Horizontal Inequalities and Post-Conflict Development

Author: Frances Stewart,R. Venugopal,Arnim Langer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230348629

Category: Political Science

Page: 346

View: 6731

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This book evaluates the extent to which post-conflict reconstruction has addressed problems of horizontal inequalities through country case studies on Burundi, Rwanda, Nepal, Peru, Guatemala, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Afghanistan, and four thematic studies on macro-economic policies, privatisation, PRSP's, and employment generation.
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International Law and New Wars

Author: Christine Chinkin,Mary Kaldor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107171210

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 3498

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Examines the difficulties in applying international law to recent armed conflicts known as 'new wars'.
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Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict

Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies

Author: F. Stewart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230582729

Category: Social Science

Page: 364

View: 8994

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Drawing on econometric evidence and in-depth studies of West Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia, this book explores how horizontal inequalities - ethnic, religious or racial - are a source of violent conflict and how political, economic and cultural status inequalities have contributed. Policies to reverse inequality would reduce these risks.
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Ethnicity and the Persistence of Inequality

The Case of Peru

Author: R. Thorp,M. Paredes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230293131

Category: Political Science

Page: 238

View: 554

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Understanding why inequality is so great and has persevered for centuries in a number of Latin American countries requires tools that go beyond economics. Investigating the case of Peru, this book explores how inequality is embedded in institutions that constitute the interface between the economy, the polity and geography of the country.
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Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment, and Civil Conflict

Evidence from 55 Developing Countries, 1986-2003

Author: Gudrun Østby

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Civil war

Page: 32

View: 7202

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Several studies of civil war have concluded that economic inequality between individuals does not increase the risk of internal armed conflict. This is perhaps not so surprising. Even though an individual may feel frustrated if he is poor compared with other individuals in society, he will not start a rebellion on his own. Civil wars are organized group conflicts, not a matter of individuals randomly committing violence against each other. Hence, we should not neglect the group aspect of human well-being and conflict. Systematic inequalities that coincide with ethnic, religious, or geographical cleavages in a country are often referred to as horizontal inequalities (or inter-group inequalities). Case studies of particular countries as well as some statistical studies have found that such inequalities between identity groups tend to be associated with a higher risk of internal conflict. But the emergence of violent group mobilization in a country with sharp horizontal inequalities may depend on the characteristics of the political regime. For example, in an autocracy, grievances that stem from group inequalities are likely to be large and frequent, but state repression may prevent them from being openly expressed. This paper investigates the relationship between horizontal inequalities, political environment, and civil war in developing countries. Based on national survey data from 55 countries it calculates welfare inequalities between ethnic, religious, and regional groups for each country using indicators such as household assets and educational levels. All the inequality measures, particularly regional inequality, are positively associated with higher risks of conflict outbreak. And it seems that the conflict potential of regional inequality is stronger for pure democratic and intermediate regimes than for pure autocratic regimes. Institutional arrangements also seem to matter.
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Understanding Collective Political Violence

Author: Y. Guichaoua

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230348319

Category: Political Science

Page: 291

View: 4728

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Understanding Collective Political Violence offers a unique view on contemporary processes of violent political mobilization across continents: Africa, Latin America, South East Asia and the Middle East. It pays particular attention to unconventional combatants such as women or children and details the drivers of their violent engagement.
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Post-conflict Economic Recovery

Enabling Local Ingenuity

Author: N.A

Publisher: United Nations Developement library

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 238

View: 1752

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Post-conflict economic recovery aims to establish sustainable economic growth and human development while addressing the factors that could lead to a recurrence of conflict. Post-conflict recovery is not about restoring pre-war economic or institutional arrangements. It is about transformation, requiring a mix of far-reaching economic, institutional, legal, and policy reforms that allow war-torn countries to re-establish the foundations for self-sustaining development.
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Affirmative Action, Ethnicity and Conflict

Author: Edmund Terence Gomez,Ralph Premdas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415645069

Category:

Page: 224

View: 462

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In recent years a number of countries have introduced affirmative action programmes in order to put right historical injustices and economic inequalities involving ethnic communities. This book examines affirmative action programmes in a range of countries around the world. It discusses how such programmes came about and how they have been implemented, and examines their effectiveness. Throughout it explores how far affirmative action programmes reinforce ethnic identities and thereby contribute to division and conflict. The countries covered are India, the United States, South Africa, Northern Ireland, Brazil, Malaysia and Fiji.
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Schools for Conflict or for Peace in Afghanistan

Author: Dana Burde

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231537514

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 5132

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Foreign-backed funding for education does not always stabilize a country and enhance its statebuilding efforts. Dana Burde shows how aid to education in Afghanistan bolstered conflict both deliberately in the 1980s through violence-infused, anti-Soviet curricula and inadvertently in the 2000s through misguided stabilization programs. She also reveals how dominant humanitarian models that determine what counts as appropriate aid have limited attention and resources toward education, in some cases fueling programs that undermine their goals. For education to promote peace in Afghanistan, Burde argues we must expand equal access to quality community-based education and support programs that increase girls' and boys' attendance at school. Referring to a recent U.S. effort that has produced strong results in these areas, Burde commends the program's efficient administration and good quality, and its neutral curriculum, which can reduce conflict and build peace in lasting ways. Drawing on up-to-date research on humanitarian education work amid conflict zones around the world and incorporating insights gleaned from extensive fieldwork in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Burde recalculates and improves a popular formula for peace.
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