The Republic of Korea's industrial policy has directed that nation's economy through nearly three decades of spectacular growth.
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
The Republic of Korea's industrial policy has directed that nation's economy through nearly three decades of spectacular growth. But the authors of this paper maintain that this policy is showing signs of being outmoded. The time has come, the authors argue, for the Korean government to stop managing the economy's structural development and to redefine the responsibilities of business and government. Under this proposed compact, the allocation of resources would shift from the government to the private industrial and financial sectors. The transformation of the government bureaucracy from an ad hoc policy role to one of a transparent and predictable regulator is a key to the success of this undertaking. These new directions would present the government with enormous challenges. Greater competitive discipline and regulatory oversight would be required. While dealing with the complexities of the transition, the government would have to maintain macroeconomic stability and the momentum of savings and investment. For comparison, the study examines the industrial economies of France, Germany, Japan, and the United States, which underwent similar shifts.
The 1982 statistics on the use of family planning and infertility services presented in this report are preliminary results from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), conducted by the National Center for Health ...
Author: Gerry E. Hendershot
Category: Birth control
The 1982 statistics on the use of family planning and infertility services presented in this report are preliminary results from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Data were collected through personal interviews with a multistage area probability sample of 7969 women aged 15-44. A detailed series of questions was asked to obtain relatively complete estimates of the extent and type of family planning services received. Statistics on family planning services are limited to women who were able to conceive 3 years before the interview date. Overall, 79% of currently mrried nonsterile women reported using some type of family planning service during the previous 3 years. There were no statistically significant differences between white (79%), black (75%) or Hispanic (77%) wives, or between the 2 income groups. The 1982 survey questions were more comprehensive than those of earlier cycles of the survey. The annual rate of visits for family planning services in 1982 was 1077 visits /1000 women. Teenagers had the highest annual visit rate (1581/1000) of any age group for all sources of family planning services combined. Visit rates declined sharply with age from 1447 at ages 15-24 to 479 at ages 35-44. Similar declines with age also were found in the visit rates for white and black women separately. Nevertheless, the annual visit rate for black women (1334/1000) was significantly higher than that for white women (1033). The highest overall visit rate was for black women 15-19 years of age (1867/1000). Nearly 2/3 of all family planning visits were to private medical sources. Teenagers of all races had higher family planning service visit rates to clinics than to private medical sources, as did black women age 15-24. White women age 20 and older had higher visit rates to private medical services than to clinics. Never married women had higher visit rates to clinics than currently or formerly married women. Data were also collected in 1982 on use of medical services for infertility by women who had difficulty in conceiving or carrying a pregnancy to term. About 1 million ever married women had 1 or more infertility visits in the 12 months before the interview. During the 3 years before interview, about 1.9 million women had infertility visits. For all ever married women, as well as for white and black women separately, infertility services were more likely to be secured from private medical sources than from clinics. The survey design, reliability of the estimates and the terms used are explained in the technical notes.
It should be noted that, while traffic engineers frequently use standards developed by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, the Federal Highway Administration, or other agencies in making engineering ...
Author: Peter S. Parsonson
Category: Automatic timers
This synthesis will be of interest to traffic engineers, public officials, and others interested in developing improved traffic signal timing procedures. Information has been assembled on traffic signal timing software, resources required for timing, procedures for single intersections and coordinated systems, pedestrian intervals, and fine- tuning solutions. Traffic engineers need to know the comparative requirements and effectiveness of alternative traffic signal timing techniques. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes these techniques, presents the general principles for application, including source material for more detailed information, and discusses the issues associated with traffic signal timing alternatives. It should be noted that, while traffic engineers frequently use standards developed by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, the Federal Highway Administration, or other agencies in making engineering judgments, they are always well advised to protect themselves by carefully supporting the bases of their decisions with factual findings and documenting the reasons for the decisions.