Helium Cryogenics

Author: Steven W. Van Sciver

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306423352

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 761

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At least 10 years have elapsed since a comprehensive monograph concer ned with the broad subject of cryogenics has been published. During this time a considerable quantity of research and development has been carried out in the field of cryogenics. Furthermore, there has been a certain degree of redirection of effort within the field, mostly driven by the variety of new applications, ranging from superconductive magnet systems to micro electronics. Greater emphasis is now being placed on low-temperature cryogenics, particularly that of liquid helium. Until now cryogenic books have provided a broad survey of materials and fluid properties over the entire cryogenic regime, T ::5 150 K. This approach does not allow sufficient detail in any particular area to bring the reader to the current level of understanding in the subject. In addition, the behavior of helium has been lumped with that of other cryogenic fluids, although the properties of helium are quite unique. As a result, a clear relationship has not been established between the fundamental understanding of helium fluids and their potential applications. The present book has been written to fill this void. The approach is to survey the field of cryogenics, specifically as it pertains to helium fluids. This approach is more specialized than that contained in previous cryogenics books. Furthermore, the level of treatment is more advanced and a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles has been assumed.
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Selling the Nation's Helium Reserve

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on Understanding the Impact of Selling the Helium Reserve

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309157537

Category: Political Science

Page: 156

View: 3892

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Helium has long been the subject of public policy deliberation and management, largely because of its many strategic uses and its unusual source-it is a derived product of natural gas and its market has several anomalous characteristics. Shortly after sources of helium were discovered at the beginning of the last century, the U.S. government recognized helium's potential importance to the nation's interests and placed its production and availability under strict governmental control. In the 1960s, helium's strategic value in cold war efforts was reflected in policies that resulted in the accumulation of a large reserve of helium owned by the federal government. The latest manifestation of public policy is expressed in the Helium Privatization Act of 1996 (1996 12 Act), which directs that substantially all of the helium accumulated as a result of those earlier policies be sold off by 2015 at prices sufficient to repay the federal government for its outlays associated with the helium program. The present volume assesses whether the interests of the United States have been well served by the 1996 Act and, in particular, whether selling off the helium reserve has had any adverse effect on U.S. scientific, technical, biomedical, and national security users of helium.
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Helium

Bibliography of Technical and Scientific Literature from Its Discovery (1868) to January 1, 1947

Author: Henry P. Wheeler,Louise B. Swenarton

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Helium

Page: 76

View: 8116

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Helium

Bibliography of Technical and Scientific Literature from Its Discovery (1868) to January 1, 1947

Author: Carl Claude Anderson,Daniel Harrington,Henry P. Wheeler,Joseph L. Wiley,Thomas Fraser,H. C. Anderson,H. H. Hinson,Louise B. Swenarton,W. L. Crentz,A. L. Bailey

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Coal

Page: 76

View: 5169

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Quantized Vortices in Helium II

Author: Russell J. Donnelly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521324007

Category: Mathematics

Page: 346

View: 5272

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Vortex waves have become a major preoccupation of workers in superfluidity. This book discusses the properties of quantized vortex lines in superfluid helium II in the light of research on vortices in modern fluid mechanics. The author begins with a review of classical fluid dynamics relevant to the main topics of the book. This is followed by a presentation of basic material on helium II and quantized vortices. The following chapters deal with various different aspects of the subject including vortex dynamics and mutual friction, the structure of quantized vortices, vortex arrays, and vortex waves. The book concludes with an introduction to two currently active topics, namely superfluid turbulence and the nucleation of quantized vortices.
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Helium

Author: N.A

Publisher: PediaPress

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 7812

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Helium

The Disappearing Element

Author: Wheeler M. "Bo" Sears, Jr.

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319151231

Category: Science

Page: 138

View: 9789

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The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not exist, and semiconductor chips could not be made...the list goes on and on.
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