Gene Conservation and Exploitation

Gene Conservation and Exploitation

We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion.

Author: J. Perry Gustafson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781489911360

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 749

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) tuber is a major food source in many countries of the world, and subsequently potato has been the target of a good deal of effort directed at engineering disease and herbicide tolerance, and improvements in various crop characteristics. Consequently investigations into the regulation of gene expression in tubers is relevant to these endeavours, as tubers are the main target organ for modification of gene expression. We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion. At the molecular level, tuber development is characterised by a massive increase in starch deposition and the synthesis of a limited number of abundant proteins. These include proteinase inhibitors and a 40kd group of proteins called patatin, which are acyl hydrolases. Together these proteins account for over 50% of tuber proteins (reviewed by Bevan, 1991). The synthesis of these proteins has parallels to the synthesis of other somatic storage proteins, especially the VSP proteins of soybean. In both potato and soybean, removal of the sink for these proteins (tubers and pods, respectively) causes deposition in other tissues (Staswick, 1990). It is hypothesised that transcriptional control of the genes encoding these proteins is regulated in part by source-sink relationships of metabolites or other factors. In the case of VSPs, both amino acid levels and jasmonic acid play a major regulatory role (Staswick et aI.
Categories: Science

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the ...

Author: J.G. Hawkes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401141369

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 482

It is a distressing truism that the human race during the last millennium has caused the exponential loss of plant genetic diversity throughout the world. This has had direct and negative economic, political and social consequences for the human race, which at the same time has failed to exploit fully the positive benefits that might result from conserving and exploiting the world's plant genetic resources. However, a strong movement to halt this loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation for the benefit of all humanity has been underway since the 1960's (Frankel and Bennett, 1970; Frankel and Hawkes, 1975). This initiative was taken up by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) that not only expounds the need to conserve biological diversity but links conservation to exploitation and development for the benefit of all. Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the adoption of a complementary approach to conservation that incorporates both ex situ and in situ techniques.
Categories: Science

Gene Conservation and Exploitation

Gene Conservation and Exploitation

We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion.

Author: J. Perry Gustafson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0306445336

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 558

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) tuber is a major food source in many countries of the world, and subsequently potato has been the target of a good deal of effort directed at engineering disease and herbicide tolerance, and improvements in various crop characteristics. Consequently investigations into the regulation of gene expression in tubers is relevant to these endeavours, as tubers are the main target organ for modification of gene expression. We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion. At the molecular level, tuber development is characterised by a massive increase in starch deposition and the synthesis of a limited number of abundant proteins. These include proteinase inhibitors and a 40kd group of proteins called patatin, which are acyl hydrolases. Together these proteins account for over 50% of tuber proteins (reviewed by Bevan, 1991). The synthesis of these proteins has parallels to the synthesis of other somatic storage proteins, especially the VSP proteins of soybean. In both potato and soybean, removal of the sink for these proteins (tubers and pods, respectively) causes deposition in other tissues (Staswick, 1990). It is hypothesised that transcriptional control of the genes encoding these proteins is regulated in part by source-sink relationships of metabolites or other factors. In the case of VSPs, both amino acid levels and jasmonic acid play a major regulatory role (Staswick et aI.
Categories: Science

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the ...

Author: J.G. Hawkes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401141371

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 824

It is a distressing truism that the human race during the last millennium has caused the exponential loss of plant genetic diversity throughout the world. This has had direct and negative economic, political and social consequences for the human race, which at the same time has failed to exploit fully the positive benefits that might result from conserving and exploiting the world's plant genetic resources. However, a strong movement to halt this loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation for the benefit of all humanity has been underway since the 1960's (Frankel and Bennett, 1970; Frankel and Hawkes, 1975). This initiative was taken up by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) that not only expounds the need to conserve biological diversity but links conservation to exploitation and development for the benefit of all. Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the adoption of a complementary approach to conservation that incorporates both ex situ and in situ techniques.
Categories: Science

Plant Genetic Conservation

Plant Genetic Conservation

The authors of this book introduce essential theories and techniques needed to describe plant genetic diversity and explain how this data can be used to plan conservation strategies and implement sustainable exploitation of plant resources.

Author: Nigel Maxted

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521806565

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 560

View: 619

The need to understand the genetic diversity of plants has become a crucial part of conservation efforts, in part, because plants provide us with much of our food, construction materials, medicines and many other products. The authors of this book introduce essential theories and techniques needed to describe plant genetic diversity and explain how this data can be used to plan conservation strategies and implement sustainable exploitation of plant resources.
Categories: Business & Economics

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

Establishing closer links between activities which promote the conservation and exploitation of plant genetic diversity. • Increased access to germplasm conservation and exploitation technology, by means of active programmes of ...

Author: J. G. Hawkes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: STANFORD:36105028640345

Category: Medical

Page: 250

View: 943

It is a distressing truism that the human race during the last millennium has caused the exponential loss of plant genetic diversity throughout the world. This has had direct and negative economic, political and social consequences for the human race, which at the same time has failed to exploit fully the positive benefits that might result from conserving and exploiting the world's plant genetic resources. However, a strong movement to halt this loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation for the benefit of all humanity has been underway since the 1960's (Frankel and Bennett, 1970; Frankel and Hawkes, 1975). This initiative was taken up by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) that not only expounds the need to conserve biological diversity but links conservation to exploitation and development for the benefit of all. Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the adoption of a complementary approach to conservation that incorporates both ex situ and in situ techniques.
Categories: Medical

The Exploitation of Plant Genetic Information

The Exploitation of Plant Genetic Information

Controversies on the use and conservation of plant genetic information have become major obstacles in international negotiations on trade, agriculture and biodiversity conservation. This book examines the origins of these controversies.

Author: Robin Pistorius

Publisher: Biotechnology in Agriculture S

ISBN: STANFORD:36105028658719

Category: Medical

Page: 231

View: 207

Controversies on the use and conservation of plant genetic information have become major obstacles in international negotiations on trade, agriculture and biodiversity conservation. This book examines the origins of these controversies. It stresses the importance of agricultural politics in directing developments in conservation and intellectual property protection. Evidence for this argument is derived from historical and contemporary data on Europe and the USA, as well as fieldwork in Latin America.
Categories: Medical

Human Exploitation and Biodiversity Conservation

Human Exploitation and Biodiversity Conservation

This book presents a wide range of contributions addressing diverse aspects of biodiversity exploitation and conservation.

Author: David L. Hawksworth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402052835

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 616

This book presents a wide range of contributions addressing diverse aspects of biodiversity exploitation and conservation. These collectively provide a snapshot of ongoing action and state-of-the-art research, rather than a series of necessarily more superficial overviews. Examples presented here derive from studies in 17 countries including Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America. These reports will stimulate future work toward attaining a sustainable balance between the conservation and exploitation of biodiversity.
Categories: Science

Fish Conservation

Fish Conservation

Written in an engaging and accessible style, the book: considers the value of preserving aquatic biodiversity offers an overview of imperiled fishes on a taxonomic and geographic basis presents a synthesis of common characteristics of ...

Author: Gene S. Helfman

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559635967

Category: Nature

Page: 584

View: 890

Fish Conservation offers, for the first time in a single volume, a readable reference with a global approach to marine and freshwater fish diversity and fishery resource issues. Gene Helfman brings together available knowledge on the decline and restoration of freshwater and marine fishes, providing ecologically sound answers to biodiversity declines as well as to fishery management problems at the subsistence, recreational, and commercial levels. Written in an engaging and accessible style, the book: considers the value of preserving aquatic biodiversity offers an overview of imperiled fishes on a taxonomic and geographic basis presents a synthesis of common characteristics of imperiled fishes and their habitats details anthropogenic causes of decline examines human exploitation issues addresses ethical questions surrounding exploitation of fishes The final chapter integrates topics and evaluates prospects for arresting declines, emphasizing the application of evolutionary and ecological principles in light of projected trends. Throughout, Helfman provides examples, explores case studies, and synthesizes available information from a broad taxonomic, habitat, and geographic range. Fish Conservation summarizes the current state of knowledge about the degradation and restoration of diversity among fishes and the productivity of fishery resources, pointing out areas where progress has been made and where more needs to be done. Solutions focus on the application of ecological knowledge to solving practical problems, recognizing that effective biodiversity conservation depends on meeting human needs through management that focuses on long term sustainability and an ecosystem perspective.
Categories: Nature

Plant Breeding

Plant Breeding

This book describes the experimental and analytical methodologies available for the genetical analysis of qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits and its applications in practical plant breeding and evolution.

Author: Darbeshwar Roy

Publisher: Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.

ISBN: 1842650068

Category: Science

Page: 701

View: 619

This book describes the experimental and analytical methodologies available for the genetical analysis of qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits and its applications in practical plant breeding and evolution. Models for studying quantitative genetic variation following Birmingham and Edinburgh notations are described. The statistics used is simple and systematic so that the reader will have no difficulty in solving problems in plant genetics. It describes the genetic principles and provides breeding procedures underlying various breeding methods for manipulating qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits. It takes into account the latest developments in breeding methodologies including dihaiploidy and apomixis, applications of tissue culture for plant breeding use, genetic engineering for production of transgenics and hybrids, and molecular marker technologies in the analysis of quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, evolution and conservation of genetic resources. This book will be useful for undergraduates, postgraduates, teachers and researchers working in the field of genetics and plant breeding.
Categories: Science

Conservation Genetics of Exploited Amazonian Forest Tree Species and the Impact of Selective Logging on Inbreeding and Gene Dispersal in a Population of Carapa Guianensis

Conservation Genetics of Exploited Amazonian Forest Tree Species and the Impact of Selective Logging on Inbreeding and Gene Dispersal in a Population of Carapa Guianensis

"The Amazon region is one of the richest areas on the planet in terms of its biodiversity and natural resources.

Author: Dominic Cloutier

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:253880069

Category: Crabwood

Page: 124

View: 597

"The Amazon region is one of the richest areas on the planet in terms of its biodiversity and natural resources. The large scale harvesting of trees in this region is a relatively new activity, and it is uncertain whether the exploitation of timber species will result in depletion of forest genetic resources. To examine this, I have assessed levels of inbreeding, gene flow, and genetic diversity in populations of Amazonian forest trees undergoing logging. Because of their high variability within populations, microsatellite genetic markers were chosen for the study, and it was verified through an initial sampling experiment that this class of markers is sufficiently stable within somatic tissue of large and long-lived trees such that population studies could be undertaken with them. By sampling adult trees and seed progenies at several microsatellite loci, high levels of gene flow and low levels of inbreeding were found within populations of Sextonia rubra and Carapa guianensis, two important insect-pollinated Amazonian forest tree species. Comparing seed progeny collected before versus after selective logging of a population of Carapa guianensis, no measurable evidence was found that that the population genetic dynamics is impacted by logging. In particular, levels of inbreeding, gene flow, and population substructure were the same before and after logging. Comparing different populations distributed over the Amazon basin, a phylogeographical structure in the chloroplast DNA of Carapa guianensis that corresponds to major tributaries of the Amazon river was discovered, suggesting that seed dispersal through rivers may contribute to genetic connectivity among populations. Overall, the results of this thesis suggest that the large effective population sizes, the high levels of gene flow, and the low levels of inbreeding in exploited Amazonian tree populations may allow them to counteract potential negative genetic impacts of selective logging, at least at the levels of harvesting carried out during this study, and for the Carapa guianensis population investigated." --
Categories: Crabwood

The Ecology Exploitation and Conservation of River Turtles

The Ecology  Exploitation and Conservation of River Turtles

Genetic Considerations in River Turtle Conservation Genetics should be viewed as "fine tuning" to be done after the "coarse tuning" of habitat protection has been accomplished. (Meffe & Caroll, 1994) Conservation biologists are ...

Author: Don Moll

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198026250

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 208

The underlying theme of this book is that a widespread, taxonomically diverse group of animals, important both from ecological and human resource perspectives, remains poorly understood and in delcine, while receiving scant attention from the ecological and conservation community. This volume proposes a comprehensive overview of the world's river turtles' ecology, conservation, and management. It begins with a categorization of taxa which inhabit flowing water habitats followed by information on their evolutionary and physical diversity and biogeography. Within the framework of ecology, the authors discuss the composition of river turtle communities in different types of lotic habitats and regions, population dynamics, movements, reproductive characteristics and behavior, predators, and feeding relationships. In a conservation and management section, the authors identify and evaluate the nature and intensity of factors which threaten river turtle survival--almost all of which involve direct human exploitation or indirect effects of human induced habitat alteration and degradation. They then list and evaluate the various schemes which have been proposed or employed to halt declines and restore populations, and make recommendations for future management plans for specific species and regions. In closing, they state their viewpoint concerning future research directions and priorities, and an evaluation of future prospects for survival of the world's river turtle species.
Categories: Science

Biotechnology and Biodiversity

Biotechnology and Biodiversity

The purpose of this book is to assess the potential effects of biotechnological approaches particularly genetic modification on biodiversity and the environment.

Author: M. R. Ahuja

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319093819

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 275

The purpose of this book is to assess the potential effects of biotechnological approaches particularly genetic modification on biodiversity and the environment. All aspects of biodiversity such as ecological diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity are considered. Higher organisms contain a specific set of linear DNA molecules called chromosomes and a complete set of chromosomes in an organism comprises its genome. The collection of traits displayed by any organism (phenotype) depends on the genes present in its genome (genotype). The appearance of any specific trait also will depend on many other factors, including whether the gene(s) responsible for the trait is/are turned on (expressed) or off, the specific cells within which the genes are expressed and how the genes, their expression and the gene products interact with environmental factors. The primary biotechnology which concerns us is that of genetic manipulation, which has a direct impact on biodiversity at the genetic level. By these manipulations, novel genes or gene fragments can be introduced into organisms (creating transgenics) or existing genes within an organism can be altered. Transgenics are a major area of concern, combining genes from different species to effectively create novel organisms. Current rates of disappearance of biological and cultural diversity in the world are unprecedented. Intensive resource exploitation due to social and economic factors has led to the destruction, conversion or degradation of ecosystems. Reversing these trends requires time to time assessment to integrate conservation and development.
Categories: Science

Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law

Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law

This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues arising from the conservation and exploitation of non-human biological resources.

Author: Charles R. McManis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315530833

Category: Law

Page: 422

View: 349

This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues arising from the conservation and exploitation of non-human biological resources. Contributors include leading academics, policy-makers and practitioners reviewing a range of socio-legal issues concerning the relationships between humankind and the natural world. The Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law includes chapters on fundamental and cutting-edge issues, including discussion of major legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. The book is divided into six distinct parts based around the major objectives which have emerged from legal frameworks concerned with protecting biodiversity. Following introductory chapters, Part II examines issues relating to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with Part III focusing on access and benefit-sharing. Part IV discusses legal issues associated with the protection of traditional knowledge, cultural heritage and indigenous human rights. Parts V and VI focus on a selection of intellectual property issues connected to the commercial exploitation of biological resources, and analyse ethical issues, including viewpoints from economic, ethnobotanical, pharmaceutical and other scientific industry perspectives.
Categories: Law

Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity and Conservation

Updated to reflect new research and developments, and with original international case studies, this excellent book remains the only introductory text to bring together the theory and practice that make up 'biodiversity' and 'conservation'.

Author: Michael J. Jeffries

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415343003

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 373

Updated to reflect new research and developments, and with original international case studies, this excellent book remains the only introductory text to bring together the theory and practice that make up 'biodiversity' and 'conservation'.
Categories: Science

The Ecology Exploitation and Conservation of River Turtles

The Ecology  Exploitation and Conservation of River Turtles

Table of Contents.

Author: Don Moll

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195102291

Category: Mathematics

Page: 393

View: 298

The underlying theme of this book is that a widespread, taxonomically diverse group of animals, important both from ecological and human resource perspectives, remains poorly understood and in delcine, while receiving scant attention from the ecological and conservation community. This volume proposes a comprehensive overview of the world's river turtles' ecology, conservation, and management. It begins with a categorization of taxa which inhabit flowing water habitats followed by information on their evolutionary and physical diversity and biogeography. Within the framework of ecology, the authors discuss the composition of river turtle communities in different types of lotic habitats and regions, population dynamics, movements, reproductive characteristics and behavior, predators, and feeding relationships. In a conservation and management section, the authors identify and evaluate the nature and intensity of factors which threaten river turtle survival--almost all of which involve direct human exploitation or indirect effects of human induced habitat alteration and degradation. They then list and evaluate the various schemes which have been proposed or employed to halt declines and restore populations, and make recommendations for future management plans for specific species and regions. In closing, they state their viewpoint concerning future research directions and priorities, and an evaluation of future prospects for survival of the world's river turtle species.
Categories: Mathematics

International Law and the Conservation of Biological Diversity

International Law and the Conservation of Biological Diversity

This work presents a thorough analysis of the biodiversity concept in international law and commentary on the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity which was opened for signature following the 1992 UN Conference on ...

Author: Michael Bowman

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789041108630

Category: Law

Page: 334

View: 879

This work presents a thorough analysis of the biodiversity concept in international law and commentary on the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity which was opened for signature following the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. This Convention is the first international treaty explicitly to address all aspects of biodiversity ranging from the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, to access to biotechnology and the safety of activities related to modified living organisms. The work extends beyond the ambit of the Convention itself to examine the conservation of biodiversity in international law generally, including measures for the protection of the terrestrial, marine and Antarctic environment and particular features relating to sustainable use of biological resources, ex-situ conservation and plant genetic resources. It further analyses the controversial issue of intellectual property rights, the problems of implementation in the European Union and the United States, differences between developing and developed states and the role of indigenous peoples. This major new work has been written by members of the Committee on Environmental Law of the British Branch of the International Law Association following an earlier study on the subject of International Law and Global Climate Change (Graham & Trotman, 1991). It is the first major study of the Convention of the context in which it was negotiated, and of the prospects for its implementation, following the entry into force of the Convention on 29 December 1993.
Categories: Law

Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean

Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean

Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean is aimed at marine biologists and ecologists, oceanographers, fisheries scientists and managers, fish biologists, environmental scientists, and conservation biologists.

Author: Maria Baker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192578778

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 107

The deep ocean is by far the planet's largest biome and holds a wealth of potential natural assets. Human exploitation of the deep ocean is rapidly increasing whilst becoming more visible to many through the popular media, particularly film and television. The scientific literature of deep-sea exploitation and its effects has also rapidly expanded as a direct function of this increased national and global interest in exploitation of deep-sea resources, both biological (e.g. fisheries, genetic resources) and non-biological (e.g. minerals, oil, gas, methane hydrate). At the same time there is a growing interest in deep-sea contamination (including plastics), with many such studies featured in high profile scientific journals and covered by global media outlets. However, there is currently no comprehensive integration of this information in any form and these topics are only superficially covered in classic textbooks on deep-sea biology. This concise and accessible work provides an understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, both at the seafloor and in the water column, and how these might be affected as a result of human interaction, exploitation and, ultimately, environmental change. It follows a logical progression from geological and physical processes, ecology, biology, and biogeography, to exploitation, management, and conservation. Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean is aimed at marine biologists and ecologists, oceanographers, fisheries scientists and managers, fish biologists, environmental scientists, and conservation biologists. It will also be of relevance and use to a multi-disciplinary audience of fish and wildlife agencies, NGOs, and government departments involved in deep-sea conservation and management.
Categories: Science