The real or virtual 'Fortress Europe' emerges because of the misled and elitist
civilizing process. Europe has been developing strong peace and security ties
with Africa motivated by its own vital interests, particularly to meet the migration ...
Author: Belachew Gebrewold
Category: Political Science
The number of African migrants attempting to enter Europe has increased. Within Europe, North African migrants are being accused of increased involvement in Islamic fundamentalism and terrorist activities after attacks on Madrid and London. Such terrorist attacks have become an urgent security concern for the European Union, forcing the EU to make migration a security policy. This volume examines the extent to which the EU is threatened by patterns of African crisis, alongside Africa's peace, security and development initiatives. The contributors analyze current migration flows from Africa to Europe, and the challenges and prospects of a comprehensive EU strategy for Africa. Intended for undergraduates, graduates and lecturers, the volume is ideal for courses that discuss the impact of African political developments on international politics.
Research Question : Extending the “ Walls ” of European “ Fortresses ” Fortress Europe was officially constructed on June 20 , 1994 when the European Union
formally closed its doors to immigrants as the Council of Ministers of the Interior ...
Author: Harlan Koff
Publisher: Peter Lang
Category: Political Science
The integration of non-EU migrants is one of the most salient issues in contemporary European politics and social scientists have dedicated significant attention to this question. Even though this field is generally characterized by its richness, its weakness has been its focus on specific aspects of immigration, such as political participation, immigrant entrepreneurship, models of citizenship, etc. This book addresses migrant integration in its complexity. First, it compares and analyzes local integration regimes because levels and modes of integration vary throughout Europe, all the way to the sub-national level. Second, the book discusses integration issues in various arenas, including political party systems, welfare regimes, social movements, civil society, economic sectors, housing, urban planning, and crime. In doing so, the study addresses the relationships between integration in various spheres, thus embracing the complexity of integration processes. Finally, the book attempts to explain the links between political, economic and social integration through interdisciplinary analysis based on power, class and status.
The European Community: <? wide open "fortress", iii. The crescendo of voices
deploring growing protectionism has concentrated much of their vigor on the European Community (EC), as epitomized by comments about emerging " Fortress ...
Fortress Europe is in the making. Against the background of war, civil war, state
failure and violent conflict in Europe's direct neighbourhood and beyond,
focusing on legal and material restrictions to immigration appears to be a
deficient and ...
Author: Annette Jünemann
Category: Political Science
An unprecedented number of people is currently on the move seeking refuge in Europe. Large parts of European societies respond with anxiety and mistrust to the influx of people. Nationalist, anti-migrant parties from Slovakia over Germany to the UK have gained increasing support among the electorate and challenge the political mainstream. Europe is struggling how to respond. While the search for solutions is ongoing one pattern seems to be emerging: Fortress Europe is in the making. Unfortunately, few of these discussions and measures consider the structural root causes and dynamics of migration, the motives of migrants or societal challenges more thoroughly. This book seeks to address this deficit. Taking migration and asylum policies as a starting point, it analyses the various dimensions underpinning migration. In doing so, it identifies why receiving countries are in many ways part of the problem. To eschew an overtly Euro-centric perspective and stimulate a debate between science and politics, it contains contributions by academics and practitioners alike from both shores of the Mediterranean.
—Seyla Benhabib The expansion of the European Union on May 1, 2004, to
incorporate eight new member states in postsocialist Eastern Europe, and its
second act of including an additional two in 2007, have been the latest in the ...
Author: Karolina S. Follis
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Political Science
What happens when a region accustomed to violent shifts in borders is subjected to a new, peaceful partitioning? Has the European Union spent the last decade creating a new Iron Curtain at its fringes? Building Fortress Europe: The Polish-Ukrainian Frontier examines these questions from the perspective of the EU's new eastern external boundary. Since the Schengen Agreement in 1985, European states have worked together to create a territory free of internal borders and with heavily policed external boundaries. In 2004 those boundaries shifted east as the EU expanded to include eight postsocialist countries—including Poland but excluding neighboring Ukraine. Through an analysis of their shared frontier, Building Fortress Europe provides an ethnographic examination of the human, social, and political consequences of developing a specialized, targeted, and legally advanced border regime in the enlarged EU. Based on fieldwork conducted with border guards, officials, and migrants shuttling between Poland and Ukraine as well as extensive archival research, Building Fortress Europe shows how people in the two countries are adjusting to living on opposite sides of a new divide. Anthropologist Karolina S. Follis argues that the policing of economic migrants and asylum seekers is caught between the contradictory imperatives of the European Union's border security, economic needs of member states, and their declared commitment to human rights. The ethnography explores the lives of migrants, and their patterns of mobility, as framed by these contradictions. It suggests that only a political effort to address these tensions will lead to the creation of fairer and more humane border policies.
The battle for Fortress Europe was a traumatic moment in the lives of all of those
who fought in it, and it ended many of them. This chapter describes the lives of
those who survived. F In his retirement, Erwin von Witzleben remained involved
Author: Samuel W. Mitcham
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
Category: Biography & Autobiography
1944 bore witness to the fifth year of World War II. As the Wehrmacht retreated, Germans still had hope. If the men of the Western Front could repulse the great invasion, dozens of units including panzer divisions, SS regiments, and paratrooper formations would arrive to thwart the Red advance. Everything depended on the Western Front's warlords. Defenders of Fortress Europe introduces men who had once believed they would conquer the world. By 1944, they were trying to throw the Allies back into the sea or just check them before they could reach Germany. The Fatherland's defense was in the hands of Nazis, non-Nazis, and anti-Nazis; professional soldiers and professional troublemakers; heroes, murderers, and war criminals; the efficient geniuses and the incompetent; famous, infamous, and the unknown; soldiers, sailors, SS men, and air force officers - all men who fought out of fanaticism, courage, personal ambition, a sense of honor, duty, love of country, misplaced patriotism, or habit--Publisher's description.
Chapter 6 European Labor Migration Quo vadis? The collapse of the Soviet
empire has triggered major changes in Western Europe. This revolution in the
political landscape has affected immigration in two respects. More generally, the
Author: Alexander A. Caviedes
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Category: Political Science
Globalization has increased international migratory pressures, but in advanced industrialized countries entrenched social interests eager to maintain restrictive policies make it difficult for governments to encourage mass migration. This book explains how countries in Western Europe have responded to this challenge by establishing sector-specific labor migration policies that are capable of managing migration toward industries with particular labor shortages while still offering the semblance of managed migration necessary to make such policy politically palatable.
European Dossier Series 15 Fortress Europe : EC External Trade Relations and
New Protectionism Nadia Tempini European Dossier Series SON HF 1532 . 92
T45 1989 PENEL HOOVER KTANFORD LIBRARIES WSTITUTION European ...
Bibliography Books Air Historical Group, Europe (Vol. 2 of The Army ... Bailey,
Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Air War in Europe (World War
II series). Alexandria ... Majdalany, Fred, The Fall of Fortress Europe. Garden City
Author: Time-Life Books
Publisher: Time Life Education
Details the German attempts to repel the Allies on the Western Front.
Conclusion It's tempting to argue that the main concerns of British immigration
policy and politics have been to maintain 'fortress Britain' on the edge of 'fortress Europe' probably because of the view that 'fortress Europe' doesn't exist, but that
Mitsui & Co . founded its first trading office in Europe ( based in London ) in 1880
, four years after the firm was founded . ... EC committee and had been quite
active in attempts to calm Japanese corporate worries about ' Fortress Europe ' .
Author: Colin Egan
This book is essential reading for anyone from any company doing business in the European single market. It describes how companies outside of Europe have developed strategies to compete successfully in this turbulent European market. The authors reveal how to meet the challenges of the new European market, highlighting key strategic and operational issues and proposing an agenda for action.
... action on the Atlantic side at the earliest possible date , regardless of exact
location . Another mission to London followed on 19 July 1942 , the team this
time consisting of Gen . Marshall , Mr . Hopkins , and BREACHING FORTRESS EUROPE.
IMPORTS OF MANUFACTURES BY THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 10 . ... It was
presumably because of this that the term " Fortress Europe " was re - invented ,
and that many outside critics claimed - to quote just one representative statement
Author: Jean Baneth
Publisher: Washington, D.C. : World Bank
Category: Business & Economics
An export-oriented development strategy has long formed a main thrust of the World Bank's advice to developing countries. This paper sets out to examine whether one of the essential preconditions for successful implementation of that advice is valid: whether industrial countries are open to developing countries' exports. On the basis of what happened to merchandise trade in the 1980s, it concludes that markets were indeed free to imports of manufactures; protectionism was largely a myth. This paper is a revised version of work first published as WPS1098. This revised version takes a somewhat more intensive look at the interactions of trade, growth, and employment in the industrial countries. It concludes that this has not been as smooth and problem-free as some enthusiastic advocates of free trade would have it. During a period of low investment and low growth, some of the potential benefits of free trade cannot be captured, while some of its costs can be immediately felt; when the most intensive competition comes from relatively low wage countries, its impact is most directly felt by labor. In such circumstances, the political attractiveness of protectionism can become huge. However, the paper decisively rejects that route. Protectionism, it argues, would veil real problems, and at best, offer a placebo for real difficulties. Industrial economies, the paper concludes, should not try to hide from competition, but improve their ability to meet it.
German intelligence organizations , and this applied particularly to the Fremde
Heere West , usually tended to exaggerate the strength of the Anglo - American
forces threatening to invade Fortress Europe . On 4 July , Kesselring , using ...
Fred Majdalany. tionary instructions about “ a new West Wall ” in mid - December
. In the early weeks of 1942 he had good reason to address himself more
precisely and in greater detail to the defence of Fortress Europe ' s western
Singled out by Foreign Affairs for its reporting on “the brutal frontiers of new Europe,” Fortress Europe is the story of how the world’s most affluent region—and history’s greatest experiment with globalization—has become an ...
Author: Matthew Carr
Publisher: New Press, The
Category: Social Science
Singled out by Foreign Affairs for its reporting on “the brutal frontiers of new Europe,” Fortress Europe is the story of how the world’s most affluent region—and history’s greatest experiment with globalization—has become an immigration war zone, where tens of thousands have died in a humanitarian crisis that has galvanized the world’s attention. Journalist Matthew Carr brings to life remarkable human dramas, based on ex- tensive interviews and firsthand reporting from the hot zones of Europe’s immigration battles, in a narrative that moves from the desperate immigrant camps at the mouth of the Channel Tunnel in Calais, France, to the chaotic Mediterranean sea, where African migrants have drowned by the thousands. Speaking with key European policy makers, police, soldiers on the front lines, immigrant rights activists, and an astonishing range of migrants themselves, Carr offers a lucid account both of the broad issues at stake in the crisis and its exorbitant human costs. The paperback edition includes a new afterword by the author, which offers an up-to-the-minute assessment of the 2015 crisis and a searing critique of Europe’s response to the new waves of refugees.
_2007.pdf Fortress Europe (Ed., 2007): “Escape from Tripoli. ... the Internet at the
21/12/2007, filed under: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2007/nov/fortress- europe-libya-report.pdf Frontex (2007): “Frontex-led EU Illegal Immigration
'It is not immigration, which causes problems - it is how it is dealt with politically. It is also not Europe, which is getting attacked - however, the walls of a fortress, are being built at the moment.' Corinna Milborn, 'Gestürmte Festung Europa...' In this study about the boat people in the Mediterranean the emphasis lies on Italy and on the EU policy on refugees in the Mediterranean in cooperation with African states. Regarding the EU policy it deals particularly with the border security agency Frontex that has access to a rapidly growing budget coming from the EU funds. The advocates of the EU politics like to stress that their policies are in the best interest of the migrants themselves, their native countries and their destination countries, which means that a 'triple win situation' can be produced. However, refugee aid and other human rights organizations criticize harshly that refugees are criminalized and that their legitimate right are not guaranteed. The author depicts state networks on illegal migration and follows the question whether the EU has the wish to grant the refugees their rights.
Much has been invested in the various images of the borders of the European
Union and its member states. The view of a 'Fortress Europe' emerged to
describe the development of policies aimed at keeping out (bogus) asylum
Author: Heinz Fassmann
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Category: Business & Economics
The papers presented in this volume form a homogeneous body of knowledge with many facets. The topics researched present a wide variety. . . This volume offers solid research on a variety of issues in the study of migration. Theodore P. Lianos, South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics The enlargement of the European Union has had an enormous impact on migration within Europe. This book addresses the form of these effects, outlining the social, political and economic problems created by the free movement of people within the European Union. The eminent European contributors to this book explore the ways in which nation states and the EU seek to promote the benefits of migration but at the same time counter threats arising from dislocation. The advantages and costs of migration are considered, as is the crucial problem of who gains and loses from migration. Underpinning the analysis are studies on retirement migrants in Turkey and migrant workers in countries including Austria, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and the UK, which highlight the impact of immigration in the host states, the motivation for migration within the EU as well as the issues of societal integration of migrants and the need for control as a consequence of growing levels of migration. This timely and relevant study will strongly appeal to scholars and researchers in a wide range of fields including European studies, migration studies, social policy, human geography, international relations and sociology.