Written by security experts at the forefront of this dynamic industry, this book teaches state-of-the-art smart contract security principles and practices.
Author: Richard Ma
Publisher: Momentum Press
Written by security experts at the forefront of this dynamic industry, this book teaches state-of-the-art smart contract security principles and practices. Smart contracts are an innovative application of blockchain technology. Acting as decentralized custodians of digital assets, they allow us to transfer value and information more effectively by reducing the need to trust a third party. By eliminating the need for intermediaries, smart contracts have the potential to massively scale the world economy and unleash the potential for faster and more efficient solutions than traditional systems could ever provide. But there's one catch: while blockchains are secure, smart contracts are not. Security vulnerabilities in smart contracts have led to over $250 million USD in value to be lost or stolen. For smart contract technology to achieve its full potential, these security vulnerabilities need to be addressed. Written by security experts at the forefront of this dynamic industry, this book teaches state-of-the-art smart contract security principles and practices. Help us secure the future of blockchain technology and join us at the forefront today!
In four parts, this book helps you: • Explore smart contract fundamentals,
including the Ethereum protocol, the Solidity ... your smart contracts to an
application so users can easily interact with the blockchain • Examinesmart
contract security ...
Author: Kevin Solorio
Publisher: O'Reilly Media
Ready to dive into smart contract development for the blockchain? With this practical guide, experienced engineers and beginners alike will quickly learn the entire process for building smart contracts for Ethereum—the open source blockchain-based distributed computing platform. You’llget up to speed with the fundamentals and quickly move into builder mode. Kevin Solorio, Randall Kanna, and Dave Hoover show you how to create and test your own smart contract, create a frontend for users to interact with, and more. It’s the perfect resource for people who want to break into the smart contract field but don’t know where to start. In four parts, this book helps you: Explore smart contract fundamentals, including the Ethereum protocol, Solidity programming language, and the Ethereum Virtual Machine Dive into smart contract development using Solidity and gain experience with Truffle framework tools for deploying and testing your contracts Use Web3 to connect your smart contracts to an applicationso users can easily interact with the blockchain Examine smart contract security along with free online resources for smart contract security auditing
Build your own decentralized applications with Ethereum and smart contracts
Xun (Brian) Wu, Zhihong Zou, Dongying Song ... We will also learn how
cryptography makes the Ethereum blockchain secure. By the end of ... Chapter 4,
Solidity Fundamentals, deals with the basic features of the Solidity programing
Author: Xun (Brian) Wu
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
Atzei, N., Bartoletti, M., Cimoli, T.: A survey of attacks on Ethereum smart contracts
(SoK). In: Maffei, M. ... Grishchenko, I., Maffei, M., Schneidewind, C.: A semantic
framework for the security analysis of Ethereum smart contracts. In: Bauer, L., K ...
Author: Hossein Hojjat
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Fundamentals of Software Engineering, FSEN 2019, held in Tehran, Iran, in May 2019. The 14 full papers and 3 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 47 submissions. The topics of interest in FSEN span over all aspects of formal methods, especially those related to advancing the application of formal methods in the software industry and promoting their integration with practical engineering techniques. The papers are organized in topical sections on agent based systems, theorem proving, learning, verification, distributed algorithms, and program analysis.
Author: Abhishek BhattacharyaPublish On: 2020-03-03
No prior programming experience is assumed either. Familiarity with the basic web technologies would help, though it is not mandatory to follow this book. Table of Contents Preface Introduction Why Did We Write This Book? Part 1.
Author: Abhishek Bhattacharya
Publisher: BPB Publications
Understand Cybersecurity fundamentals and protect your Blockchain systems for a scalable and secured automation KEY FEATURES Understand the fundamentals of Cryptography and Cybersecurity and the fundamentals of Blockchain and their role in securing the various facets of automation. Also understand threats to Smart contracts and Blockchain systems. Understand areas where blockchain and cybersecurity superimpose to create amazing problems to solve. A dedicated part of the book on Standards and Frameworks allows you to be industry-ready in information security practices to be followed in an organization. Learn the very lucrative areas of Smart Contract Security, Auditing, and Testing in Blockchain. Finish to build a career in cybersecurity and blockchain by being Industry 4.0 ready. DESCRIPTION As this decade comes to a closure, we are looking at, what we like to call, an Industry 4.0. This era is expected to see radical changes in the way we work and live, due to huge leaps and advancements with technologies such as Blockchain and Quantum Computing. This calls for the new age workforce to be industry-ready, which essentially means an understanding of the core fields of Cybersecurity, Blockchain, and Quantum Computing is becoming imperative. This book starts with a primer on the “Essentials of Cybersecurity”. This part allows the reader to get comfortable with the concepts of cybersecurity that are needed to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts to follow. The next part gives a similar primer on the “Essentials of Blockchain”. These two parts at the beginning of the book allow this book to be easily followed by beginners as well. The following parts delve into the concepts, where we see a “Superimposition of Cybersecurity and Blockchain”, and the concepts and situations where we may see and understand amazing problems that systems in the current world face day in and day out. This book puts immense emphasis on helping the reader know about the Standards and Frameworks needed to be put in place to make an organization work seamlessly. Towards the end, a part dedicated to Smart Contract Security, Auditing, and Testing in Blockchain provides knowledge about what is one of the most lucrative career options and has vital importance in the field of Blockchain. Conclusively, the book tries well to make the reader “Industry 4.0-ready”, helping them in traversing through the upcoming decade of significant career options. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN By the end of the book, you should be able to understand the gravity of the concepts involved in technologies like Blockchain and Cybersecurity, with an acute understanding of the areas, such as Quantum Computing, which affect the technologies. You will also know about the tools used in Smart Contract Auditing and Testing in Blockchain. You should be able to make a career in blockchain and associated technologies going forward. WHO THIS BOOK IS FOR This book is meant for everyone who wishes to build a career in blockchain and/or cybersecurity. The book doesn’t assume prior knowledge on any of the topics; hence a beginner from any diverse field might definitely give these technologies a try by reading this book. The book is divided into parts that take the reader seamlessly from beginner concepts to advanced practices prevalent in the industry. No prior programming experience is assumed either. Familiarity with the basic web technologies would help, though it is not mandatory to follow this book. Table of Contents Preface Introduction Why Did We Write This Book? Part 1. Essentials of Cryptography Introduction Chapter 1: Cryptography Techniques Introduction Key Length Key Management Algorithmic Principles Usage Chapter 2: Cryptography Protocols Introduction Basic Components of Cryptographic Protocols Security Applications of Cryptographic Protocols Categories of Cryptographic Protocols Chapter 3: Algorithms and Modes Introduction Behind the Scene Mathematics Block Ciphers Stream Ciphers One-Way Hash Functions Public-Key Algorithms Symmetric Key Distribution using Symmetric Encryption Symmetric Key Distribution using Asymmetric Encryption Distribution of Public Keys X.509 Certificates Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) Cryptographic Attacks Key-Exchange Algorithms Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Digital Signatures With Encryption Data Encryption Standard (DES) Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) Message Digest Algorithms (MD5) Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA) Zero-Knowledge Proofs Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) Probabilistic Encryption Quantum Cryptography Part 2. Essentials of Blockchain Introduction What is Blockchain? The Need for Decentralization Demystifying Disintermediation Principles in Blockchain Architectures Chapter 4: Introduction: Distributed Consensus & Consensus Mechanisms Proof of Work (PoW) Proof of Stake (PoS) Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) and Variants Federated Byzantine Agreement Ripple Consensus Protocol Algorithm Stellar Consensus Protocol Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) Chapter 5: Types of Blockchain Public Blockchain Private Blockchain Federated or Permissioned Blockchain Chapter 6: Key Considerations for Blockchain Implementations Scalability Interoperability Sustainability Contracts Currency Application Chapter 7 : Strategic Roadmap for Digital Enterprise Adoption Convergence of Principles Legacy of Cypherpunks Digital Enterprise Use Cases Digital Transformation Perspective Decentralized Operating Models Prominent Trust Patterns Major Challenges and Constraints Chapter 8: Blockchain – The New Generation Tool for Cybersecurity Blockchain with Turin Complete State Machine Private and Consortium/Permissioned Blockchains Overview of Security Tools in Blockchain Vulnerabilities in Blockchain Security Challenges to the Growth of Blockchain Eco-system Part 3: The Superimposition of Blockchain and Cybersecurity Chapter 9: Cyberattack Prevention Strategies Evolution of Security Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) Deception Technology Cyberthreat Intelligence (CTI) Deploying Blockchain-based DDoS Chapter 10: Blockchain-based Security Mechanisms Blockchain-based DNS Alternatives Public Key Cryptography PKI Components and Functions Decentralizing the PKI System Deploying Blockchain-based PKI Identity Mechanisms Multi-Factor Authentication with Blockchain Blockchain-based Interaction Model for Security Chapter 11: Threats for Blockchain systems Cyberthreats with Public and Permissioned Blockchains Major Potential Attacks on Blockchain Networks Chapter 12: Practical Implementations and Use Cases IBM ADEPT Platform Digital Identity as a Distributed Data Structure Cyber-liability Management: A Connected Car Use Case A Smart Home Security Implementation Use Case Chapter 13: Security in Popular Public Blockchain Networks Project in Discussion: Corda Point-to-Point TLS-encrypted Communications Security using Notary Trust Pluggable Consensus Mechanism Chapter 14: Cryptography as a Digital Labor for the Integration of Distributed Finance New Generation Payment Infrastructure Powering Secure Global Finance Libra JP Money Ripple Stellar Lumens Part 4: Standards and Frameworks Chapter 15: ISO 27001 ISO 27001 Introduction Scope Terms and Definitions Structure Information Security Policies Organization of Information Security Human Resource Security Asset Management Access Control Cryptography Physical and Environmental Security Operations Security Communications Security Supplier Relationships Information Security Incident Management Implementation of ISO 27001 in Organizations Chapter 16: NIST Introduction to NIST and HIPAA HIPAA Security Rule NIST and its role in Information Security A Framework for Managing Risk HIPAA Risk Assessment Requirements Part 5: Smart Contract Security, Auditing and Testing in Blockchain Chapter 17: Smart Contract Auditing Why is a Security Audit Necessary Types of Smart Contracts Smart Contract Vulnerabilities and Known Attacks Ownership Attack Re-entrancy Attack Underflow and Overflow Attacks Short Address Attack Storage Injection Vulnerability Risks in ICO Crowdfunding Smart Contracts An Ideal Audit Process Chapter 18: Testing in Blockchain Blockchain Attacks Network Attacks User Wallet Attacks Transaction Verification Mechanism Attacks Mining Pool Attacks Security Testing Phases in Blockchain Testing Framework Quality Issues in Blockchain Practices and Governing Mechanisms Popular Tools for Testing Part 6: Blockchain Power Automation for Industry 4.0 Chapter 19: Risks posed by the ‘Smart’ Economy Paradigms Zigbee Chain Reaction Attack Controlling Drones through Blockchain for Security & Auditing Securing Robots through Blockchain Secured Access and Management of Automobiles using Blockchain Chapter 20: Summary & Conclusion: A Safer and Secure World with Blockchain-based Solutions
This book focuses on the values of blockchain across industries.
Author: Olga V. Mack
Publisher: Business Expert Press
Category: Business & Economics
This book focuses on the values of blockchain across industries. If you think that blockchain is everything you don’t understand about technology, finance, and law mixed together, then this book will help you appreciate its value more clearly. While it is a complex technology that is still largely experimental today, it will be transformative in the future. This book focuses on the values of blockchain across industries. Among other things, it explores how blockchain technology adds value to data management, security, and sharing as well as ownership, property, collaboration, and trust. It also explores the possibilities of the Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS), digital goods or dGoods, and the transformative power of small acts and micropayments.
This book offers the essentials of navigating Ethereum, clearly explained by one of the leading experts in the blockchain community.
Author: Michael G. Solomon
Publisher: For Dummies
Dive into a secure future Professionals look to Ethereum as a blockchain-based platform to develop safe applications and conduct secure transactions. It takes a knowledgeable guiding hand to understand how Ethereum works and what it does — and Ethereum For Dummies provides that guidance. Written by one of the leading voices in the blockchain community and best selling author of Blockchain For Dummies, this book demystifies the workings of Ethereum and shows how it can enhance security, transactions, and investments. As an emerging application of blockchain technology, Ethereum attracts a wide swath of professionals ranging from financial pros who see it as a way to enhance their business, security analysts who want to conduct secure transactions, programmers who build apps that employ the Ethereum blockchain, or investors interested in cashing in on the rise of cryptocurrency. Ethereum For Dummies offers a starting point to all members of this audience as it provides easy-to-understand explanation of the tools and techniques of using Ethereum. Understand the fundamentals of Ethereum Build smart contracts Create decentralized applications Examine public and private chains If you need to get a grip on one of the biggest applications of blockchain technology, this book makes it easier.
Author: James Sullivan
SALES CONTRACT □ A contract for the sale of goods under which the
ownership of goods is transferred from a seller to a ... SMART CARD □ A card
containing a microprocessor that permits storage of funds via security
programming, can ...
Author: Roger LeRoy Miller
Publisher: Thomson West
Category: Business law
This cost-effective alternative to traditional Business Law texts offers in-depth coverage of all core topics (including contracts and sales) in a brief, paperback format. It's the first book of its kind to combine a less expensive, less detailed approach with excerpted (rather than summarized) cases to illustrate key points of law. This text is perfect for single-semester courses that focus primarily on contracts and sales.
Author: Maria Grazia VigliottiPublish On: 2020-02-25
Enabling any business leader with or without specific computing knowledge to reap the benefits of blockchain whilst understanding the limitations, this book will empower you to: Identify opportunities for blockchain in your own business ...
Author: Maria Grazia Vigliotti
Publisher: Springer Nature
Category: Business & Economics
Keeping up with fast evolving technology is a challenge that every business leader faces. As organisations start to wake up to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it’s becoming more important than ever to be able to utilise and exploit new digital platforms. With the simple aim of demystifying blockchain for business leaders, The Executive Guide to Blockchain offers a jargon-free explanation and framework to better understand blockchain technologies and their impact on organizations. Enabling any business leader with or without specific computing knowledge to reap the benefits of blockchain whilst understanding the limitations, this book will empower you to: Identify opportunities for blockchain in your own business sectors Understand smart contracts and their relationship with the law Create a blockchain strategy and business case Implement blockchain technologies and maximise their potential. Written by experts in non-technical language, this practical resource can be applied to any industry, and arm you with the knowledge needed to capture the possibilities of digital business.
Barron's Confidence Index An indicator utilized by technical analysts who follow smart money rules . ... Thus on a stock index futures contract , basis represents
the difference between the stock index futures price and the value of the
underlying ... Beta A measurement of movement of a security with the market in
This is the first introductory book about it, and it will get you up and running with Red as quickly as possible. This book shows you how to write effective functions, reduce code redundancies, and improve code reuse.
Author: Ivo Balbaert
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
Discover how to use the next-generation language Red for full-stack development, from systems coding over user-interfaces to blockchain programming Key Features Explore the latest features of Red to build scalable, fast, and secure applications Learn graphical programming and build highly sophisticated reactive applications Get familiar with the specific concepts and techniques of Red development, like working with series, viewing code as data, and using dialects. Book Description A key problem of software development today is software bloat, where huge toolchains and development environments are needed in software coding and deployment. Red significantly reduces this bloat by offering a minimalist but complete toolchain. This is the first introductory book about it, and it will get you up and running with Red as quickly as possible. This book shows you how to write effective functions, reduce code redundancies, and improve code reuse. It will be helpful for new programmers who are starting out with Red to explore its wide and ever-growing package ecosystem and also for experienced developers who want to add Red to their skill set. The book presents the fundamentals of programming in Red and in-depth informative examples using a step-by-step approach. You will be taken through concepts and examples such as doing simple metaprogramming, functions, collections, GUI applications, and more. By the end of the book, you will be fully equipped to start your own projects in Red. What you will learn Set up your Red environment to achieve the highest productivity Get grounded in Red, gaining experience and insight through many examples and exercises Build simple, compact, and portable applications Analyze streams of data through Parse Compose GUI applications with View and Draw Get prepared for smart contract blockchain programming in Red Who this book is for This book is for software developers and architects who want to learn Red because of its conciseness, flexibility, and expressiveness, and more specifically for its possibilities in GUI apps and blockchain / smart contracts programming. Some knowledge of the basic concepts and experience of any programming language is assumed.
Richard M. Hodgetts, Terry L. Smart ... have begun aligning themselves into a
coalition or united front and started pushing for standard fringe benefits for all
personnel , standard wage increases , and a common expiration date for all contracts .
CHAPTER 35 SURETY BONDS AND CREDIT INSURANCE He that is surety for
a stranger shall smart for it . Proverbs , 11 : 14 ... As noted previously , suretyship
is the practice of guaranteeing obligations through a threeparty contract . ... A
debtor might offer as security for a debt a hostage , who was usually a close
Author: Emmett J. Vaughan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This classic, comprehensive book is divided into three sections. The first section examines the concept of risk, the nature of the insurance device, and the principles of risk management. This section also provides an overview of the insurance industry. The second section examines the traditional fields of life and health insurance as solutions to the risks connected with the loss of income. The Social Security system, workers compensation, and other social insurance coverages are discussed. The final section deals with the risks associated with the ownership of property and legal liability. Updated to reflect the changes in the field of insurance since 1996, and a listing of Web sites of interest.
What you will learn Understand blockchain technology and what makes it an immutable database Use the features of web3.py API to interact with the smart contract Create your own cryptocurrency and token in Ethereum using Vyper Use IPFS ...
Author: Arjuna Sky Kok
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
Implement real-world decentralized applications using Python, Vyper, Populus, and Ethereum Key Features Stay up-to-date with everything you need to know about the blockchain ecosystem Implement smart contracts, wallets, and decentralized applications(DApps) using Python libraries Get deeper insights into storing content in a distributed storage platform Book Description Blockchain is seen as the main technological solution that works as a public ledger for all cryptocurrency transactions. This book serves as a practical guide to developing a full-fledged decentralized application with Python to interact with the various building blocks of blockchain applications. Hands-On Blockchain for Python Developers starts by demonstrating how blockchain technology and cryptocurrency hashing works. You will understand the fundamentals and benefits of smart contracts such as censorship resistance and transaction accuracy. As you steadily progress, you'll go on to build smart contracts using Vyper, which has a similar syntax to Python. This experience will further help you unravel the other benefits of smart contracts, including reliable storage and backup, and efficiency. You'll also use web3.py to interact with smart contracts and leverage the power of both the web3.py and Populus framework to build decentralized applications that offer security and seamless integration with cryptocurrencies. As you explore later chapters, you'll learn how to create your own token on top of Ethereum and build a cryptocurrency wallet graphical user interface (GUI) that can handle Ethereum and Ethereum Request for Comments (ERC-20) tokens using the PySide2 library. This will enable users to seamlessly store, send, and receive digital money. Toward the end, you'll implement InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) technology in your decentralized application to provide a peer-to-peer filesystem that can store and expose media. By the end of this book, you'll be well-versed in blockchain programming and be able to build end-to-end decentralized applications on a range of domains using Python. What you will learn Understand blockchain technology and what makes it an immutable database Use the features of web3.py API to interact with the smart contract Create your own cryptocurrency and token in Ethereum using Vyper Use IPFS features to store content on the decentralized storage platform Implement a Twitter-like decentralized application with a desktop frontend Build decentralized applications in the shape of console, web, and desktop applications Who this book is for If you are a Python developer who wants to enter the world of blockchain, Hands-On Blockchain for Python Developers is for you. The book will be your go-to guide to becoming well-versed with the blockchain ecosystem and building your own decentralized applications using Python and library support.
... William, 423 Shelly, Percy Bysshe, 423, 424 Shiva, 517 The Silence, 416
Skepticism, 147ff., 173, 189ff., 24 Iff. Smart, J. J. C, ... Social contract, 261, 443,
477 Social and political philosophy, 6 Social security, 457, 458 Socrates, 14ff., 51
, 85ff., ...
Author: David Stewart
Publisher: MacMillan Publishing Company
This reader offers a broad scope and diversity of classic and contemporary selections -- and a narrative and format that presents difficult issues and readings in a simplified but not condescending manner. Covers the full range of philosophical questions. Organizes readings and narrative into topical sections, each of which addresses a particular facet of philosophical thought -- logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, philosophy of religion, esthetics, and social/political philosophy. Represents a wide range of philosophical styles and temperaments -- from Kant, Berkeley, Hume, and Descartes to Tolstoy, Sartre and Susan Sontag.
In those states that have not adopted Article 4A, contract law and tort law govern
commercial fund transfers. E-MONEY AND ... B. SMART CARDS Contain
microchips that hold more information than a magnetic stripe. Less prone to error,
and carry and process security programming (such as a digital signature). Debits
Author: Roger LeRoy Miller
Publisher: South-Western Pub
Category: Business & Economics
The Study Guide features chapter-by-chapter review, with the following for each chapter of the text: learning objectives, a brief introduction, a chapter outline, true/false questions, fill-in questions, multiple-choice questions, short essay problems (answers in the Instructor's Manual), and "Issue Spotters." Answers to all questions and "Issue Spotters" can be found at the end of the Study Guide.
... the existing employees nervous about job security, what can employers do to
build a healthy and loyal workforce while elevating the general feeling of job
fulfillment ... Mike Crissey, "Miniature 'Smart Labels' to Track Goods from the Plant
to the Pantry," 77ze Rocky Mountain News, February 25, 2002, p ... Dan Verton, "
Fighter Jet Contract a Proving Ground for IT," Computerworld, November 12,
Author: Ralph M. Stair
Publisher: Course Technology Ptr
Updated with increased focus on the effects of globalization, this concise nine-chapter text presents the timeless principles of information systems.
Feedback traders Traders who act on the basis of price changes rather than fundamentals. See Feedback, Negative ... Floor A minimum value for a security,
or for its return, specified in a contract or offered by a derivatives position. See
Author: Bruce I. Jacobs
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Category: Business & Economics
How investment strategies designed to reduce risk can increase risk for everyone—and can crash markets and economies Financial crises are often blamed on unforeseeable events, the unforgiving nature of capital markets, or just plain bad luck. Too Smart for Our Own Good argues that these crises are caused by certain alluring investment strategies that promise both high returns and safety of capital. In other words, the severe and widespread crises we have suffered in recent decades were not perfect storms. Instead, they were made by us. By understanding how and why this is so, we may be able to avoid or ameliorate future crises—and maybe even anticipate them. One of today’s leading financial thinkers, Bruce I. Jacobs, examines recent financial crises—including the 1987 stock market crash, the 1998 collapse of the hedge fund Long-Term Capital Management, the 2007–2008 credit crisis, and the European debt crisis—and reveals the common threads that explain these market disruptions. In each case, investors in search of safety were drawn to novel strategies that were intended to reduce risk but actually magnified it—and blew up markets. Too Smart for Our Own Good takes a behind-the-curtain look at: • The inseparable nature of investment risk and reward and the often counterproductive effects of some popular approaches for reducing risk • A trading strategy known as portfolio insurance and the key role it played in the 1987 stock market crash • How option-related trading disrupted markets in the decade following the 1987 crash • Why the demise of Long-Term Capital Management in 1998 wreaked havoc on US stock and bond markets • How mortgage-backed financial products, by shifting risk from one party to another, created the credit crisis of 2007–2008 and contributed to the subsequent European debt crisis This broad, detailed investigation of financial crises is the most penetrating and objective look at the subject to date. In addition, Jacobs, an industry insider, offers invaluable insights into the nature of investment risk and reward, and how to manage risk. Risk is unavoidable—especially in investing—and financial markets connect us all. Until we accept these facts and manage risk in responsible ways, major crises will always be just around the bend. Too Smart for Our Own Good is a big step toward smarter investing—and a better financial future for everyone.
Many traders look to on-balance volume to gauge the behavior of so-called smart
money, such as pension funds, hedge funds, and mutual fund companies. Unlike
individual investors, these big institutional accounts tend to trade on fundamentals rather than emotion. They generally start buying a security at the
point where ... In the options and futures markets, open interest is the number of contracts at the end of every day that have not been exercised, closed out, or
allowed to expire.