How Brains Think

How Brains Think

Author: William H. Calvin

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1244849009

Category: Evolution (Biology)

Page: 246

View: 197

Categories: Evolution (Biology)

How Brains Think

How Brains Think

Evolving Intelligence, Then And Now William H. Calvin. The Science Masters Series is a global publishing venture consisting of original science books written by leading scientists and published by a worldwide team of twenty-six ...

Author: William H. Calvin

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780465066896

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

View: 872

If you're good at finding the one right answer to life's multiple-choice questions, you're "smart." But "intelligence" is what you need when contemplating the leftovers in the refrigerator, trying to figure out what might go with them; or if you're trying to speak a sentence that you've never spoken before. As Jean Piaget said, intelligence is what you use when you don't know what to do, when all the standard answers are inadequate. This book tries to fathom how our inner life evolves from one topic to another, as we create and reject alternatives. Ever since Darwin, we've known that elegant things can emerge (indeed, self-organize) from "simpler" beginnings. And, says theoretical neurophysiologist William H. Calvin, the bootstrapping of new ideas works much like the immune response or the evolution of a new animal species -- except that the brain can turn the Darwinian crank a lot faster, on the time scale of thought and action. Drawing on anthropology, evolutionary biology, linguistics, and the neurosciences, Calvin also considers how a more intelligent brain developed using slow biological improvements over the last few million years. Long ago, evolving jack-of-all trades versatility was encouraged by abrupt climate changes. Now, evolving intelligence uses a nonbiological track: augmenting human intelligence and building intelligent machines.
Categories: Psychology

How Brains Think

How Brains Think

This book tries to fathom how our inner life evolves from one topic to another, as we create and reject alternatives. Ever since Darwin, we've known that elegant things can emerge (indeed, self-organize) from ”simpler” beginnings.

Author: William H Calvin

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 046507278X

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

View: 397

If you're good at finding the one right answer to life's multiple-choice questions, you're ”smart.” But ”intelligence” is what you need when contemplating the leftovers in the refrigerator, trying to figure out what might go with them; or if you're trying to speak a sentence that you've never spoken before. As Jean Piaget said, intelligence is what you use when you don't know what to do, when all the standard answers are inadequate. This book tries to fathom how our inner life evolves from one topic to another, as we create and reject alternatives. Ever since Darwin, we've known that elegant things can emerge (indeed, self-organize) from ”simpler” beginnings. And, says theoretical neurophysiologist William H. Calvin, the bootstrapping of new ideas works much like the immune response or the evolution of a new animal species—except that the brain can turn the Darwinian crank a lot faster, on the time scale of thought and action. Drawing on anthropology, evolutionary biology, linguistics, and the neurosciences, Calvin also considers how a more intelligent brain developed using slow biological improvements over the last few million years. Long ago, evolving jack-of-all trades versatility was encouraged by abrupt climate changes. Now, evolving intelligence uses a nonbiological track: augmenting human intelligence and building intelligent machines.
Categories: Psychology

Interference Patterns

Interference Patterns

Buss , David M. The Evolution of Desire : Strategies of Human Mating . New York : Basic , 1994 . Calvin , William H. How Brains Think : Evolving Intelligence , Then and Now . Science Masters . London : Weidenfield and Nicolson , 1997 .

Author: Jon Adams

Publisher: Bucknell University Press

ISBN: 0838756816

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 268

View: 943

The story of twentieth-century literary criticism can be told as a story about methodological anxieties: anxieties fostered by the success of the sciences and enacted by critics who have tried to set the study of literary texts on a more scientific basis. At the macrostructural level were taxonomists: Northrop Frye attempted to locate literature's conceptual center and organize Ptolemaic satellite myths around it, inferring the existence of literature from the possibility of criticism. linguistic microstructure, seeking (and finding) unsuspected levels of complexity, first in Baudelaire and Shakespeare, then in lesser poets, then in advertising slogans. After the collapse of the structuralist project, calls for the scientization of literary study have increasingly come from outside the humanities, where, despairing of criticism's native efforts, cognitive scientists and
Categories: Literary Criticism

Using Science to Develop Thinking Skills at Key Stage 3

Using Science to Develop Thinking Skills at Key Stage 3

Calvin, H. W. (1996) How Brains Think: Evolving Intelligence, Then and Now (Science Masters Series). Carbo, M. and Hodges, H. (1988) 'Learning styles strategies can help students at risk', Teaching Exceptional Children, Summer, ...

Author: Pat O'Brien

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136600135

Category: Education

Page: 142

View: 603

This book presents a series of practical activities designed to help teachers build an effective science curriculum for more able children. It focuses on: developing higher order thinking skills using conceptual language; directed activities relating to text for developing higher order skills; and in-depth study topics that emphasize a "real product" outcome. Activities range from short discussion topics and problems to solve, to whole-day masterclasses. Topics covered include: context enrichment - by team research/discussion and by visit plus follow-up work; general and science-based thinking activities; thinking tools - including zones of relevance; effective organization of information - herring bone diagrams, flow charts, flash cards; argument mapping; analysis and interpretation of data; modeling and using spreadsheets; and science writing activities.
Categories: Education

Reconsidering Science Learning

Reconsidering Science Learning

Calvin , W. H. ( 1996 ) How Brains Think : Evolving Intelligence , Then and Now , London : Weidenfeld and Nicolson . Churchland , P. and Sejnowski , T.J. ( 1992 ) The Computational Brain , Cambridge , MA : MIT Press .

Author: Eileen Scanlon

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415328306

Category: Education

Page: 267

View: 532

A survey of science learning provides information on such topics as the processes in which science is learned and the diversity in science learning.
Categories: Education

Principles of Systems Science

Principles of Systems Science

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA Arbib MA (1964) Brains, machines, and mathematics, 2nd edn. Springer, New York Baars BJ, ... Elsevier, New York Calvin WH (1996) How brains think: evolving intelligence, then and now.

Author: George E. Mobus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493919208

Category: Science

Page: 755

View: 612

This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. While the concepts and components of systems science will continue to be distributed throughout the various disciplines, undergraduate degree programs in systems science are also being developed, including at the authors’ own institutions. However, the subject is approached, systems science as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated perspective on the comprehensive nature of systems. It ends with practical aspects such as systems analysis, computer modeling, and systems engineering that demonstrate how the knowledge of systems can be used to solve problems in the real world. Each chapter is broken into parts beginning with qualitative descriptions that stand alone for students who have taken intermediate algebra. The second part presents quantitative descriptions that are based on pre-calculus and advanced algebra, providing a more formal treatment for students who have the necessary mathematical background. Numerous examples of systems from every realm of life, including the physical and biological sciences, humanities, social sciences, engineering, pre-med and pre-law, are based on the fundamental systems concepts of boundaries, components as subsystems, processes as flows of materials, energy, and messages, work accomplished, functions performed, hierarchical structures, and more. Understanding these basics enables further understanding both of how systems endure and how they may become increasingly complex and exhibit new properties or characteristics. Serves as a textbook for teaching systems fundamentals in any discipline or for use in an introductory course in systems science degree programs Addresses a wide range of audiences with different levels of mathematical sophistication Includes open-ended questions in special boxes intended to stimulate integrated thinking and class discussion Describes numerous examples of systems in science and society Captures the trend towards interdisciplinary research and problem solving
Categories: Science

Engaging Minds

Engaging Minds

The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991. Neuroscience (On Memory and Thought) Calvin, WilliamH. How brains think: Evolving intelligence, then and now. New York: Basic Books, 1996.

Author: Brent Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135650384

Category: Education

Page: 296

View: 930

First book to interpret the new perspectives in learning theory (complexity theory, enactivism) into a coherent text for teacher educ. Examines what learning is, its relationship to teaching, how current theories/beliefs enable or constrain one's teachin
Categories: Education

The Brain s Behind It

The Brain s Behind It

... (1999) New York: Scientific American 5 Wired to inspire: the completion of brain development Butterworth, Brian [2000) The Mathematical Brain, London: Papermac Calvin, N. (1996) How Brains Think: Evolving Intelligence Then and Now, ...

Author: Alistair Smith

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781855397828

Category: Education

Page: 216

View: 829

AT LAST! Alistair Smith's latest book is the product of three years research. If you want to know more about the brain and learning, this is the book you need. With separate sections on the development cycle of the learning brain from conception to old age, the book sets out to separate fact from fallacy, findings from fads. Clear guidance is given as to what helps and what hinders learning. Highly readable, illustrated throughout and well researched, the book will appeal to parents, educators and policy-makers. The Brain's Behind It promises to become the definitive book on the brain and learning.
Categories: Education

The Brain s Behind it

The Brain s Behind it

... York : Scientific American 5 Wired to inspire : the completion of brain development Butterworth , Brian ( 2000 ) The Mathematical Brain , London : Papermac Calvin , N. ( 1996 ) How Brains Think : Evolving Intelligence Then and Now ...

Author: Alistair Smith

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1855391422

Category: Education

Page: 312

View: 727

If you want to know more about the brain and learning, this is the book you need. In what promises to become the most trusted resource of the brain-based learning movement, The Brain's Behind It guides you through the development cycle of the brain and then describes what helps and hinders learning. This fascinating, highly topical, and well-researched book answers many of your questions, including -- Can you teach intelligence? How can I recognize a learner under stress? What to do about it? Why won't my students sit still? What factors in a mother's lifestyle will influence her baby's learning? What is the best time for my child to begin formal learning? What is the best time to learn any language? What is memory? How does sleep improve all-round memory and recall? What happens to my brain as I age? The Brain's Behind It identifies fallacies, fads, and facts about the brain and learning and gives you recommendations, whether you're a teacher, parent, or policy-maker.
Categories: Education