Healing Traditions

Healing Traditions

Healing Traditions offers a historical perspective to the interactions between South Africa's traditional healers and biomedical practitioners.

Author: Karen Elizabeth Flint

Publisher: Ohio University Press

ISBN: 9780821418499

Category: History

Page: 274

View: 329

2009 Herskovits Award finalist In August 2004, South Africa officially legalized the practice of traditional healers. Largely in response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and limited both by the number of practitioners and by patients’ access to treatment, biomedical practitioners looked toward the country’s traditional healers as important agents in the development of medical education and treatment. This collaboration has not been easy. The two medical cultures embrace different ideas about the body and the origin of illness, but they do share a history of commercial and ideological competition and different relations to state power. Healing Traditions: African Medicine, Cultural Exchange, and Competition in South Africa, 1820–1948 provides a long-overdue historical perspective to these interactions and an understanding that is vital for the development of medical strategies to effectively deal with South Africa’s healthcare challenges. Between 1820 and 1948 traditional healers in Natal, South Africa, transformed themselves from politically powerful men and women who challenged colonial rule and law into successful entrepreneurs who competed for turf and patients with white biomedical doctors and pharmacists. To understand what is “traditional” about traditional medicine, Flint argues that we must consider the cultural actors not commonly associated with African therapeutics: white biomedical practitioners, Indian healers, and the implementing of white rule. Carefully crafted, well written, and powerfully argued, Flint’s analysis of the ways that indigenous medical knowledge and therapeutic practices were forged, contested, and transformed over two centuries is highly illuminating, as is her demonstration that many “traditional” practices changed over time. Her discussion of African and Indian medical encounters opens up a whole new way of thinking about the social basis of health and healing in South Africa. This important book will be core reading for classes and future scholarship on health and healing in South Africa.
Categories: History

Caribbean Healing Traditions

Caribbean Healing Traditions

Caribbean Healing Traditions: Implications for Health and Mental Health fills this gap.

Author: Patsy Sutherland

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136920578

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 202

As Caribbean communities become more international, clinicians and scholars must develop new paradigms for understanding treatment preferences and perceptions of illness. Despite evidence supporting the need for culturally appropriate care and the integration of traditional healing practices into conventional health and mental health care systems, it is unclear how such integration would function since little is known about the therapeutic interventions of Caribbean healing traditions. Caribbean Healing Traditions: Implications for Health and Mental Health fills this gap. Drawing on the knowledge of prominent clinicians, scholars, and researchers of the Caribbean and the diaspora, these healing traditions are explored in the context of health and mental health for the first time, making Caribbean Healing Traditions an invaluable resource for students, researchers, faculty, and practitioners in the fields of nursing, counseling, psychotherapy, psychiatry, social work, youth and community development, and medicine.
Categories: Psychology

Healing Traditions

Healing Traditions

Tradition. LAURENCE J. KIRMAYER, GREGORY M. BRASS, AND GAIL
GUTHRIE VALASKAKIS As the contributions to ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada
are involved in healing their traditions, repairing the ruptures and discontinuities
in the ...

Author: Laurence J. Kirmayer

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 9780774858632

Category: Medical

Page: 528

View: 960

Aboriginal peoples in Canada have diverse cultures but share common social and political challenges that have contributed to their experiences of health and illness. This collection addresses the origins of mental health and social problems and the emergence of culturally responsive approaches to services and health promotion. Healing Traditions is not a handbook of practice but a resource for thinking critically about current issues in the mental health of indigenous peoples. Cross-cutting themes include: the impact of colonialism, sedentarization, and forced assimilation; the importance of land for indigenous identity and an ecocentric self; and processes of healing and spirituality as sources of resilience.
Categories: Medical

Caribbean Healing Traditions

Caribbean Healing Traditions

Chapter 14, Hindu Healing Traditions in the Southern Caribbean: History and
Praxis by Keith McNeal, Kumar Mahabir, and Paul Younger, explores Hindu
healing traditions in the West Indies by situating practices of religious and
popular ...

Author: Patsy Sutherland

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136920585

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 256

View: 384

Caribbean Healing Traditions: Implications for Health and Mental Health draws on the knowledge of prominent clinicians, scholars, and researchers of the Caribbean and the diaspora, exploring healing traditions in the context of health and mental health for the first time. Caribbean Healing Traditions is an invaluable resource for students, researchers, faculty, and practitioners in the fields of nursing, counseling, psychotherapy, psychiatry, social work, youth and community development, and medicine.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Brighid s Healing

Brighid s Healing

For the first time in book form, Brighid's Healing brings to life the wisdom and techniques of Irish traditional healing.

Author: Gina McGarry

Publisher:

ISBN: 0954723023

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 228

View: 576

For the first time in book form, Brighid's Healing brings to life the wisdom and techniques of Irish traditional healing. The author has over 20 years experience and is widely acclaimed as a healer with vision, skills and the ability to revive the ancient arts of healing from the Celtic culture's wise and civilizing traditions from the deep past.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Way of the Ancient Healer

Way of the Ancient Healer

The book begins with an explanation of Apostol’s Filipino lineage and legacy as a healer.

Author: Virgil Mayor Apostol

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 9781583945971

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 368

View: 776

Way of the Ancient Healer provides an overview of the rich tradition of Filipino healing practices, discussing their origins, world influences, and role in daily life. Enhanced with over 200 photographs and illustrations, the book combines years of historical research with detailed descriptions of the spiritual belief system that forms the foundation of these practices. Giving readers a rare look at modern-day Filipino healing rituals, the book also includes personal examples from author Virgil Mayor Apostol’s own experiences with shamanic healing and dream interpretation. The book begins with an explanation of Apostol’s Filipino lineage and legacy as a healer. After a brief history of the Philippine archipelago, he describes the roots of traditional Filipino healing and spirituality, and discusses the Indian, Islamic, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, and American influences that have impacted the Filipino culture. He presents a thorough description of Filipino shamanic and spiritual practices that have developed from the concept that everything in nature contains a spirit (animism) and that living in the presence of spirits demands certain protocols and rituals for interacting with them. The book’s final chapter thoughtfully explores the spiritual tools used in Filipino healing–talismans, amulets, stones, and other natural symbols of power.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

Southern Folk Medicine

Southern Folk Medicine

This book is the first to describe the history, folklore, assessment methods, and remedies of Southern and Appalachian Folk Medicine—the only system of folk medicine, other than Native American, that developed in the United States.

Author: Phyllis D. Light

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 9781623171575

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 304

View: 567

This book is the first to describe the history, folklore, assessment methods, and remedies of Southern and Appalachian Folk Medicine—the only system of folk medicine, other than Native American, that developed in the United States. One of the system's last active practitioners, Phyllis D. Light has studied and worked with herbs, foods, and other healing techniques for more than thirty years. In everyday language, she explains how Southern and Appalachian Folk Medicine was passed down orally through the generations by herbalists and healers who cared for people in their communities with the natural tools on hand.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas

Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas

This book discusses the perception of disease, healing concepts and the evolution of traditional systems of healing in the Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Author: Pankaj Gupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8132219244

Category: Medical

Page: 149

View: 181

This book discusses the perception of disease, healing concepts and the evolution of traditional systems of healing in the Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh, India. The chapters cover a diverse range issues: people and knowledge systems, healing in ancient scriptures, concept of sacredness and faith healing, food as medicament, presumptions about disease, ethno-botanical aspects of medicinal plants, collection and processing of herbs, traditional therapeutic procedures, indigenous Materia medica, etc. The book also discusses the diverse therapeutic procedures followed by Himalayan healers and their significance in the socio-cultural life of Himalayan societies. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as wisdom, skills, and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness and maintenance of health. In some Asian and African countries, 80% of the population depends on traditional medicine for primary health care. However, the knowledge of these conventional healing techniques and traditions associated with conveying this knowledge are slowly disappearing. The authors highlight the importance of safeguarding this indigenous knowledge in the cultural milieu of the Himachal Himalayas. This book will be an important resource for researchers in medical anthropology, biology, ethno-biology, ecology, community health, health behavior, psychotherapy, and Himalayan studies.
Categories: Medical

The Straight Path of the Spirit

The Straight Path of the Spirit

Through the story of his own self-transformation, Katz reveals not only those aspects of life essential for the Fijians as they struggle to hold onto their identity, but also what is of importance to all of us who seek to retain our ...

Author: Richard Katz

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781594775161

Category: Social Science

Page: 432

View: 579

The inspiring story of one man's exploration of indigenous healing in a culture fighting to preserve its spiritual health. • A firsthand account of a little-known healing tradition. • A dramatic story of self-transformation by a well-respected Harvard-educated anthropologist. In the late 1970s Richard Katz, a clinical psychologist trained in anthropology, spent two years living in a remote island community in Fiji, hoping to record the practices of its healers. At the foundation of their healing, he discovered, was the concept of the straight path, a journey through life whose truth is revealed only to the extent that it is searched for with honesty and faith. It is a way of healing that in its very essence is a way of living, a path that emphasizes the spiritual dimensions of health and the relevance of these to the community. But while interviewing healers at work, Katz was drawn into an increasingly suspenseful drama. Unexplained deaths, rumors and suspicions, and the intrusion of a zealous evangelist rocked the village and soon revealed to the author the dangerous alternative to the straight path: the misuse of power that some call witchcraft. The Straight Path of the Spirit is an engrossing story of indigenous healers and a dramatic account of cultures in collision. Through the story of his own self-transformation, Katz reveals not only those aspects of life essential for the Fijians as they struggle to hold onto their identity, but also what is of importance to all of us who seek to retain our humanity.
Categories: Social Science

Shamans Mystics and Doctors

Shamans  Mystics and Doctors

"With extraordinary sympathy, open-mindedness, and insight Sudhir Kakar has drawn from both his Eastern and Western backgrounds to show how the gulf that divides native healer from Western psychiatrist can be spanned."—Rosemary Dinnage, ...

Author: Sudhir Kakar

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226422798

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 306

View: 429

Sudhir Kakar, a psychoanalyst and scholar, brilliantly illuminates the ancient healing traditions of India embodied in the rituals of shamans, the teachings of gurus, and the precepts of the school of medicine known as Ayurveda. "With extraordinary sympathy, open-mindedness, and insight Sudhir Kakar has drawn from both his Eastern and Western backgrounds to show how the gulf that divides native healer from Western psychiatrist can be spanned."—Rosemary Dinnage, New York Review of Books "Each chapter describes the geographical and cultural context within which the healers work, their unique approach to healing mental illness, and . . . the philosophical and religious underpinnings of their theories compared with psychoanalytical theory."—Choice
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

Handbook of Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

Handbook of Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

Drawing on their shared roots and spiritual principles, Bridgette Shea, L.Ac., MAcOM, shows how these two practices integrate seamlessly, with the two traditions’ individual strengths harmonizing to form a practical basis for prevention, ...

Author: Bridgette Shea

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781620556177

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 659

A comprehensive reference tool for maximizing healing of the mind, body, and spirit through a holistic synergy of Chinese medicine and Ayurveda • Details the foundational principles of each tradition and the many concepts they share, such as qi and prana, meridians and nadis, and energy centers and chakras • Provides tools for self-assessment including a primer on tongue diagnosis and a mental, emotional, and physical constitutional questionnaire • Offers breathing exercises, dietary regimens, herbal recommendations, and guides for detoxification, including safe and gentle at-home cleansing Chinese medicine and Ayurveda are two of the oldest healing systems in use today. Each is a complete art, in and of itself, and has profoundly contributed to the health and well-being of millions of people around the world. Drawing on their shared roots and spiritual principles, Bridgette Shea, L.Ac., MAcOM, shows how these two practices integrate seamlessly, with the two traditions’ individual strengths harmonizing to form a practical basis for prevention, wellness, detoxification, and treatment. The author explains the foundational principles of both Chinese medicine and Ayurveda in detail, providing the reader with a working understanding of both disciplines. She examines shared concepts such as qi and prana, meridians and nadis, and energy centers and chakras. She explores the strengths of each practice, such as the clinical efficiency of diagnosis and the use of acupuncture for pain relief, improving fertility, and stress reduction in Chinese medicine and the dietary, detoxification, and spiritual guidance of Ayurveda, including the detox branch of Ayurveda known as Panchakarma. Moving beyond theory into practical application, she explores the Elements, known as the Five Phases and the Panchamahabhutas, and how they affect our well-being. She provides tools for self-assessment including a primer on tongue diagnosis and a mental, emotional, and physical constitutional questionnaire. Offering treatment and prevention strategies that draw from both disciplines, she encourages the reader to implement an integrated practice of these two systems in daily life or clinical practice. She details breathing exercises, dietary regimens, herbal recommendations, and guides for detoxification, including safe and gentle home cleanses, all rooted in the holistic synergy between Ayurveda and Chinese medicine. Sharing case studies that highlight the interconnectedness of these approaches, Shea provides a comprehensive guide for self-healing of body, mind, and spirit and a practitioner’s resource to cross-reference complex questions with respect to both healing traditions.
Categories: Medical

The Secrets of the Amazon Shamans

The Secrets of the Amazon Shamans

This book brings a timely breath of fresh air into the labyrinth of material now available on shamanism involving the Amazon River Basin.

Author: Michael Peter Langevin

Publisher: Crossroad Press

ISBN:

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page:

View: 629

This book brings a timely breath of fresh air into the labyrinth of material now available on shamanism involving the Amazon River Basin. The Second Edition of Amazon Shamans: Healing traditions from South America (first published in 2003), catches a moment in time when the ancient knowledge of the Amazon shamans was already changing rapidly. Through Michael Peter Langevin's journey together with his family, we get to take part of this fascinating region, and it's inherent ancient mysteries and miracles. Michael Peter Langevin has been on the shamanic path since 1973, and traveled extensively in Latin America. Over the years he has met and studied with many shamans in the Amazon River Basin and the Andean Mountain region. In this down-to-earth book he intersperses his own and his family’s journeys through the many countries surrounding the Amazon River Basin, inviting the reader to feel part of adventurous meetings with shamans, whose knowledge and wisdom stretches the mind to what is possible. Meetings that are often humorously conveyed, but there are also serious encounters when the peaceful life of remote villages clashes with modern life. Michael tells what it is like to see life from the eyes of someone else in a healing ceremony; about a Calling the Dead Ritual where he could actually see their spirits with his physical eyes; what it is like to experience the intensity of Ayahuasca ritual, and having your life revisited; but also about the strain of traveling with your children being far away from so-called civilization when they fall ill. The story of this book moves between Michael's shamanic initiations, and his joys and challenges of traveling as a family, coming together in the fearful situation of his sick children, which turns into a miraculous healing. This book is an exiting inroad to the mysteries of the Amazon shaman way, based on real life meetings and experiences. The Amazon shamans and healers hold libraries of knowledge that has been built through thousands of years of experimentation. Michael has an uncanny ability to translate the mysterious knowledge of Amazon shamanism into magical everyday practice, that is understandable and approachable. Throughout the book we are presented with basic Amazon shaman principles, procedures and rituals, adapted to work in any setting. These principles, procedures and rituals can be used to enhance the richness of life, to heal and even to question basic assumptions on how the world is connected and what is possible. In the words of Michael, “An invisible web of life connects everything in existence. Westerners often loose sight of this, but in the Amazon it's easy to remember, because it's presence is so visceral. Amazon shamans know that while reason is a useful tool, intuition and magic surpass it in most every way.” The journal-like, warm, free-flowing writing style adds to the intimacy and charm of this book. Michael is a convincing proponent of the Amazon way of spirituality and mysticism. He conveys a sense of urgency to change our direction in life and become more connected to nature, and to each other. In the concluding chapter of The Amazon Shamans: Healing traditions from South America he writes, “You must begin to speak with the plants, the wind and the stars. Only in these ways will you fully understand and appreciate your own inherent healing abilities as a natural part of the world.” As a handbook for Amazon shamanic healing and rituals, this volume is packed with powerful knowledge and practical techniques.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas

Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas

This book discusses the perception of disease, healing concepts and the evolution of traditional systems of healing in the Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Author: Pankaj Gupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9788132219255

Category: Medical

Page: 149

View: 305

This book discusses the perception of disease, healing concepts and the evolution of traditional systems of healing in the Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh, India. The chapters cover a diverse range issues: people and knowledge systems, healing in ancient scriptures, concept of sacredness and faith healing, food as medicament, presumptions about disease, ethno-botanical aspects of medicinal plants, collection and processing of herbs, traditional therapeutic procedures, indigenous Materia medica, etc. The book also discusses the diverse therapeutic procedures followed by Himalayan healers and their significance in the socio-cultural life of Himalayan societies. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as wisdom, skills, and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness and maintenance of health. In some Asian and African countries, 80% of the population depends on traditional medicine for primary health care. However, the knowledge of these conventional healing techniques and traditions associated with conveying this knowledge are slowly disappearing. The authors highlight the importance of safeguarding this indigenous knowledge in the cultural milieu of the Himachal Himalayas. This book will be an important resource for researchers in medical anthropology, biology, ethno-biology, ecology, community health, health behavior, psychotherapy, and Himalayan studies.
Categories: Medical

Healing with Herbs and Rituals

Healing with Herbs and Rituals

Healing with Herbs and Ritualsis an herbal remedy-based understanding of curanderismo and the practice of yerberas, or herbalists, as found in the American Southwest and northern Mexico.

Author: Eliseo Torres

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 0826339611

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 168

View: 150

Healing with Herbs and Ritualsis an herbal remedy-based understanding of curanderismo and the practice of yerberas, or herbalists, as found in the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Part One, "Folk Healers and Folk Healing," focuses on individual healers and their procedures. Part Two, "Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbs and Remedies," details traditional Mexican-American herbs and cures. These remedies are the product of centuries of experience in Mexico, heavily influenced by the Moors, Judeo-Christians, and Aztecs, and include everyday items such as lemon, egg, fire, aromatic oil, and prepared water. Symbolic objects such as keys, candles, brooms, and Trouble Dolls are also used. Dedicated, in part, to curanderos throughout Mexico and the American Southwest,Healing with Herbs and Ritualsshows us these practitioners are humble, sincere people who have given themselves to improving lives for many decades. Today's holistic health movement has rediscovered the timeless merits of the curanderos' uses of medicinal plants, rituals, and practical advice.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Healing Traditions

Healing Traditions

In Healing Traditions, Bonnie Blair O'Connor considers the conflicts that arise between the values and assumptions of Western, scientific medicine and those of unconventional health systems.

Author: Bonnie Blair O'Connor

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812200539

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 288

View: 838

The popularity and practice of alternative medicine continues to expand at astonishing rates. In Healing Traditions, Bonnie Blair O'Connor considers the conflicts that arise between the values and assumptions of Western, scientific medicine and those of unconventional health systems. Providing in-depth examples of the importance and benefits of alternative health practices—including the extraordinarily extensive and sophisticated HIV/AIDS alternative therapies movement—O'Connor identifies ways to integrate alternative strategies with orthodox medical treatments in order to ensure the best possible care for patients. In spite of the long-standing prediction that, as science and medicine progressed—and education became more generally available—unconventional systems would die out, they have persisted with undiminished vitality. They have, in fact, experienced a reinvigoration and expansion during the last fifteen to twenty years. In the United States, this renewal is fueled by people representing a wide cross-section of American society, and most of them also use conventional medicine. This eclecticism can result in conflicts between the values and assumptions of Western, scientific medicine and those of unconventional health systems. O'Connor demonstrates the importance of understanding how various belief systems interact and how this interaction affects health care. She argues that through neutral observation and thorough description of health belief systems it is possible to gain an understanding of those systems, to identify likely points of conflict among systems—especially conflicts that may occur in conventional care settings—and to intervene in ways that ensure the best possible care for patients.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Bridging Jungian Psychology with Indigenous American Healing Traditions

Bridging Jungian Psychology with Indigenous American Healing Traditions

The focus of this study explores bridging analytical (Jungian) psychology with Indigenous American healing traditions in terms of their respective understandings of soul, spirit, health, wellness, dreams, visions, hallucinations, harmony, ...

Author: Tamara DeAnn Bolding

Publisher:

ISBN: 1339649063

Category: Active imagination

Page: 526

View: 868

The focus of this study explores bridging analytical (Jungian) psychology with Indigenous American healing traditions in terms of their respective understandings of soul, spirit, health, wellness, dreams, visions, hallucinations, harmony, and balance. The research methodology utilized a hermeneutic and imaginal approach in which a dialogue was generated between the relevant literature in the field of Jungian psychology and Indigenous American healing traditions. This dialogue was then deepened by the contribution of two research participants, also known as traditional healer practitioners or traditional advisors, who were interviewed as professionals with expertise in their respective American Indian healing traditions. The participants chose to self-identify in the study. The two participants included Ben Hale, an enrolled member of the Navajo Nation and Glen Pinkham, an enrolled member of the Yakama Nation. The participants shared their wisdom and approaches to health, wellness, and traditional healing. The results of the interviews were critically examined in the service of articulating themes relevant to serving American Indians and Alaska Natives and as contributions to the field of psychology. The research bridges Jungian psychology with Indigenous American healing traditions in hopes that the field of modern natural scientific psychology embraces, in praxis, an ethical understanding of soul as part of one’s whole being, and holistic health approaches, as understood by Indigenous American healing traditions.
Categories: Active imagination

Curandero Conversations

Curandero Conversations

"The University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College"--T.p.

Author: Antonio Zavaleta

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 9781449000899

Category: Religion

Page: 461

View: 741

"The University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College"--T.p.
Categories: Religion

Healing with Whole Foods

Healing with Whole Foods

A guide to health, diet, alternative medicine, and natural food presentation teaches readers how to apply Chinese medicine and the five-element theory to a contemporary diet and treat illness and nervous disorders through food choices.

Author: Paul Pitchford

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1556434308

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 753

View: 455

A guide to health, diet, alternative medicine, and natural food presentation teaches readers how to apply Chinese medicine and the five-element theory to a contemporary diet and treat illness and nervous disorders through food choices.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Radical Healing

Radical Healing

In this second edition of Radical Healing - revised, expanded, and updated — Dr. Ballentine offers a comprehensive vision of self medical care-one that integrates the holistic healing traditions of Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Traditional ...

Author: Rudolph Ballentine

Publisher: Himalayan Inst Press

ISBN: 0893893080

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 653

View: 508

In this second edition of Radical Healing - revised, expanded, and updated — Dr. Ballentine offers a comprehensive vision of self medical care-one that integrates the holistic healing traditions of Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and other herbal medicinal traditions. He emphasizes and explains the importance of understanding and maintaining the connection between the healing and spiritual traditions of which they are a part. Only by maintaining this connection can mind, body and spirit be healed.
Categories: Health & Fitness