German Flak Defences vs Allied Heavy Bombers

German Flak Defences vs Allied Heavy Bombers

Containing full-colour illustrations including cockpit scenes and armament views, this is the definitive guide to the much-overlooked conflict between Allied planes and German anti-aircraft defences.

Author: Donald Nijboer

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781472836724

Category: History

Page: 80

View: 782

Since the end of World War II, the strategic bombing of Germany has inspired numerous studies, countless books and several documentary films, and it is not surprising. With more than one million tons of bombs dropped, close to 300,000 civilians killed, 700,000 wounded and in excess of 3,500,000 industrial and residential structures destroyed, the Allied bomber offensive was industrial war on a grand scale. The air battle that raged over Germany has often been described as a battle between Allied and German fighters but what has been frequently missed by historians on all sides is the impact of German anti-aircraft defences (flak). Though often dismissed as ineffective and a waste of valuable material and personnel, the German flak arm made a major contribution to the defence of the Third Reich – at least half of the American aircraft shot down over Germany fell to flak, and according to the RAF Official History, it was estimated that flak accounted for 1229 of 3302 aircraft lost by Bomber Command between 1942 and April 1945. Additionally, the strategic role of flak extended beyond simply shooting down aircraft – its other, more important task was to force bombers to drop their ordnance sooner or from a higher altitude, thus reducing bombing accuracy. Both these roles are explored in depth in this detailed study of the German flak defences and of their adversaries, the Allied heavy bombers. Containing full-colour illustrations including cockpit scenes and armament views, this is the definitive guide to the much-overlooked conflict between Allied planes and German anti-aircraft defences.
Categories: History

Germany and the Second World War

Germany and the Second World War

(c) Flak Defences The flak artillery defending the skies of the Reich was still
suffering from the effects of WINDOW on its ... the improvement in sturdiness of
the Allied heavy bombers.586 To build up centres of flak defence, especially after
the.

Author: Horst Boog

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198228899

Category: History

Page: 892

View: 703

Volume VII of the 'Germany and the Second World War' series looks at Germany and her Japanese ally on the defensive after the tide of war turned in 1943. An exhaustive study of the air war over the Reich and the Luftwaffe's growing impotence is followed by an account of the invasion of occupied France and the Allies' advance to Germany's borders. A final section examines Japan's defeat and capitulation, and the creation of a new order in the Far East.
Categories: History

Air University Quarterly Review

Air University Quarterly Review

vs Massive Aerial Assault Major Soltys ' analysis of Communist antiaircraft
defenses in Korea reports many of the same frustrations ... two years behind the
level of Allied equipmentwas added the Allied offensive techniques of high -
altitude bombing , saturation raids , and radar countermeasures . The famous 88
- mm gun comprised some 70 to 80 per cent of Germany ' s heavy - flak defense ,
yet only ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:319510012205524

Category: Aeronautics

Page:

View: 503

Categories: Aeronautics

Ideas concepts doctrine basic thinking in the United States Air Force

Ideas concepts doctrine   basic thinking in the United States Air Force

The German flak defenses, firing for one minute, could have put 5,000 tons of
shells into the sky.95 Within the Ninth Air Force, flak ... But, for the most part,
strategic bomber mission planners usually ignored flak and picked target
approaches for some other ... When the back of the German air force was broken
early in 1944, antiaircraft artillery became the major combat risk for the Allied
bomber units.

Author:

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1428993193

Category:

Page:

View: 988

Categories:

Rhineland

Rhineland

the Rhine to facilitate future offensives against the German heartland , rather than
Montgomery ' s preferred “ full - blooded thrust ” to ... If all went according to plan ,
the Allies would have a bridgehead over the Rhine at Arnhem before the fleeing
Germans could establish a coherent defense . ... Nearly 1 , 000 heavy bombers
attacked German flak positions , while some 1 , 100 Allied fighters swept the ...

Author: Ted Ballard

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN:

Category: Rhineland (Germany)

Page: 35

View: 627

Categories: Rhineland (Germany)

World War II US Gunships

World War II US Gunships

YB-40 Flying Fortress and XB-41 Liberator Bomber Escorts William Wolf ... B - 17
FLYING FORTRESS Europe 1944-45 GERMAN FLAK DEFENCES Vs ALLIED
HEAVY BOMBERS 1542 45 SORRORST 13 WALD SDN DUE No : 98.

Author: William Wolf

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781472844590

Category: History

Page: 80

View: 201

The XB-40 and XB-41 were secret, little-known experimental modifications of the B-17F and B-24D, respectively, into heavily-armed bomber gunships sometimes referred to as “bomber escorters”. They were developed during early World War II in response to the lack of a USAAF long-range fighter aircraft able to escort and protect regular B-17 formations making the round trip from Britain deep into Germany. Using many formerly-classified documents from his large microfilm collection, William Wolf presents their previously-unpublished history. It describes in depth for the first time the politics and development and associated problems of both escorter types. Unfortunately, these “protecters” were found wanting in several ways - after the addition of guns and ammunition they became overweight and tail-heavy causing center of gravity problems and each encountered numerous delays in the development and delivery of their various armament additions and improvements, particularly the Bendix chin turret. In the end, the YB-40 participated in only 14 lackluster operational service test missions during mid-1943 before being withdrawn from service. The XB-41 Liberator never saw operational testing before also being cancelled for its poor performance. The failure of the gunship concept left a huge hole in the capabilities of the Eighth Air Force. Their failure, however, spurred the adoption of the Merlin-powered P-51 Mustang, the outstanding escort fighter that was key to Allied victory in the air war over Europe.
Categories: History

Elite Units of the Third Reich

Elite Units of the Third Reich

On the Russian Front , German flak units increasingly took on more anti - tank
duties as the weight of Soviet offensives ... In spite of being on the receiving end
of saturation bombing by 1000 Allied heavy bombers , the German defences
were ...

Author: Tim Ripley

Publisher: Lewis International Incorporated

ISBN: WISC:89099331159

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 713

Examines the training, missions, artillery, and leadership of special forces units in Hitler's army.
Categories: History

Flak

Flak

Tallying the Results The number of Allied aircraft shot down and damaged by
German groundbased air defenses provides one of ... Between July 1942 and
April 1945 , German flak defenses accounted for the destruction of an estimated 1
, 345 Bomber Command aircraft during night ... In terms of all types of aircraft (
fighters , medium bombers , and heavy bombers ) , the MAAF lost 2 , 076 aircraft
to flak ...

Author: Edward B. Westermann

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015053136761

Category: History

Page: 394

View: 854

Air raid sirens wail, searchlight beams flash across the sky, and the night is aflame with tracer fire and aerial explosions, as Allied bombers and German anti-aircraft units duel in the thundering darkness. Such "cinematic" scenes, played out with increasing frequency as World War II ground to a close, were more than mere stock material for movie melodramas. As Edward Westermann reveals, they point to a key but largely unappreciated aspect of the German war effort that has yet to get its full due. Long the neglected stepchild in studies of World War II air campaigns, German flak or anti-aircraft units have been frequently dismissed by American, British, and German historians (and by veterans of the European air war) as ineffective weapons that wasted valuable materiel and personnel resources desperately needed elsewhere by the Third Reich. Westermann emphatically disagrees with that view and makes a convincing case for the significant contributions made by the entire range of German anti-aircraft defenses. During the Allied air campaigns against the Third Reich, well over a million tons of bombs were dropped upon the German homeland, killing nearly 300,000 civilians, wounding another 780,000, and destroying more than 3,500,000 industrial and residential structures. Not surprisingly, that aerial Armageddon has inspired countless studies of both the victorious Allied bombing offensive and the ultimately doomed Luftwaffe defense of its own skies. By contrast, flak units have virtually been ignored, despite the fact that they employed more than a million men and women, were responsible for more than half of all Allied aircraft losses, forced Allied bombers to fly far abovehigh-accuracy altitudes, and thus allowed Germany to hold out far longer than it might have otherwise. Westermann's definitive study sheds new light on every facet of the development and organization of this vital defense arm, including its artillery, radar, searchlight, barrage balloon, decoy sites, and command components. Highlighting the convergence of technology, strategy, doctrine, politics, and economics, Flak also provides revealing insights into German strategic thought, Hitler's obsession with micromanaging the war, and the lives of the members of the flak units themselves, including the large number of women, factory workers, and even POWs who participated.
Categories: History

Victory in Italy

Victory in Italy

The success of earlier Allied operations in decreasing the area of Italian territory
under German control had increased the density of AA defences. ... As Allied
attention to the Brenner Pass increased so, too, did the flak defences, from 274
heavy and 130 light AA guns in October ... radars, smoke canisters to obscure the
gunners' optical sighting systems and deploying fighter-bombers to suppress flak.

Author: Richard Doherty

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 9781473842809

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 413

While the main focus in early 1945 was on the advance to The Fatherland, 15 Army Group's 5th (US) and 8th (British) Armies were achieving remarkable results in Northern Italy.Superb generalship (Truscott 5th Army and McCreery 8th Army under General
Categories: History

The Bombing War

The Bombing War

The Allied bombing forced the German leadership to switch aircraft back to the
defence of the Reich and to reduce ... of anti-aircraft guns: in summer 1944 there
were 2,172 batteries of light and heavy anti-aircraft artillery on the home front, but
 ...

Author: Richard Overy

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 9780141927824

Category: History

Page: 880

View: 169

The ultimate history of the Blitz and bombing in the Second World War, from Wolfson Prize-winning historian and author Richard Overy The use of massive fleets of bombers to kill and terrorize civilians was an aspect of the Second World War which continues to challenge the idea that Allies specifically fought a 'moral' war. For Britain, bombing became perhaps its principal contribution to the fighting as, night after night, exceptionally brave men flew over occupied Europe destroying its cities. The Bombing War radically overhauls our understanding of the War. It is the first book to examine seriously not just the most well-known parts of the campaign, but the significance of bombing on many other fronts - the German use of bombers on the Eastern Front for example (as well as much newly discovered material on the more familiar 'Blitz' on Britain), or the Allied campaigns against Italian cities. The result is the author's masterpiece - a rich, gripping, picture of the Second World War and the terrible military, technological and ethical issues that relentlessly drove all its participants into an abyss. Reviews: 'Magnificent ... must now be regarded as the standard work on the bombing war ... It is probably the most important book published on the history of he second world war this century' Richard J Evans, Guardian 'Monumental ... this is a major contribution to one of the most controversial aspects of the Second World War ... full of new detail and perspectives ... hugely impressive' James Holland, Literary Review 'This tremendous book does what the war it describes signally failed to do. With a well-thought-out strategy and precision, it delivers maximum force on its objectives ... The result is a masterpiece of the historian's art' The Times 'It is unlikely that a work of this scale, scope and merit will be surpassed' Times Higher Education 'What distinguishes Mr Overy's account of the bombing war from lesser efforts is the wealth of narrative detail and analytical rigour that he brings to bear' Economist 'Excellent ... Overy is never less than an erudite and clear-eyed guide whose research is impeccable and whose conclusions appear sensible and convincing even when they run against the established trends' Financial Times 'Hard to surpass. If you want to know how bombing worked, what it did and what it meant, this is the book to read' Times Literary Supplement About the author: Richard Overy is the author of a series of remarkable books on the Second World War and the wider disasters of the twentieth century. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia won both the Wolfson Prize for History and the Hessell-Tiltman Prize. He is Professor of History at the University of Exeter. Penguin publishes 1939: Countdown to War, The Morbid Age, Russia's War, Interrogations, The Battle of Britain and The Dictators. He lives in London.
Categories: History

Tail End Charlies

Tail End Charlies

Bomber Command's duties did not stop at logistical attacks. It was also called in
to destroy German strongholds that were blocking the Allied advance. Harris had
deep reservations about using his strategic heavy bombers for such sorties.

Author: John Nichol

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9781429907361

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 635

Night after night they stifled their fears and flew through flak and packs of enemy fighters to drop the bombs that would demolish the Third Reich. The airmen of the United States 8th Army Air ForceAmerican and British Bomber Command were among the greatest heroes of the Second World War, defying Hitler in the darkest early days of the war and taking the battle to the German homeland when no one else would. Toward the end of the conflict, too, they continued to sacrifice their lives to shatter an enemy sworn never to surrender. Blasted out of the sky in an instant or bailing out from burning aircraft to drop helplessly into hostile hands, they would die in their tens of thousands to ensure the enemy's defeat. Especially vulnerable were the "tail-end Charlies"---for the Americans, which meant two things: the gunners who flew countless missions in a plexiglass bubble at the back of the bomber, and the last bomber in the formation who ended up flying through the most hell, and for the British, the rear-gunners who flew operations in a Plexiglas bubble at the back of the bomber. Following their groundbreaking revelations about the ordeals suffered by Allied prisoners of war in their bestselling book, The Last Escape, John Nichol and Tony Rennell tell the astonishing and deeply moving story of the controversial last battles in the skies of Germany through the eyes of the forgotten heroes who fought them. "This is the best account that has been written of the heroic American and British bomber crews . . . the best of its kind." ---George McGovern "Rivaling the best of Stephen Ambrose's work, Tail-End Charlies gives a breathtakingly intimate look at the lives, loves, and deaths of the brave airmen of the greatest generation. This fascinating book is as valuable for its stories of joyous life on the ground as it is for its sobering tales of death in the air. You see the whole picture of the war here from the eyes of the strong young men who fought it." ---Walter J. Boyne, bestselling author of Beyond the Wild Blue "Adds new dimensions to the saga of the air war in Europe. The eyewitness accounts, reported within the context of the battle against Nazi Germany, provide a sense of the ordeals, the terror, the gore, and the heroism of ordinary men thrust into the savagery of aerial combat." ---Gerald Astor, author of The Mighty Eighth
Categories: History

B 24 Liberator Units of the Eighth Air Force

B 24 Liberator Units of the Eighth Air Force

The significance of the daylight bombing campaign has been debated , but there
is no doubt that Allied heavy bombers ... much - respected German 88 mm anti -
aircraft guns or flak , which comes from the German word for aircraft defence gun
 ...

Author: Robert F. Dorr

Publisher: Osprey Publishing

ISBN: 1855329018

Category: History

Page: 100

View: 677

Osprey's examination of the B-24 Liberator Units' participation in World War II (1939-1945). The B-24 Liberator was built in greater numbers than any other US warplane, yet its combat crews live, even today, in the shadow of the less plentiful, but better-known, B-17. Accounts of the 'Mighty Eighth' in Europe, and indeed many of the books and films that emerged from the greatest air campaign in history, often overlook the B-24, even though it was in action for as long as the Flying Fortress, and participated in just as many perilous daylight bombing missions.
Categories: History

Ideas Concepts Doctrine 1907 1960

Ideas  Concepts  Doctrine  1907 1960

The German flak defenses , firing for one minute , could have put 5,000 tons of
shells into the sky . ... But , for the most part , strategic bomber mission planners
usually ignored flak and picked target approaches for some other tactical reason
such as a course ... When the back of the German air force was broken early in
1944 , antiaircraft artillery became the major combat risk for the Allied bomber
units .

Author: Robert Frank Futrell

Publisher:

ISBN: UIUC:30112002416896

Category: Aeronautics, Military

Page:

View: 252

Categories: Aeronautics, Military

Ideas Concepts Doctrine

Ideas  Concepts  Doctrine

The German flak defenses , firing for one minute , could have put 5,000 tons of
shells into the sky . ... But , for the most part , strategic bomber mission planners
usually ignored flak and picked target approaches for some other tactical reason
such as a course ... When the back of the German air force was broken early in
1944 , antiaircraft artillery became the major combat risk for the Allied bomber
units .

Author: Robert Frank Futrell

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:30000000994446

Category: Aeronautics, Military

Page: 1454

View: 781

In this first of a two-volume study, Dr. Futrell presents a chronological survey of the development of Air Force doctrine and thinking from the beginnings of powered flight to the onset of the space age. He outlines the struggle of early aviation enthusiasts to gain acceptance of the airplane as a weapon and win combat-arm status for the Army Air Service (later the Army Air Corps and Army Air Force). He surveys the development of airpower doctrine during the 1930s and World War II and outlines the emergence of the autonomous US Air Force in the postwar period. Futrell brings this first volume to a close with discussions of the changes in Air Force thinking and doctrine necessitated by the emergence of the intercontinental missile, the beginnings of space exploration and weapon systems, and the growing threat of limited conflicts resulting from the Communist challenge of wars of liberation. In volume two, the author traces the new directions that Air Force strategy, policies, and thinking took during the Kennedy administration, the Vietnam War, and the post-Vietnam period. Futrell outlines how the Air Force struggled with President Kennedy's redefinition of national security policy and Robert S. McNamara's managerial style as secretary of defense. He describes how the Air Force argued that airpower should be used during the war in Southeast Asia. He chronicles the evolution of doctrine and organization regarding strategic, tactical, and airlift capabilities and the impact that the aerospace environment and technology had on Air Force thinking and doctrine.
Categories: Aeronautics, Military

German Guided Missiles of World War II

German Guided Missiles of World War II

This book traces the origins of these missile programmes and examines their development and use in combat.

Author: Steven J. Zaloga

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781472831934

Category: History

Page: 48

View: 492

Although not as well-known as the V-1 buzz bomb and the V-2 missile, the first German missiles to see combat were anti-ship missiles, the Henschel Hs.293 guided missile and the Fritz-X guided bomb. These began to see extensive combat in the Mediterranean in 1943. In their most famous use, the Italian battleship Roma was sunk by a Fritz-X attack in September 1943 when Italy attempted to switch sides. The serious threat posed by these missiles led to a vigorous but little known 'Wizard War' by the Allies to develop electronic counter-measures, the first effort of its kind. Besides the anti-ship missiles, the other major category of German missiles were the air-defence missiles. Germany suffered extremely heavy losses from Allied strategic bombing attacks, and German fighter and flak defences proved increasingly unsuccessful. As a result, the Luftwaffe began an extensive programme to deploy several families of new air defence missiles to counter the bomber threat, including the Wasserfall, Schmetterling, and others. This book traces the origins of these missile programmes and examines their development and use in combat. With full-colour illustrations and detailed explorations of the stories behind the missiles, this study offers a comprehensive overview of German guided missiles in the World War II era.
Categories: History

Over the Front

Over the Front

During that conflict , over 14 , 000 heavy anti - aircraft guns and their crews were
stationed throughout Germany as a defence against the Allied bomber offensive .
This was a force that would have greatly reinforced German defences on the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105112936799

Category: World War, 1914-1918

Page:

View: 170

Categories: World War, 1914-1918

The Roots of Blitzkrieg

The Roots of Blitzkrieg

73 By the time Trenchard began his strategic bombing campaign , his pilots faced
a force of 896 heavy flak guns , 454 searchlights , 204 flak machine guns , and 9
fighter squadrons covering the German homeland . 74 British and Allied ...

Author: James S. Corum

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015062548964

Category: Germany

Page: 274

View: 165

Between 1919 and 1933, German military leaders created the Reichswehr, a new military organisation built on the wreckage of the old Imperial Army. This book traces the crucial transformations in military tactical doctrine, organisation and training that laid the foundations for the Nazi Blitzkrieg.
Categories: Germany

Bombers

Bombers

On that day the Eighth lost 60 heavy bombers and their ten— man crews. ... in
which the bomber crews actually experienced the German flak and fighter
defences, this raid was probably without parallel. ... out bundles of "window", the
thin strips of silver foil paper dropped by Allied bombers to confuse German radar
images.

Author: Philip Kaplan

Publisher:

ISBN: 0760720576

Category: Bombardiers

Page: 240

View: 392

Categories: Bombardiers

Royal Air Force Quarterly and Commonwealth Air Forces Journal

Royal Air Force Quarterly and Commonwealth Air Forces Journal

Thus during Bomber Command flew 100,000 sorties by 1942 losses from fighters
and flak were about night during 1944 , and ... but this method of defence was
than bombing by aircraft in formation . forced upon the enemy because the
concenThe complete air ... save our far into Germany and beyond the range in
armies from the heavy casualties of the last which Allied air superiority was
absolute .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:$B778593

Category:

Page:

View: 518

Categories:

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aviation

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aviation

Ploesti was not subjected to another American air attack until April 1944 , when
the distance the heavy bombers had to fly to reach it had ... tional brief to carry the
Allied Combined Bomber Offen - sive to strategic targets which could not be
reached from Britain . ... yards , a mission in the campaign to disrupt German rail
communications in the Balkans to assist the Russian advance . ... Flak defences
had been increased to such a point that it was estimated that Ploesti was the third
most ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015006111549

Category: Aeronautics

Page: 2380

View: 344

Categories: Aeronautics