorts of explanations ranging from childhood trauma to genetics, to personality types, but what it really boils down to is the fact that most people simply aren't skilled in managing their minds.When we try to break a habit our brain sends out signals of alarm and discomfort. To get past this, we must put our "logical brain" in charge. Using self-hypnosis and Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is one of the easiest ways to achieve this.Hypnosis relaxes and quietens the mind's chatter and can provide strategies to manage the mind and to access the qualities and strengths that we already possess. NLP is the one psychological approach that spells out those strategies step-by-step.This book explains how the concepts and mechanisms of hypnosis and the principles of NLP make for effective approaches to self-hypnosis.
Categories: Self-Help

A Companion to Europe 1900 1945

A Companion to Europe  1900   1945

Hypnosis might also be used to reach the patient's buried fears and repressed
memories, which could be gently brought to the surface. An example of the
analytic therapy approach would be Charles Myers, a medical specialist in nerve
shock ...

Author: Gordon Martel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444391674

Category: History

Page: 584

View: 170

This volume brings together a distinguished group of international scholars to discuss the major debates in the study of early twentieth-century Europe. Brings together contributions from a distinguished group of international scholars. Provides an overview of current thinking on the period. Traces the great political, social and economic upheavals of the time. Illuminates perennial themes, as well as new areas of enquiry. Takes a pan-European approach, highlighting similarities and differences across nations and regions.
Categories: History

Raising Randy

Raising Randy

It was a struggle to try and get clinical hypnosis credibility and acceptance as a
valid clinical tool. Clinical hypnosis is used in Europe and widely accepted in
their medical community as an adjunct therapeutic intervention. On the East coast
of ...

Author: Randy J. Hartman

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 9781440125676

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 224

View: 371

Full of courage and strength, this remarkable memoir follows the life of Randy Hartman from his upbringing in an abusive, dysfunctional family to a successful military and mental health career. Born in the rural town of Guernsey, Wyoming, during the 1950s, Randy grew up with three brothers and a hardworking mother and father. He enjoyed running around the small community and getting into innocent trouble with his brothers and friends, but things were difficult at home. His mother died in 1961 and suddenly, Randy's abusive, alcoholic father was trying to raise the family with little success, moving the boys around constantly and consorting with different women. Once he was old enough, Randy escaped his miserable home life and joined the military, got married, and started a family. But numerous problems continued to plague him, including his own bout with alcoholism, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and infidelity. When he and his wife were divorced, Randy hit bottom. Yet he refused to give in to despair, and went on to overcome his addictions, eventually going to college and earning a master's degree and a PhD. A true story of anger, shame, happiness, and hope, Raising Randy delivers a compelling picture of one man's struggle to overcome the past and create a meaningful future.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

Bonica s Management of Pain

Bonica s Management of Pain

In Scotland, James Braid (1795–1860) termed the word ''hypnosis'' in 1843,
thinking it to be a stage of sleep that influenced the ... In Europe, the School of
Hypnotic Study was being formed in Nancy, where the view was that suggestion
led to ...

Author: Scott M. Fishman

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9781451161403

Category: Medical

Page: 2064

View: 134

Now in its Fourth Edition, with a brand-new editorial team, Bonica's Management of Pain will be the leading textbook and clinical reference in the field of pain medicine. An international group of the foremost experts provides comprehensive, current, clinically oriented coverage of the entire field. The contributors describe contemporary clinical practice and summarize the evidence that guides clinical practice. Major sections cover basic considerations; economic, political, legal, and ethical considerations; evaluation of the patient with pain; specific painful conditions; methods for symptomatic control; and provision of pain treatment in a variety of clinical settings.
Categories: Medical

The Art of Hypnosis Third Edition

The Art of Hypnosis   Third Edition

This book is based upon the training course of Tebbetts, which has been updated by Roy Hunter. Tebbetts' training has formed the basis of a large number of hypnotherapy courses taught in America and Europe.

Author: C Roy Hunter

Publisher: Crown House Publishing

ISBN: 9781845904494

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 279

Crown House is pleased to announce the publication of the third edition of The Art of Hypnosis: Mastering Basic Techniques by Roy Hunter. This updated third edition includes a new introduction by Conrad Adams PhD together with a revised Chapter 1. Roy Hunter is an expert in the field of hypnosis. He was specially selected to carry on the work of the 'Grand Master of Hypnotherapy', the late Charles Tebbetts, who was a master teacher and contributor to the art/science of hypnosis and hypnotherapy. This book is based upon the training course of Tebbetts, which has been updated by Roy Hunter. Tebbetts' training has formed the basis of a large number of hypnotherapy courses taught in America and Europe. The Art of Hypnosis is well-written and easy to read and understand, even for the novice. In-depth and practical information is given on how to achieve maximum results in a hypnotic session by phrasing suggestions properly and by using various techniques to determine which approach is best for each individual client.
Categories: Medical

Powerful Mind Through Self Hypnosis

Powerful Mind Through Self Hypnosis

... in all areas of its business, from its global network of authors to production and
worldwide distribution. Powerful Mind Through Self-Hypnosis A Practical Guide
to Complete Self-Mastery. Distribution in: UK and Europe Orca Book Services Ltd

Author: Cathal O'Brian

Publisher: John Hunt Publishing

ISBN: 9781780997612

Category: Psychology

Page: 308

View: 683

Powerful Mind Through Self-Hypnosis is a practical, easy to follow guide to harnessing the power of your subconscious mind for better health. This book will literally change the way you think, feel, act and behave...forever. Clinical Hypnotherapist and Psychotherapist Cathal O'Briain will help you overcome emotional and psychological difficulties through self-hypnotic trance. Symptoms will become a thing of the past as your life transforms, taking you beyond the comfort zone into a world of inner peace and freedom, happiness and success.
Categories: Psychology



The contributors in this volume cover a range of themes on the subject of hypnosis including individual differences in hypnotic suggestibility, neuropsychological and neurophysiological research and theories, clinical applications, and ...

Author: Irving Kirsch

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781351929301



View: 798

Modern hypnosis can be traced back to the 18th century and during this period mesmerism, as it was then known, was a healing practice which spread throughout Europe and North America. Since then hypnosis has been treated primarily as a psychological phenomenon and theories about hypnosis are grounded in mainstream psychology and its related disciplines. Most recently it has been subject to extensive clinical trials to investigate its therapeutic effectiveness. In their comprehensive introduction to this invaluable collection the editors trace the historical development of hypnosis, providing an excellent review of the theories that have tried to explain how hypnosis works and reflecting on the cultural and scientific attitudes and practices that prevailed at various times. They have selected the most important previously published papers that reveal how a scientific approach to understanding hypnosis as a psychological phenomenon has emerged over the last 70 years. They have also included a selection of reports on clinical applications and on legal and forensic issues. As such this volume will prove an invaluable reference resource for researchers and students already in the field and new scholars interested in learning more about hypnosis.