God and Logic in Islam

God and Logic in Islam

This book investigates the central role of reason in Islamic intellectual life.

Author: John Walbridge

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139492349

Category: Religion

Page:

View: 563

This book investigates the central role of reason in Islamic intellectual life. Despite widespread characterization of Islam as a system of belief based only on revelation, John Walbridge argues that rational methods, not fundamentalism, have characterized Islamic law, philosophy and education since the medieval period. His research demonstrates that this medieval Islamic rational tradition was opposed by both modernists and fundamentalists, resulting in a general collapse of traditional Islamic intellectual life and its replacement by more modern but far shallower forms of thought. However, the resources of this Islamic scholarly tradition remain an integral part of the Islamic intellectual tradition and will prove vital to its revival. The future of Islam, Walbridge argues, will be marked by a return to rationalism.
Categories: Religion

Logic and Islam

Logic and Islam

Throughout history, a believer did not need logical proof to believe in Almighty God. This is because the spiritual proof was always enough to admit the existence of Almighty God and to submit to Him.

Author: Magd Abdel Wahab

Publisher:

ISBN: 9463385827

Category:

Page: 152

View: 778

Throughout history, a believer did not need logical proof to believe in Almighty God. This is because the spiritual proof was always enough to admit the existence of Almighty God and to submit to Him. Finding Almighty God is not a mathematical equation that needs to be proven. Rather, it is a spiritual feeling due to a call from inside a human being. The relationship between Almighty God and humans is spiritual rather logical. However, with the advances in science and technology, this spiritual relationship decreases. Nowadays, modern man is looking for logic and scientific answers to many questions relating to Almighty God and religions. In fact, nonbelievers or atheists are not the only ones looking for answers to these types of questions; believers also want to increase their faith and remove doubts from their hearts. The main objective of this book is to provide logical answers to questions relating to belief in Almighty God, creations and Islam as the last heavenly religion. These questions are grouped under several topics, namely: 1) Almighty God, 2) the creation, 3) the soul, 4) the hereafter, 5) the destiny and freedom in choices, 6) the holy Quran and 7) the Islam. The main feature of this book is that the author provides logic flowcharts with each presented question relating to the different topics. Each logic flowchart has three phases: a start, a process and an end.
Categories:

Logic Rhetoric and Legal Reasoning in the Qur an

Logic  Rhetoric and Legal Reasoning in the Qur an

This book provides a new key to both the Qur'an and Islamic intellectual history.

Author: Rosalind Ward Gwynne

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134345007

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 675

Muslims have always used verses from the Qur'an to support opinions on law, theology, or life in general, but almost no attention has been paid to how the Qur'an presents its own precepts as conclusions proceeding from reasoned arguments. Whether it is a question of God's powers of creation, the rationale for his acts, or how people are to think clearly about their lives and fates, Muslims have so internalized Qur'anic patterns of reasoning that many will assert that the Qur'an appeals first of all to the human powers of intellect. This book provides a new key to both the Qur'an and Islamic intellectual history. Examining Qur'anic argument by form and not content helps readers to discover the significance of passages often ignored by the scholar who compares texts and the believer who focuses upon commandments, as it allows scholars of Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic theology, philosophy, and law to tie their findings in yet another way to the text that Muslims consider the speech of God.
Categories: History

Philosophy in the Islamic World

Philosophy in the Islamic World

In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Adamson sheds light on the philosophical ideas that emerged in the Islamic world.

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199683673

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 599

In the history of philosophy, few topics are so relevant to today's cultural and political landscape as philosophy in the Islamic world. Yet, this remains one of the lesser-known philosophical traditions. In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Adamson explores the history of philosophy among Muslims, Jews, and Christians living in Islamic lands, from its historical background to thinkers in the twentieth century. Introducing the main philosophical themes of the Islamic world, Adamson integrates ideas from the Islamic and Abrahamic faiths to consider the broad philosophical questions that continue to invite debate: What is the relationship between reason and religious belief? What is the possibility of proving God's existence? What is the nature of knowledge? Drawing on the most recent research in the field, this book challenges the assumption of the cultural decline of philosophy and science in the Islamic world by demonstrating its rich heritage and overlap with other faiths and philosophies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Philosophy

Quranic Concept of God

Quranic Concept of God

If now and then we spare a moment of solitude to think about these and similar questions, this scholarly delightful and refreshing book by Muhammad Zia Ullah will go to a great length to answer these.This book discusses God of Islam, Allah, ...

Author: Muhammad Zia Ullah

Publisher:

ISBN: 0578646846

Category:

Page:

View: 192

The delight and excitement of the modern world leave little or no time for us to think of the ultimate question: like whence we came, whither we go, who sent us into this world and to what end or purpose, who is our creator, what is good and evil, heaven and hell, life hereafter. If now and then we spare a moment of solitude to think about these and similar questions, this scholarly delightful and refreshing book by Muhammad Zia Ullah will go to a great length to answer these.This book discusses God of Islam, Allah, whose attributes have been manifested in the Quran. This book is different from similar other books because it tackles the subject with an open mind and logic. The basic source is the Quran, which is an introduction of God to man. His main line of argument comes from the Quran from which he gives suitable Quotations. Each quotation in original Arabic text is accompanied by suitable English translation. He also dwells on Shariah, Sufi tradition, and modern achievements of Science and Philosophy in a flawless style. The authors' premise is in the mans' own experience and his own comprehension of the material world that he must learn to know God. His God is God of reason. To arrive at the view of Allah, he meditates, thinks aloud aducing arguments from everyday life. He discusses nature of human love , its relationship with with Allah is his love for His creations. He clarifies the concept of divine beauty and links it with human life. He does not dwell on philosophical aspect alone. He tackles such complicated problems as the Quranic doctrine of crime and punishment obedience and reward with the help with help of erudite sources. The final impression is that of an enlightened modern man praising Allah in terms that are easily grasped by any man today. It is handiwork for those who wish to find a philosophical logical answer to their doubts and wish to persuade others into an act of praise which is the highest attribute given to man.
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The Essentials of the Islamic Faith

The Essentials of the Islamic Faith

This collection of speeches explains the principal elements of Islam—belief in the existence and Unity of God, in resurrection and the Day of Judgment, in the Divine Scriptures, as well as other familiar themes of Islamic discourse.

Author: Fethullah Gülen

Publisher: Tughra Books

ISBN: 1932099859

Category: Religion

Page: 270

View: 587

This collection of speeches explains the principal elements of Islam—belief in the existence and Unity of God, in resurrection and the Day of Judgment, in the Divine Scriptures, as well as other familiar themes of Islamic discourse.
Categories: Religion

Why God Why Islam

Why God  Why Islam

Description The Book has been produced while keeping the following points in mind - To Present Atheistic Arguments, and highlight their irrationality in order to Expose the Intellectual mirage of Atheism- To Articulate 5 Major Arguments for ...

Author: Husnain Bin Sajjad

Publisher:

ISBN: 9798675181254

Category:

Page: 252

View: 516

Description The Book has been produced while keeping the following points in mind - To Present Atheistic Arguments, and highlight their irrationality in order to Expose the Intellectual mirage of Atheism- To Articulate 5 Major Arguments for Gods Existence based on utter Rationality and common sense.- To show why Islam is the true religion of God among the other major religions of the world. This has been done by scrutinizing major religions of the world/and judging Islam under the scope of Logic, Reason and History only.- To wave off major arguments/Myths against Islam.- A read of this introductory Treatise should God Willingly, Gift one with the confidence to defend the Religion of Islam on Intellectual basis.The Rational case for Islam has been majorly founded upon the Life of the Prophet and The Holy Quran.
Categories:

Reading the Qur an in the Twenty First Century

Reading the Qur an in the Twenty First Century

See also Aswita Taizir, “Muhammad 'Abduh and the Reformation of Islamic Law”
(unpublished PhD dissertation, McGill ... see John Walbridge, God and Logic in
Islam: The Caliphate of Reason (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011),
 ...

Author: Abdullah Saeed

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317974147

Category: Religion

Page: 200

View: 912

Reading the Qur’an in the Twenty-First Century considers the development of Qur’anic interpretation and highlights modern debates around new approaches to interpretation. It explores how Muslims from various theological, legal, socio-political and philosophical backgrounds think about the meaning and relevance of the Qur’an, and how their ideas apply in the contemporary world. The book: reflects on one of the most dominant approaches to interpretation in the pre-modern period, textualism, and the reaction to that in Muslim feminist readings of the Qur’an today. covers issues such as identifying the hierarchical nature of Qur’anic values, the criteria for the use of hadith in interpretation, fluidity of meaning and ways of ensuring a degree of stability in interpretation. examines key Qur'anic passages and compares pre-modern and modern interpretations to show the evolving nature of interpretation. Examples discussed include: the authority of men over women, the death of Jesus, shura and democracy, and riba and interest. Abdullah Saeed provides a practical guide for interpretation and presents the principal ideas of a contextualist approach, which situates the original message of the Qur’an in its wider social, political, cultural, economic and intellectual context. He advocates a more flexible method of interpretation that gives due recognition to earlier interpretations of the Qur’an while also being aware of changing conditions and the need to approach the Qur’an afresh today.
Categories: Religion

The Quran the Final Evidence with Scientific Facts They Dont Want You to Know

The Quran the Final Evidence with Scientific Facts They Dont Want You to Know

Thank you for reading my work.God bless planet earth & America" Information arranged & organized by Mr.Faisal This book is available on www.createspace.com, & www.amazon.com It is mentioned in the quran 1400 years ago even before scientists ...

Author: Faisal Fahim

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 1492289663

Category:

Page: 264

View: 873

THE QURAN THE FINAL EVIDENCE WITH SCIENTIFIC FACTS They Dont Want You To Know.It's a 2in1 book & it has 2 tittles inside this 1book.A must read book of dawah, Quran, Hadith & science. Allah has promised to keep The Quran same until the Day of Judgment & challenged humans to create another accurate book like Quran & said if you can't, surrender to your lord (the only way of peace& heaven).Allah (swt) Says: "Invite to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided."[Quran 16:125] Authored by Mr. Faisal Fahim Introduction of the author MR.FAISAL: Can we discover God? What does science prove? Why we were never told the facts of science & world religions? These are some questions & thoughts the author had couple of years ago. So, he began his search.During his research he looked through many different kinds of books, scriptures, Torah, Bible, Quran, biological & scientific books, world religions, history, online searches, similarities & differences of various faiths & many more informations. In his search for revealing God's true religion he organized many informations & created this book.It's book of comparative religions + religion & science. (UNLEASHING THE DISCOVERY OF GOD!!!) Top 14 Information you can learn in this book & why it's a must read book of knowledge for all:1.God definitions of various religions.2.What does Islam say about terrorism? 3.women in various religions.4.Is evolution proven by logic & science? 5.what does science say of Quran, Bible & Torah 6.The similarities & differences of world's major religions.7.Discoveries of scientific miracles in a scripture.8.Both science with religion & science vs religion.9.Moses, Jesus & Mohammad in Islam & Christianity.10. A documentary book on Islam, Christianity, Judaism & science.11.Biography of prophet Muhammad by a non Muslim.12.Biography of Muhammad(pbuh)by a Muslim.13.What do non Muslim scholars say about Muhammad.14.Complete valid well researched information about Jesus(Isa)& A research project on Abrahamic religions.A DOCUMENTARY BOOK ON SCIENCE & WORLD RELIGIONS & COMPARATIVE INTERFAITH DISCUSSIONS Message from the author: My intention is not to criticize any one's beliefe.It's okay to agree or disagree with my book.This entire book is not totally written by me.It is based on a research project done by me.The book is as the title goes.The information is arranged & organized by me & all sources of all documents or information is mentioned inside the book.Purpose of my book is to share the knowledge which is available in many sources & I have mentioned them in the book.Hope you enjoy & share my book. "The greatest creation of god is us.The true race of us the1&only us, all of us the mankind simply1race of humanity. Love is the only antidose of hate.so, love, peace&Godbless for all.knowledge is not only power but it is indeed freedom to speak out the truth of an existence and I will share it to set it free. Thank you for reading my work.God bless planet earth & America" Information arranged & organized by Mr.Faisal This book is available on www.createspace.com, & www.amazon.com It is mentioned in the quran 1400 years ago even before scientists found the genetic similarities of monkeys, apes & humans. "Say: "Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from God? those who incurred the curse of God and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil;- these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!" (Quran, 5:60)" From author: To the people who loved reading & purchasing my book.Please share my book & tell others about it.I really appreciate it & thank you very much. Sincerely, Your author Mr.Faisal Fahim
Categories:

The Big Transition

The Big Transition

6) Because a Unique God and Universal Religion exist, we need also to discover
the Universal Moral, which has been ... 7) At this point, the logic of divine creation
meets with `Islamic Jihad` and `Principle of Universal Love`, announced by ...

Author:

Publisher: Dorrance Publishing

ISBN: 9781434971975

Category:

Page:

View: 300

Categories:

Has the Bible Been Changed

Has the Bible Been Changed

This book exhorts Muslims to repent of their hypocritical double standards and their sin of unbelief and encourages them to read and obey the unchangeable Word of God as it is recorded and preserved in the Holy Bible.

Author: Daniel Wickwire

Publisher: WestBow Press

ISBN: 9781449726911

Category: Religion

Page: 112

View: 947

The Muslim Claim of Corruption In spite of the fact that a) the Qur’an requires all Muslims to believe in the Torah, Zebur, and ?njil as the Word of God, and even though b) the Qur’an clearly states that no one can ever change the Word of God, c) nevertheless, most Muslims today believe that the Bible has been changed and corrupted. The reason why Muslims have not been able to see that these claims are contrary to all logic and reason is because there are many points of conflict between the Bible and the Qur’an. Muslims have made the a-priori assumption that the Qur’an could not be wrong, and therefore the Bible must have been changed. While all Muslims are commanded in the Qur’an to honor and obey Jesus as a prophet, at the same time most Muslims refuse to read or heed the commands of Jesus which are found only in the ?njil on the pretext that it has been changed. And so the pardox remains; since there are no direct quotations of Jesus to be found in the Qur’an, how can Muslims honestly say that they honor Jesus as a prophet while at the same time they refuse to read and obey Jesus’s own words which are found only in the ?njil? At the core of these false claims of corruption is an innate hypocricy and a spirit of unbelief which needs to be exposed for what it is. The Qur’an challenges Christians to: “bring your proof (of what ye state) if ye are truthful.” (Bakara 2:111) This book takes up this challenge and provides ample proof from both the Bible and the Qur’an, as well as from historical and manuscript evidence, to show that the Bible that we have today is indeed trustworthy and reliable as the Word of God. This book exhorts Muslims to repent of their hypocritical double standards and their sin of unbelief and encourages them to read and obey the unchangeable Word of God as it is recorded and preserved in the Holy Bible.
Categories: Religion

Fear God and the Shadow of the Muslim Sword

Fear God and the Shadow of the Muslim Sword

many times a day, that's ten hadith generated every waking hour of Muhammad's
life. He was a busy man! Regardless of logic, Islam claims the Quran is divine
revelation and the verbatim word of God. The hadith were evaluated, and after ...

Author: Pat MR Pat

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 9781434394613

Category: Religion

Page: 208

View: 547

This book Mathematics Calculus has been written primarily for undergraduate Science and Engineering students in Colleges and Universities universally and more than cover the freshman calculus and part of the sophomore level. Students in Senior High at their penultimate and final years will find the introductory of each chapter practically informative, emphasis being more on the practical aspect of the subject matter. Each chapter is planned to encourage rather than to discourage students, thus assisting to remove what a growing number of new students now perceive as an unfriendly doorkeeper at the entrance to the study of Calculus in Mathematics.
Categories: Religion

Textual Sources for the Study of Islam

Textual Sources for the Study of Islam

... such as precisely how to define faith and the extent to which reason could be
used in determining the nature of God . ... than the Christian churches , the
Islamic schools of theology teach their students the logical structure of God's
qualities .

Author: Andrew Rippin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226720632

Category: Religion

Page: 209

View: 280

"[This collection] is distinguished by its wide range and the care which has clearly gone into the selection of texts for inclusion. . . . Attention has understandably been focused on what might be called the religious aspects of Islam, such as scripture, theology, sects, law, ritual and mysticism, but within those limits the texts chosen are marked by substantially of content, by geographical, chronological and social diversity, and by an intelligent use of less well known authors. . . . An excellent starting point for a systematic and analytical examination of Islam."—G. R. Hawting, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
Categories: Religion

The religion that captivated minds with its logic

The religion that captivated minds with its logic

This book is based upon selected (translated) verses from the holy book: the Quran; verses that contain logical information or reasoning with the human mind.

Author: Hatem Yahia

Publisher: XinXii

ISBN: 9783961421725

Category: Religion

Page: 126

View: 100

This book is based upon selected (translated) verses from the holy book: the Quran; verses that contain logical information or reasoning with the human mind. These verses indicate that Islam is a religion that respects, moreover rewards, thinking and contemplation. The verses present irrefutable logic that leave a person astonished as he gradually comprehends the weight of what he is presented with, leaving him thinking deeply. If a person truly grasps the logic, and is objective in his deductions without being hindered by pride, he will end up with one option: submission to the one God. But to those who doubt that the verses are from God, it is up to them to decide whether these verses are within a human's capability and knowledge to compose or if they surpass human limits. For I believe, that within everyone is a God-given innate instinct that can recognize what is unique and sent from Him. The book will be divided into sections, each section responding to a false claim via simple logic provided in the Quran. This will begin by responding to the basic claim that there is no God, and progressing systematically through the sections to reach the final logical conclusion; the truth. The purpose of the book is to encourage people to choose their religion by applying logic. It is intended for the general populace. If the book manages to activate a persons mind, setting him on the path of deep thought and self-dependence, then the book has accomplished a large part of its purpose.
Categories: Religion

Islam A Christian Approach

Islam  A Christian Approach

In Madina, Muhammad, like the Protestant reformer Calvin in Geneva, tried to
shape a society that lived in obedience to God's word. The logic of this position is
clear. If God is God, then all life should be lived in obedience to God's Laws.

Author: Marcus Braybrooke

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781291355277

Category: Religion

Page: 126

View: 853

Hostility and Prejudice between Muslims and Christians is still a threat to peace. This book shows what Christians can learn from the Qur'an and from the Prophet Muhammad. It makes clear that Muslims highly respect 'Isa' Jesus - but also tries to explain why Muslims have often misunderstood Christian teaching. On subjects such as wealth, poverty, and forgiveness. Muslims and Christians can lean from each other. Instead of a Clash of Civilizations, a 'Partnership of Faiths' is required to promote peace and justice, protection of human rights, an adequate standard of living for all people and care and respect for the natural world. Marcus Braybrooke is a retired Anglican priest and interfaith activist. He is President of the World Congress of Faiths and Co-Founder of the Three Faiths Forum. He is author of over forty books, including 'Beacons of the Light'and 'Widening Vision' and has edited the anthology '1,000 World Prayers.'
Categories: Religion

Answering Islam

Answering Islam

Thus, it would seem that the Islamic view of God's absolute unity is, by their own
distinction, not incompatible with Christian trinitarianism. In other words, the basic
Muslim logic of either monotheism or polytheism (which includes trithe- ism) is ...

Author: Norman L. Geisler

Publisher: Baker Books

ISBN: 9780801064302

Category: Religion

Page: 368

View: 758

A Christian apologist and a former Muslim compare Christianity with major tenets of Islam and give apologetic answers to prepare Christians for ministry in the Islamic context.
Categories: Religion

Muslim Identities

Muslim Identities

the debate between al-sirafi and matta b. yunus on the science of logic In an
early dialogue supplied by Abu Hayyan ... This understanding of language and
the view of God led to the reinterpretation of the Quran, especially those verses
that ...

Author: Aaron W. Hughes

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231531924

Category: Religion

Page: 328

View: 166

Rather than focus solely on theological concerns, this well-rounded introduction takes an expansive view of Islamic ideology, culture, and tradition, sourcing a range of historical, sociological, and literary perspectives. Neither overly critical nor apologetic, this book reflects the rich diversity of Muslim identities across the centuries and counters the unflattering, superficial portrayals of Islam that are shaping public discourse today. Aaron W. Hughes uniquely traces the development of Islam in relation to historical, intellectual, and cultural influences, enriching his narrative with the findings, debates, and methodologies of related disciplines, such as archaeology, history, and Near Eastern studies. Hughes's work challenges the dominance of traditional terms and concepts in religious studies, recasting religion as a set of social and cultural facts imagined, manipulated, and contested by various actors and groups over time. Making extensive use of contemporary identity theory, Hughes rethinks the teaching of Islam and religions in general and helps facilitate a more critical approach to Muslim sources. For readers seeking a non-theological, unbiased, and richly human portrait of Islam, as well as a strong grasp of Islamic study's major issues and debates, this textbook is a productive, progressive alternative to more classic surveys.
Categories: Religion

Unsaying God

Unsaying God

This is the first book-length study of negative theology in Islam. It encompasses many fields of scholarship, and diverse intellectual schools and figures.

Author: Aydogan Kars

Publisher: AAR Academy

ISBN: 9780190942458

Category: Religion

Page: 360

View: 504

What cannot be said about God, and how can we speak about God by negating what we say? Traveling across prominent negators, denialists, ineffectualists, paradoxographers, naysayers, ignorance-pretenders, unknowers, I-don't-knowers, and taciturns, Unsaying God: Negative Theology in Medieval Islam delves into the negative theological movements that flourished in the first seven centuries of Islam. Aydogan Kars argues that there were multiple, and often competing, strategies for self-negating speech in the vast field of theology. By focusing on Arabic and Persian textual sources, the book defines four distinct yet interconnected paths of negative speech formations on the nature of God that circulated in medieval Islamic world. Expanding its scope to Jewish intellectuals, Unsaying God also demonstrates that religious boundaries were easily transgressed as scholars from diverse sectarian or religious backgrounds could adopt similar paths of negative speech on God. This is the first book-length study of negative theology in Islam. It encompasses many fields of scholarship, and diverse intellectual schools and figures. Throughout, Kars demonstrates how seemingly different genres should be read in a more connected way in light of the cultural and intellectual history of Islam rather than as different opposing sets of orthodoxies and heterodoxies.
Categories: Religion

History of Islamic Philosophy

History of Islamic Philosophy

With View of Greek Philosophy and Early History of Islam I.M.N. Al-Jubouri ... God
, in Aristotle ' s metaphysics , is the First Cause : there must be something that
originates motion and this something must itself be unmoved and ... LOGIC
Aristotle is generally and incorrectly considered to have been the founder of logic
.

Author: I.M.N. Al-Jubouri

Publisher: Authors On Line Ltd

ISBN: 0755210115

Category: Philosophy

Page: 514

View: 118

Very occasionally a book appears which provides a perfect bridge between amateurs and professionals. This event is usually less likely to happen in the somewhat arcane field of philosophy and almost beyond concept in the English speaking world when the subject is entwined with the history of Islam. The finer points of philosophical issues are also discussed and presented to enable anyone, whether a scholar or not, Arabic or Westerner, to understand the truths these ancients sought.
Categories: Philosophy

Christology in Dialogue with Muslims

Christology in Dialogue with Muslims

To Muslims , the logic of Islam was so much more obvious in that God ' s
transcendence is at all times inviolable , and the ... This was certainly the reaction
of the Muslim philosopher Abū " Īsā al - Warrāq in his detailed critique of
Christian ...

Author: Ivor Mark Beaumont

Publisher: OCMS

ISBN: 1870345460

Category: Christianity and other religions

Page: 227

View: 223

Categories: Christianity and other religions