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ISBN: 9780198804451

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The Earth A Very Short Introduction

The Earth  A Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Martin Redfern

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019157774X

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 599

For generations, the ground beneath the feet of our ancestors seemed solid and unchanging. Around 30 years ago, two things happened that were to revolutionize the understanding of our home planet. First, geologists realized that the continents themselves were drifting across the surface of the globe and that oceans were being created and destroyed. Secondly, pictures of the entire planet were returned from space. As the astronomer Fred Hoyle had predicted, this 'let loose an idea as powerful as any in history'. Suddenly, the Earth began to be viewed as a single entity; a dynamic, interacting whole, controlled by complex processes we scarcely understood. It began to seem less solid. As one astronaut put it, 'a blue jewel on black velvet; small, fragile and touchingly alone'. Geologists at last were able to see the whole as well as the detail; the wood as well as the trees. This book brings their account up to date with the latest understanding of the processes that govern our planet. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Rocks a Very Short Introduction

Rocks  a Very Short Introduction

"In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalasiewicz looks at the structure and diversity of rocks, and the processes by which they form.

Author: Jan Zalasiewicz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198725190

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 111

Rocks, more than anything else, underpin our lives. They make up the solid structure of the Earth and of other rocky planets, and are present at the cores of gas giant planets. We live on the rocky surface of the planet, grow our food on weathered debris derived from rocks, and we obtain nearly all of the raw materials with which we found our civilization from rocks. From the Earth's crust to building bricks, rocks contain our sense of planetary history, and are a guide to our future. In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalsiewicz looks at the nature and variety of rocks, and the processes by which they are formed. Starting from the origin of rocks and their key role in the formation of the Earth, he considers what we know about the deep rocks of the mantle and core, and what rocks can tell us about the evolution of the Earth, and looks at those found in outer space and on other planets. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Geology

Geology

Jan Zalasiewicz introduces the field of geology, its fundamental role in understanding the Earth and other planets, and its economic importance in the finding and exploitation of resources.

Author: J. A. Zalasiewicz

Publisher:

ISBN: 019184277X

Category: Geology

Page:

View: 796

Jan Zalasiewicz introduces the field of geology, its fundamental role in understanding the Earth and other planets, and its economic importance in the finding and exploitation of resources. He explains how geologists work today, and describes major discoveries such as plate tectonics, and the field's exciting frontiers such as the geology of Mars.
Categories: Geology

Earth System Science A Very Short Introduction

Earth System Science  A Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Tim Lenton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191028960

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 576

When humanity first glimpsed planet Earth from space, the unity of the system that supports humankind entered the popular consciousness. The concept of the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, soil, and rocks operating as a closely interacting system has rapidly gained ground in science. This new field, involving geographers, geologists, biologists, oceanographers, and atmospheric physicists, is known as Earth System Science. In this Very Short Introduction, Tim Lenton considers how a world in which humans could evolve was created; how, as a species, we are now reshaping that world; and what a sustainable future for humanity within the Earth System might look like. Drawing on elements of geology, biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, Lenton asks whether Earth System Science can help guide us onto a sustainable course before we alter the Earth system to the point where we destroy ourselves and our current civilisation. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

The basic idea Seafloor spreading and magnetic anomalies Fracture zones and transform faults Subduction of oceanic lithosphere Rigid plates of lithosphere Tectonics of continents Tectonics of continents Further reading Index

The basic idea  Seafloor spreading and magnetic anomalies  Fracture zones and transform faults  Subduction of oceanic lithosphere  Rigid plates of lithosphere  Tectonics of continents  Tectonics of continents  Further reading  Index

In this Very Short Introduction Peter Molnar explores the impact that plate tectonics has had on our understanding of Earth : how the ocean floor forms, widens, and disappears ; why earthquakes and volcanoes are found in distinct zones ; ...

Author: Peter Molnar

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198728269

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 570

Plate tectonics caused a revolution in our understanding of the Earth. It has aided our understanding of why earthquakes and volcanoes are found in distinct locations, how oceans form and disappear, and how mountain ranges were built. In this volume, Peter Molnar explores the history and significance of plate tectonics.
Categories: Science

Planets A Very Short Introduction

Planets  A Very Short Introduction

This Very Short Introduction discusses the nature of planets and gas giants, and their rings and moons.

Author: David A. Rothery

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199573509

Category: Science

Page: 135

View: 741

This Very Short Introduction discusses the nature of planets and gas giants, and their rings and moons. It also looks beyond Pluto, in the Kuiper Belt, at the knowledge we have about planets around other stars. With many striking photos to illustrate the details, it demonstrates the unique world of every planet.
Categories: Science

Fire a Very Short Introduction

Fire  a Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Andrew C. Scott

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198830030

Category: Fire

Page: 176

View: 641

Fire is rarely out of the headlines, from large natural wildfires raging across the Australian or Californian countrysides to the burning of buildings such as the disasters of Grenfell tower and Notre Dame. Fire on these scales can represent a serious risk to human life and property. But the advent of fire made and controlled by humans also represented a crucial point in our evolution, allowing us to cook our food, forge our weapons, and warm our homes. This Very Short Introduction covers the fundamentals of fire, whether wild or under human control, starting with the basics of ignition, combustion, and fuel. Andrew Scott considers both natural wildfires and the role of humans in making and suppressing fire. Despite frightening reports of wildfire destruction, he also shows how landscape fires have been part of our planet's history for 400 million years, and do not always have to be extinguished. He also considers the problem of fires in urban settings, including new ways to prevent fires. The cost of wildfire can be steep - as well as the burning, post-fire erosion and flooding can have a great impact on both humans and the environment. It can also have a lasting effect in shaping ecosystems and plant life. Scott ends by examining the relationship between fire and the climate, and considering the future of wildfire in a warming world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Fire

Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs

"David Norman reveals how scientists combine anatomy, genetics, forensics, and even engineering design to build a picture of what dinosaurs looked like, what they ate, and how they moved and interacted with each other.

Author: David Norman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198795926

Category:

Page: 192

View: 834

Dinosaurs are fascinating creatures and their popularity seems never ending, fuelled by films such as Jurassic Park and documentaries such as Walking with Dinosaurs. Yet dinosaurs (or more precisely non-avian dinosaurs) last trod the Earth 65 million years ago. All we know of them today are their fossilised bones, the tracks and traces that they left behind and, in very rare instances, some of the soft tissues or even traces of their chemistry. In many respects dinosaurs present us with one of the ultimate forensic challenges: they comprise the fragmentary remains of creatures that died many tens of millions of years ago, rather than just recently, or a few tens of years ago, which is the problem usually faced by forensic pathologists. How much do we really know about them, and to what extent can their remains inform us about ancient worlds, and indeed about the history of our planet? In this Very Short Introduction David Norman discusses how dinosaurs were first discovered and interpreted, and how our understanding of them has changed over the past 200 years. He looks at some of the amazing discoveries that have enabled us to gain new and unexpected insights into dinosaurs as animals with natural histories and behaviours, and considers some of the biggest questions in dinosaur biology, such as the implications of them having warm blood. Norman also shows how research upon dinosaurs has been enriched, particularly in recent decades, by technological break-throughs, which complement the informed speculation and luck which have played a part in many of the major discoveries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories:

Astrobiology A Very Short Introduction

Astrobiology  A Very Short Introduction

Examines the origins of life on Earth and the search for extraterrestrial life, through an understanding of the factors that have allowed life to exist on this planet and the commonalities on others that may enable life elsewhere.

Author: David C. Catling

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199586455

Category: Science

Page: 142

View: 973

Examines the origins of life on Earth and the search for extraterrestrial life, through an understanding of the factors that have allowed life to exist on this planet and the commonalities on others that may enable life elsewhere.
Categories: Science

Volcanoes a Very Short Introduction

Volcanoes  a Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Michael J. Branney

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199582204

Category: Nature

Page: 184

View: 859

Volcanoes are some of the most dramatic expressions of the powerful tectonic forces at work in the Earth beneath our feet. But volcanism, a profoundly important feature of Earth, and indeed of other planets and moons too, encompasses much more than just volcanoes themselves. On a planetary scale, volcanism is an indispensable heat release mechanism, which on Earth allows the conditions for life. IIt releases gases into the atmosphere and produces enormous volumes of rock, and spectacular landscapes - landscapes which, during major eruptions, can be completely reshaped in a matter of hours. Through geological time volcanism has shaped both climate and biological evolution, and volcanoes can affect human life, too, for both good and ill. Yet, even after much study, some of the fundamental aspects of volcanicity remain mysterious. This Very Short Introduction takes the readers into the inferno of a racing pyroclastic current, and the heart of a moving lava flow, as understood through the latest scientific research. Exploring how volcanologists forensically decipher how volcanoes work, Michael Branney and Jan Zalasiewicz explain what we do (and don't) understood about the fundamental mechanisms of volcanism, and consider how volcanoes interact with other physical processes on the Earth, with life, and with human society. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Nature

Climate Change

Climate Change

Previous editions published as: Global warming.

Author: Mark Maslin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198719045

Category: Science

Page: 187

View: 295

Previous editions published as: Global warming.
Categories: Science

Geology A Very Short Introduction

Geology  A Very Short Introduction

SOCIAL MAEDIA Very Short Introduction Join our community. Chimborazo 47–8 climate 67–70, 113–17 coal 12, 21, 91–3, 130 concrete 99 continental drift 32–3 Conybeare, William 21 Cope, Edward Drinker 29 coprolites 101 core, Earth's 30, 41, ...

Author: Jan Zalasiewicz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192526625

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 339

Ranging across the 4.6 billion year history of the planet, geology is the subject that encompasses almost all that we see around us, in one way or another, and also much that we cannot see, beneath our feet, and on other planets. The fruits of geology provide most of the materials that give us shelter, and most of the energy that drives our modern lives. Within the study of geology lie some of the clues to the extraordinary impact our species is going to play out on the planet, in centuries and millennia to come. In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalasiewicz gives a brief introduction to the fascinating field of geology. Describing how the science developed from its early beginnings, he looks at some of the key discoveries that have transformed it, before delving into its various subfields, such as sedimentology, tectonics, and stratigraphy. Analysing the geological foundations of the Earth, Zalasiewicz explains the interlocking studies of tectonics, geophysics, and igneous and metamorphic petrology and geochemistry; and describes how rocks are dated by radiometric dating. Considering the role and importance of geology in the finding and exploitation of resources (including fracking), he also discusses its place in environmental issues, such as foundations for urban structures and sites for landfill, and in tackling issues associated with climate change. Zalasiewicz concludes by discussing the exciting future and frontiers of the field, such as the exploration of the geology of Mars. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Earth System Science

Earth System Science

This introductory text considers how a world in which humans could evolve was created; how, as a species, we are now reshaping that world; and what a sustainable future for humanity within the Earth system might look like.

Author: Timothy Lenton

Publisher:

ISBN: 0191788333

Category: Earth sciences

Page:

View: 257

The concept of the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, soil, and rocks operating as a closely interacting system has rapidly gained ground in science. This new field, involving geographers, geologists, biologists, oceanographers, and atmospheric physicists, is known as Earth system science. This introductory text considers how a world in which humans could evolve was created; how, as a species, we are now reshaping that world; and what a sustainable future for humanity within the Earth system might look like. Drawing on elements of geology, biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, it also asks whether Earth system science can help guide us onto a sustainable course before we alter the Earth system to the point where we destroy ourselves and our current civilisation.
Categories: Earth sciences

The Scientific Revolution A Very Short Introduction

The Scientific Revolution  A Very Short Introduction

Lawrence M. Principe takes a fresh approach to the story of the scientific revolution, emphasising the historical context of the society and its world view at the time.

Author: Lawrence Principe

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199567416

Category: Science

Page: 148

View: 207

Lawrence M. Principe takes a fresh approach to the story of the scientific revolution, emphasising the historical context of the society and its world view at the time. From astronomy to alchemy and medicine to geology, he tells this fascinating story from the perspective of the historical characters involved.
Categories: Science

Isotopes A Very Short Introduction

Isotopes  A Very Short Introduction

time geological record (i.e. 100 Ma to 100 Ga) with precisions of a few tens of thousands of years. A good example of UPb geochronology in action is dating of the boundary between the Cretaceous and Palaeogene geological periods.

Author: Rob Ellam

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191035500

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 396

An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

German Literature A Very Short Introduction

German Literature  A Very Short Introduction

This Very Short Introduction illuminates the particular character and power of German literature, and examines its impact on the wider cultural world.

Author: Nicholas Boyle

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199206599

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 171

View: 607

German writers, be it Goethe, Nietzsche, Marx, Brecht or Mann, have had a profound influence on the modern world. This Very Short Introduction illuminates the particular character and power of German literature, and examines its impact on the wider cultural world.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Goethe A Very Short Introduction

Goethe  A Very Short Introduction

Geology. Goethe's interest in geology originated from practical requirements. Some fifteen months after his arrival in Weimar, the Duke gave him the task of overseeing the restoration of the silver mine at nearby Ilmenau, in the hope of ...

Author: Ritchie Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191003431

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 144

View: 671

In 1878 the Victorian critic Matthew Arnold wrote: 'Goethe is the greatest poet of modern times... because having a very considerable gift for poetry, he was at the same time, in the width, depth, and richness of his criticism of life, by far our greatest modern man.' In this Very Short Introduction Ritchie Robertson covers the life and work of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832): scientist, administrator, artist, art critic and supreme literary writer in a vast variety of genres. Looking at Goethe's poetry, novels and drama pieces, as well as his travel writing, autobiography, and essays on art and aesthetics, Robertson analyses some of the key themes in his works: love, nature, religion and tragedy. Dispelling the misconception of Goethe as a sedate Victorian sage, Robertson shows how much of his art was rooted in turbulent personal conflicts, and draws on recent research to present a complete portrait of the scientific work and political activity which accompanied Goethe's writings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

Biogeography a Very Short Introduction

Biogeography  a Very Short Introduction

by geological formations—topographic and bathymetric features of the continents and oceans, respectively. Mountain chains, valleys, great canyons, rift valleys, and trenches, whether rising above or lying deep beneath the surface of the ...

Author: Mark V. Lomolino

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198850069

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 784

Biogeography is the study of geographic variation in all characteristics of life - ranging from genetic, morphological and behavioural variation among regional populations of a species, to geographic trends in diversity of entire communities across our planet's sufrace. From the ancient hunters and gatherers to the earliest naturalists, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, and scientists today, the search for patterns in life has provided insights that proved invaluable for understanding the natural world. And many, if not most, of the compelling kaleidoscope of patterns in biological diversity make little sense unless placed in an explicit geographic context. The Very Short Introduction explains the historical development of the field of biogeography, its fundamental tenets, principles and tools, and the invaluable insights it provides for understanding the diversity of life in the natural world. As Mark Lomolino shows, key questions such as where species occur, how they vary from place to place, where their ancestors occurred, and how they spread across the globe, are essential for us to develop effective strategies for conserving the great menagerie of life across our planet. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Human Evolution A Very Short Introduction

Human Evolution  A Very Short Introduction

Pioneer geologists such as William Smith and James Hutton paved the way for Charles Lyell in 1830 to set out a rational version of the history of the earth in The Principles of Geology. Lyell's book influenced many scientists, ...

Author: Bernard Wood

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191577819

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 643

This Very Short Introduction traces the history of paleoanthropology from its beginnings in the eighteenth century to the latest fossil finds. Although concentrating on the fossil evidence for human evolution, it also covers the latest genetic evidence about regional variations in the modern human genome that relate to our evolutionary history. Bernard Wood draws on over thirty years of experience to provide an insider's view of the field and some of the personalities in it, and demonstrates that our understanding of human evolution is critically dependent on advances in related sciences such as paleoclimatology, geochronology, systematics, genetics, and developmental biology. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science