Geometry and Billiards

Author: Serge Tabachnikov

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821839195

Category: Mathematics

Page: 176

View: 9989

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This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisites include only the standard material usually covered in the first two years of college (the entire calculus sequence, linear algebra), readers should show some mathematical maturity and strongly rely on their mathematical common sense. As a reward, they will be taken to the forefront of current research.
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An Introduction To Mathematical Billiards

Author: Rozikov Utkir A

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813276487

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 9088

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A mathematical billiard is a mechanical system consisting of a billiard ball on a table of any form (which can be planar or even a multidimensional domain) but without billiard pockets. The ball moves and its trajectory is defined by the ball's initial position and its initial speed vector. The ball's reflections from the boundary of the table are assumed to have the property that the reflection and incidence angles are the same. This book comprehensively presents known results on the behavior of a trajectory of a billiard ball on a planar table (having one of the following forms: circle, ellipse, triangle, rectangle, polygon and some general convex domains). It provides a systematic review of the theory of dynamical systems, with a concise presentation of billiards in elementary mathematics and simple billiards related to geometry and physics.The description of these trajectories leads to the solution of various questions in mathematics and mechanics: problems related to liquid transfusion, lighting of mirror rooms, crushing of stones in a kidney, collisions of gas particles, etc. The analysis of billiard trajectories can involve methods of geometry, dynamical systems, and ergodic theory, as well as methods of theoretical physics and mechanics, which has applications in the fields of biology, mathematics, medicine, and physics.
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Bodies of Constant Width

An Introduction to Convex Geometry with Applications

Author: Horst Martini,Luis Montejano,Déborah Oliveros

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030038688

Category: Mathematics

Page: 486

View: 8717

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This is the first comprehensive monograph to thoroughly investigate constant width bodies, which is a classic area of interest within convex geometry. It examines bodies of constant width from several points of view, and, in doing so, shows surprising connections between various areas of mathematics. Concise explanations and detailed proofs demonstrate the many interesting properties and applications of these bodies. Numerous instructive diagrams are provided throughout to illustrate these concepts. An introduction to convexity theory is first provided, and the basic properties of constant width bodies are then presented. The book then delves into a number of related topics, which include Constant width bodies in convexity (sections and projections, complete and reduced sets, mixed volumes, and further partial fields) Sets of constant width in non-Euclidean geometries (in real Banach spaces, and in hyperbolic, spherical, and further non-Euclidean spaces) The concept of constant width in analysis (using Fourier series, spherical integration, and other related methods) Sets of constant width in differential geometry (using systems of lines and discussing notions like curvature, evolutes, etc.) Bodies of constant width in topology (hyperspaces, transnormal manifolds, fiber bundles, and related topics) The notion of constant width in discrete geometry (referring to geometric inequalities, packings and coverings, etc.) Technical applications, such as film projectors, the square-hole drill, and rotary engines Bodies of Constant Width: An Introduction to Convex Geometry with Applications will be a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying convex geometry and related fields. Additionally, it will appeal to any mathematicians with a general interest in geometry.
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Outer Billiards on Kites (AM-171)

Author: Richard Evan Schwartz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400831975

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 6551

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Outer billiards is a basic dynamical system defined relative to a convex shape in the plane. B. H. Neumann introduced this system in the 1950s, and J. Moser popularized it as a toy model for celestial mechanics. All along, the so-called Moser-Neumann question has been one of the central problems in the field. This question asks whether or not one can have an outer billiards system with an unbounded orbit. The Moser-Neumann question is an idealized version of the question of whether, because of small disturbances in its orbit, the Earth can break out of its orbit and fly away from the Sun. In Outer Billiards on Kites, Richard Schwartz presents his affirmative solution to the Moser-Neumann problem. He shows that an outer billiards system can have an unbounded orbit when defined relative to any irrational kite. A kite is a quadrilateral having a diagonal that is a line of bilateral symmetry. The kite is irrational if the other diagonal divides the quadrilateral into two triangles whose areas are not rationally related. In addition to solving the basic problem, Schwartz relates outer billiards on kites to such topics as Diophantine approximation, the modular group, self-similar sets, polytope exchange maps, profinite completions of the integers, and solenoids--connections that together allow for a fairly complete analysis of the dynamical system.
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Poincaré-Andronov-Melnikov Analysis for Non-Smooth Systems

Author: Michal Fečkan,Michal Pospíšil

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128043644

Category: Mathematics

Page: 260

View: 2522

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Poincaré-Andronov-Melnikov Analysis for Non-Smooth Systems is devoted to the study of bifurcations of periodic solutions for general n-dimensional discontinuous systems. The authors study these systems under assumptions of transversal intersections with discontinuity-switching boundaries. Furthermore, bifurcations of periodic sliding solutions are studied from sliding periodic solutions of unperturbed discontinuous equations, and bifurcations of forced periodic solutions are also investigated for impact systems from single periodic solutions of unperturbed impact equations. In addition, the book presents studies for weakly coupled discontinuous systems, and also the local asymptotic properties of derived perturbed periodic solutions. The relationship between non-smooth systems and their continuous approximations is investigated as well. Examples of 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional discontinuous ordinary differential equations and impact systems are given to illustrate the theoretical results. The authors use so-called discontinuous Poincaré mapping which maps a point to its position after one period of the periodic solution. This approach is rather technical, but it does produce results for general dimensions of spatial variables and parameters as well as the asymptotical results such as stability, instability, and hyperbolicity. Extends Melnikov analysis of the classic Poincaré and Andronov staples, pointing to a general theory for freedom in dimensions of spatial variables and parameters as well as asymptotical results such as stability, instability, and hyperbolicity Presents a toolbox of critical theoretical techniques for many practical examples and models, including non-smooth dynamical systems Provides realistic models based on unsolved discontinuous problems from the literature and describes how Poincaré-Andronov-Melnikov analysis can be used to solve them Investigates the relationship between non-smooth systems and their continuous approximations
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Miles of Tiles

Author: Charles Radin

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821884416

Category: Mathematics

Page: 120

View: 5299

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The common thread throughout this book is aperiodic tilings; the best-known example is the "kite and dart" tiling. This tiling has been widely discussed, particularly since 1984 when it was adopted to model quasicrystals. The presentation uses many different areas of mathematics and physics to analyse the new features of such tilings. Although many people are aware of the existence of aperiodic tilings, and maybe even their origin in a question in logic, not everyone is familiar with their subtleties and the underlying rich mathematical theory. For the interested reader, this book fills that gap. Understanding this new type of tiling requires an unusual variety of specialties, including ergodic theory, functional analysis, group theory and ring theory from mathematics, and statistical mechanics and wave diffraction from physics. This interdisciplinary approach also leads to new mathematics seemingly unrelated to the tilings. Included are many problems (with solutions) and a large number of figures. The book's multidisciplinary approach and extensive use of illustrations make it useful for a broad mathematical audience.
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Chaotic Billiards

Author: Nikolai Chernov,Roberto Markarian

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821840967

Category: Mathematics

Page: 316

View: 6991

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This book offers a complete and systematic presentation of chaotic billiards, with full proofs, exercises and illustrations. It is designed to give readers an understanding of crucial stochastic properties of chaotic billiards, including ergodicity, decay of correlations and the Central Limit Theorem. No other book offers a self-contained exposition of this new, dynamic and complex theory.
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