Grammatical theory

From transformational grammar to constraint-based approaches. Second revised and extended edition

Author: Stefan Müller

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 3961100748

Category:

Page: N.A

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This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic the- orizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Gram- mar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective the- ory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language. The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothe- sis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are dis- cussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured. “With this critical yet fair reflection on various grammatical theories, Müller fills what has been a major gap in the literature.” Karen Lehmann, Zeitschrift für Rezensionen zur germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “Stefan Müller’ s recent introductory textbook, “Grammatiktheorie”, is an astonishingly comprehensive and insightful survey of the present state of syntactic theory for beginning students.” Wolfgang Sternefeld und Frank Richter, Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “This is the kind of work that has been sought after for a while. [...] The impartial and objective discussion offered by the author is particularly refreshing.” Werner Abraham, Germanistik, 2012
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Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity

Author: Ulrike Domahs,Hubert Truckenbrodt,Richard Wiese

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 288919809X

Category:

Page: N.A

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The starting point for this Research Topic was a Priority Programme on experimental research in phonology and phonetics which was funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) from 2006 to 2013. Based on this programme, the aim of this Research Topic is to draw together empirical work in the field of segmental and prosodic processing and representation and phonological theory. Contributions are encouraged that focus on the exploration of human cognitive, articulatory and perceptual abilities dealing with all types of phonetic and phonological entities. More specifically, papers are encouraged that address the interface of the speech sound systems investigated in phonology, the representation about articulation, perception, acquisition and processing established in phonetics and psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics. Topics of investigation could be: (1) phonological representations in the mental lexicon – specified minimally in terms of categorical phonological information or as variable phonetic imprint of the occurrences in the input, (2) sounds and sound-changing processes – systemic and functional aspects, (3) prosodic units such as syllables and metrical feet, as well as the phonological phrases that are connected to syntactic units of the sentence – systemic- properties, processing and phonetic consequences, (4) tones as building blocks of the sentence melody – their relation to the level of linguistic expressions on the one hand, their phonetic realisation (e.g., tonal height and contours) and perception on the other hand. Experimental contributions making use of behavioural methods including eye movement studies and methods like EEG, fMRI, MEG and EPA to investigate production and perception of phonetic and phonological entities are particularly welcome. We welcome original research articles, reviews, theory articles, methodological articles, as well as brief commentaries/opinion pieces (for further information see here).
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A History of German

Author: Joseph Salmons

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199697949

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 396

View: 6040

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This book provides a detailed introduction to the development of the German language from the earliest reconstructible prehistory to the present day. A key to understanding how any human language works is understanding how that language developed over time. German speakers, as well as language learners and teachers are often puzzled by many questions about the German language: How did German come to have so many different dialects and close linguistic cousins like Dutch and Plattdeutsch? Why does German have 'umlaut' vowels and why do they play so many different roles in the grammar (noun plurals and subjunctive verbs, among many more)? Why are noun plurals so complicated (-e, -en, -er, umlaut, -s or nothing at all)? Are there reasons for the different gender markings in the language (die Woche versus das Auge)? Are dialects dying out today? Does English, with all the words it loans to German, pose a threat to the language? Full, satisfying answers to many of these questions are emerging in current research and this book presents, in an accessible manner, a concise linguistic introduction to the history of German as specialists understand it today. The book is supported by a companion website and is suitable for language learners and teachers and students of linguistics, from undergraduate level upwards.
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Comparative Studies in Germanic Syntax

From Afrikaans to Zurich German

Author: Jutta Hartmann,László Molnárfi

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027233616

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 331

View: 1759

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This selection of papers presented at the 20th Comparative Germanic Syntax Workshop brings together contributions that address issues in syntactic predication and studies in the nominal system, as well as papers on data from the history of English and German. Showing a strong comparative commitment, the contributions include studies on previously neglected data on case and predicative structures in Icelandic and other Germanic languages, on the (non-)syntactic distinction of predicative vs. argument NP/DPs, on quirky V2 in Afrikaans, the pronominal system, resumptive pronouns with relative clauses in Zurich German, as well as historical papers on word-formation processes, on auxiliary selection in relation to counter factuality, and on the development of VO-OV orders in the history of English. This volume presents a wide range of studies that enrich both the theoretical understanding and the empirical foundation of comparative research on the Germanic languages.
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Nominal Determination

Typology, Context Constraints, and Historical Emergence

Author: Elisabeth Stark,Elisabeth Leiss,Werner Abraham

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027230997

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 369

View: 1799

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The following theoretical-empirical points on the DP are discussed: Article and its referential-anaphoric properties by Abraham (Determiners in Centering Theory); Bartra (On bare NPs in Old Spanish and Catalan); identification of all functional nominal categories by Stvan (Bare singular count nouns); Kupisch & Koops (Specificity and negation); Jäger (History of German indefinite determiners); typological comparison of the interaction of nominal and verbal determination by Abraham (Discourse-functional crystallization of the or­ig­inal demonstrative); Leiss (Covert (in)definiteness and aspect in Old Icelandic, Goth­ic, Old High German); Lohndal (Double definiteness during Old Norse); emergence of DP in ontogeny/phylogeny by Osawa (DP, TP and aspect in Old English and L1 acquisition); Bittner (Early functions of definites in L1 acquisition); Wood (Demonstratives and possessives emergent from Old English); Bauer ((in)defin­ite articles in Indo-European) and Stark (Variation in nominal indefiniteness in Romance).
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Perspectives on Prepositions

Author: Hubert Cuyckens,Günter Radden

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110924781

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 285

View: 6931

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In the past two decades, the study of prepositions has grown steadily. The papers collected in this volume bring together the multifaceted perspectives on prepositions that have been developed in contemporary linguistics. Some papers mainly discuss syntactic (and morphological) aspects of prepositions; other papers predominantly focus on cognitive aspects. All the papers are, however, concerned with the semantics of prepositions. This volume evolved from a workshop on prepositions held at Hamburg University on June 26 and 27, 1998.
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