Gibraltar

The History of a Fortress

Author: Ernle Bradford

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497617189

Category: History

Page: 204

View: 7327

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Since ships first set sail in the Mediterranean, The Rock has been the gate of Fortress Europe. In ancient times, it was known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, and a glance at its formidable mass suggests that it may well have been created by the gods. Sought after by every nation with territorial ambitions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, Gibraltar was possessed by the Arabs, the Spanish, and ultimately the British, who captured it in the early 1700s and held onto it in a siege of more than three years late in the eighteenth century. The fact that that was one of more than a dozen sieges exemplifies Gibraltar’s quintessential value as a prize and the desperation of governments to fly their flag above its forbidding ramparts. Bradford uses his matchless skill and knowledge to take the reader through the history of this great and unique fortress. From its geological creation to its two-thousand-year influence on politics and war, he crafts the compelling tale of how these few square miles played a major part in history.
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Gibraltar

The Greatest Siege in British History

Author: Roy Adkins,Lesley Adkins

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0735221634

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 1006

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A rip-roaring account of the dramatic four-year siege of Britain’s Mediterranean garrison by Spain and France—an overlooked key to the British loss in the American Revolution For more than three and a half years, from 1779 to 1783, the tiny territory of Gibraltar was besieged and blockaded, on land and at sea, by the overwhelming forces of Spain and France. It became the longest siege in British history, and the obsession with saving Gibraltar was blamed for the loss of the American colonies in the War of Independence. Located between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, on the very edge of Europe, Gibraltar was a place of varied nationalities, languages, religions, and social classes. During the siege, thousands of soldiers, civilians, and their families withstood terrifying bombardments, starvation, and disease. Very ordinary people lived through extraordinary events, from shipwrecks and naval battles to an attempted invasion of England and a daring sortie out of Gibraltar into Spain. Deadly innovations included red-hot shot, shrapnel shells, and a barrage from immense floating batteries. This is military and social history at its best, a story of soldiers, sailors, and civilians, with royalty and rank and file, workmen and engineers, priests, prisoners of war, spies, and surgeons, all caught up in a struggle for a fortress located on little more than two square miles of awe-inspiring rock. Gibraltar: The Greatest Siege in British History is an epic page-turner, rich in dramatic human detail—a tale of courage, endurance, intrigue, desperation, greed, and humanity. The everyday experiences of all those involved are brought vividly to life with eyewitness accounts and expert research.
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The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068–1945

Author: Darren Fa,Clive Finlayson

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472806336

Category: History

Page: 64

View: 8892

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Gibraltar, located at the meeting points of Europe and Africa, preserves within its fortifications a rich testament to human conflict spanning 600 years. In 1068 the ruling Spanish Muslims built a large fort there. Between 1309 and 1374 Gibraltar underwent a period of intensive building and fortification, and following the Spanish reconquest of 1462 the inhabitants carried out further works. In 1704 the latest, uninterrupted period of British rule began. The 18th century saw three sieges including the most severe, known as the Great Siege, which lasted from 1779 to 1783. During World War II the 'Rock' served as a vital stop for supply convoys and naval staging base, complete with a veritable warren of secret tunnels. This book documents Gibraltar's rich history, and charts the development of these fascinating fortifications.
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Gibraltar

A Modern History

Author: Gareth Stockey,Chris Grocott

Publisher: University of Wales Press

ISBN: 0708325157

Category: History

Page: 171

View: 1145

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This modern history of Gibraltar updates and enhances scholarship on the Rock’s history by bringing together the author’s extensive archival research and developments in the secondary literature surrounding British Gibraltar. Central to its narrative is an examination of the development of a Gibraltarian community amidst British imperial rise and decline and Anglo-Spanish diplomatic vicissitudes. Gibraltar: A Modern History, is the first twenty-first century treatment of the Rock’s history and as such it augments and, in many ways, replaces older treatments of Gibraltar’s History.
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Modernism and the New Spain

Britain, Cosmopolitan Europe, and Literary History

Author: Gayle Rogers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199376700

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 304

View: 3465

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How and why did a country seen as remote, backwards, and barely European become a pivotal site for reinventing the continent after the Great War? Modernism and the New Spain argues that the "Spanish problem"-the nation's historically troubled relationship with Europe-provided an animating impulse for interwar literary modernism and for new conceptions of cosmopolitanism. Drawing on works in a variety of genres, Gayle Rogers reconstructs an archive of cross-cultural exchanges to reveal the mutual constitution of two modernist movements-one in Britain, the other in Spain, and stretching at key moments in between to Ireland and the Americas. Several sites of transnational collaboration form the core of Rogers's innovative literary history. The relationship between T. S. Eliot's Criterion and José Ortega y Gasset's Revista de Occidente shows how the two journals joined to promote a cosmopolitan agenda. A similar case of kindred spirits appears with the 1922 publication of Joyce's Ulysses. The novel's forward-thinking sentiments on race and nation resonated powerfully within Spain, where a generation of writers searched for non-statist forms through which they might express a new European Hispanicity. These cultural ties between the Anglo-Irish and Spanish-speaking worlds increased with the outbreak of civil war in 1936. Rogers explores the connections between fighting Spanish fascism and dismantling the English patriarchal system in Virginia Woolf's Three Guineas, along with the international, anti-fascist poetic community formed by Stephen Spender, Manuel Altolaguirre, and others as they sought to establish Federico García Lorca as an apolitical Spanish-European poet. Mining a rich array of sources that includes novels, periodicals, biographies, translations, and poetry in English and in Spanish, Modernism and the New Spain adds a vital new international perspective to modernist studies, revealing how writers created alliances that unified local and international reforms to reinvent Europe not in the London-Paris-Berlin nexus, but in Madrid.
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Besieged

An Encyclopedia of Great Sieges from Ancient Times to the Present

Author: Paul K. Davis

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576071952

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 4108

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Besieged examines the most important sieges in history—the actions and motivations of attackers and defenders along with conditions inside and outside the city walls. * Examines 100 great sieges, from Jericho in 1405 B.C. to Grozny in 1997 * Establishes the historical background of each siege, describes the siege itself in both military and human terms, and analyzes the results * Provides more than 75 maps as well as tactical diagrams, archival photographs, and artworks * Includes a glossary explaining unfamiliar military terms, from abatis to zig-zags
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Gibraltar and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39

Local, National and International Perspectives

Author: Julio Ponce Alberca

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472525280

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 7989

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Incorporating local, national and internationaldimensions of the conflict, Gibraltar andthe Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 provides the first detailed account of theBritish enclave Gibraltar's role during and after the Spanish Civil War. The neutral stance adopted by democratic powers uponthe outbreak of the Spanish Civil War is well-known. The Non-InterventionCommittee played a key role in this strategy, with Great Britain a key playerin what became known as the "London Committee". British interests in theIberian Peninsula, however, meant that events in Spain were of crucialimportance to the Foreign Office and the victory of the Popular Front inFebruary, 1936 was deemed a potential threat that could drive the countrytowards instability. This book explores how British authorities in Gibraltarostensibly initiated a formal policy of neutrality when the uprising tookplace, only for the Gibraltarian authorities to provide real support for theNationalists under the surface. The book draws on a wealth of primary source material,some of it little-known before now, to deliver a significant contribution toour knowledge of the part played by democratic powers in the 1930s'confrontation between Communism and Fascism. It is an important resource for anyoneseeking a more complete understanding of the Spanish Civil War.
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