Emulsions Microemulsions and Foams

Emulsions  Microemulsions and Foams

This book takes an interface science approach to describe and understand the behavior of the dispersions we call emulsions, microemulsions and foams.

Author: Dominique Langevin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030556808

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 317

This book takes an interface science approach to describe and understand the behavior of the dispersions we call emulsions, microemulsions and foams. The one thing all these dispersions have in common is the presence of surface-active species (surfactants) adsorbed at the interfaces between the two fluid phases that make up the emulsions, microemulsions or foams. The interfacial layers formed by the surfactants control most of the properties of the dispersions. The book describes the properties of interfacial layers, thin films and bulk fluids used in the elaboration of the various dispersions and it explains how such properties relate to the dispersion properties of these soft matter systems: structure, rheology and stability. These dispersion properties are far from being fully understood, in particular foam and emulsion stability. In discussing the state of the art of the current knowledge, the author draws interesting parallels between emulsions, microemulsions and foams that enlighten the interpretation of previous observations and point to a deeper understanding of the behavior of these materials in the future.
Categories: Science

Foams and Emulsions

Foams and Emulsions

The chapters are grouped into sections having fairly loose boundaries. Each chapter is intelligible alone, but cross referencing means that the few concepts that may not be familiar to the reader can be found in other chapters in the book.

Author: J.F. Sadoc

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401591577

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 596

View: 618

A general and introductory survey of foams, emulsions and cellular materials. Foams and emulsions are illustrations of some fundamental concepts in statistical thermodynamics, rheology, elasticity and the physics and chemistry of divided media and interfaces. They also give rise to some of the most beautiful geometrical shapes and tilings, ordered or disordered. The chapters are grouped into sections having fairly loose boundaries. Each chapter is intelligible alone, but cross referencing means that the few concepts that may not be familiar to the reader can be found in other chapters in the book. Audience: Research students, researchers and teachers in physics, physical chemistry, materials science, mechanical engineering and geometry.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Food Emulsions and Foams

Food Emulsions and Foams

The book highlights current progress in the understanding of food dispersions and describes the physical chemistry underlying the stabilization of foams and emulsions.

Author: Eric Dickinson

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: UOM:39015041784482

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 456

Food Emulsions and Foams: Interfaces, Interactions and Stability is the latest addition to a continuing series of volumes on food colloids published by The Royal Society of Chemistry. The book highlights current progress in the understanding of food dispersions and describes the physical chemistry underlying the stabilization of foams and emulsions. Key topics covered include colloid stabilization by polymers, mechanisms of destabilization, theory and simulation of aggregation and gelation, rheology of food colloids, surface rheology of adsorbed protein layers, protein-surfactant and protein-polysaccharide interactions, preparation of emulsions and foams and processing effects on protein functionality. Much of the emphasis is placed on relating behaviour of model systems, to properties of adsorbed layers at oil-water and air-water interfaces. Review articles and the latest experimental and theoretical developments are also included in the text. Any individual active in the areas of food science or surface and colloid chemistry research, whether in academia or industry, will doubtless find this a very useful information source.
Categories: Science

Emulsions Foams and Suspensions

Emulsions  Foams  and Suspensions

The author assumes no prior knowledge of colloid chemistry and, with its glossary of key terms, complete cross-referencing and indexing, this is a must-have for graduate and professional scientists and engineers who may encounter or use ...

Author: Laurier L. Schramm

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527606887

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 595

Until now colloid science books have either been theoretical, or focused on specific types of dispersion, or on specific applications. This then is the first book to provide an integrated introduction to the nature, formation and occurrence, stability, propagation, and uses of the most common types of colloidal dispersion in the process-related industries. The primary focus is on the applications of the principles, paying attention to practical processes and problems. This is done both as part of the treatment of the fundamentals, where appropriate, and also in the separate sections devoted to specific kinds of industries. Throughout, the treatment is integrated, with the principles of colloid and interface science common to each dispersion type presented for each major physical property class, followed by separate treatments of features unique to emulsions, foams, or suspensions. The first half of the book introduces the fundamental principles, introducing readers to suspension formation and stability, characterization, and flow properties, emphasizing practical aspects throughout. The following chapters discuss a wide range of industrial applications and examples, serving to emphasize the different methodologies that have been successfully applied. Overall, the book shows how to approach making emulsions, foams, and suspensions with different useful properties, how to propagate them, and how to prevent their formation or destabilize them if necessary. The author assumes no prior knowledge of colloid chemistry and, with its glossary of key terms, complete cross-referencing and indexing, this is a must-have for graduate and professional scientists and engineers who may encounter or use emulsions, foams, or suspensions, or combinations thereof, whether in process design, industrial production, or in related R&D fields.
Categories: Science

Multifunctional Foams and Emulsions for Subsurface Applications

Multifunctional Foams and Emulsions for Subsurface Applications

The advantages of these novel acid-in-air powders over conventional acid-in-oil emulsions (which are typically used for shale acidization processes) were illustrated in terms of the thermal stability, corrosion inhibition efficiency, and ...

Author: Robin Singh (Ph. D.)

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1024147948

Category:

Page: 498

View: 629

Foams and emulsions hold immense potential in assisting in the different stages of oil recovery processes such as enhanced oil recovery, drilling, and completion. This work is focused on developing robust, multifunctional foams or emulsions for subsurface applications, which offer unique advantages over conventional methods. The first half of the dissertation is focused on investigating novel foams stabilized using nanoparticles and/or surfactants to improve the gas enhanced oil recovery process. Gas flooding often has poor volumetric sweep efficiency due to viscous fingering, channeling, and gravity override. Foam is a promising tool to improve sweep efficiency in gas floods. It can reduce the mobility of gas by several orders of magnitude by increasing its apparent viscosity while keeping the liquid phase mobility unchanged. For sandstone reservoirs, which are typically water-wet in nature, two different approaches of foam stabilization using nanoparticles were developed. In the first approach, synergistic stabilization of foams with a mixture of hydrophilic nanoparticles and an anionic surfactant was investigated. Foam stability experiments in bulk and porous media tests showed that adding hydrophilic nanoparticles to surfactant formulations increases the foam stability. Microscopy revealed that nanoparticles are trapped in lamellae as well as at the Gibbs-Plateau borders. These nanoparticles act as physical barriers and retard the liquid drainage and the Ostwald ripening process. To fundamentally understand the role of nanoparticles in altering the foam dynamics in porous media, a high-pressure visualization experiment was performed in a 2D layered, heterogeneous porous media. This experiment showed that immiscible foams can result in significant incremental oil recovery of 25% to 34% OOIP (over waterflood). In the second approach, foam stabilized using in-situ surface-activated nanoparticles without any surfactant was explored as an EOR agent. The surface chemistry of the hydrophilic nanoparticles was tailored by adsorption of a small amount of short-chain surface modifiers to obtain surface-modified nanoparticles (SM-NP). Foam stabilization using these SM-NP was compared with that using a conventional surfactant to evaluate the potential of these SM-NP to act as an effective foaming agent. Carbonate reservoirs, which are typically highly heterogeneous and oil-wet in nature, pose additional challenges for an effective foam EOR process. Crude oils are typically detrimental to foam stability. An oil-wet carbonate will have a thin oil film on the surface and thus foam lamellae stabilization is challenging. Therefore, wettability-alteration of rock matrix toward water-wet condition using a surfactant is required to favor the in-situ foam stability. This work demonstrated for the first time a synergistic approach of using foams with wettability-altering capabilities for oil-wet systems. It was shown that optimal surfactant formulations can not only alter the wettability of a carbonate core from oil-wet to water-wet conditions, but also can significantly increase the in-situ foam stability even in presence of crude oil. The second half of the dissertation is focused on developing novel microencapsulation techniques using the concept of water-in-air powders for subsurface applications. A facile, one-step method was reported to encapsulate micro- or nano-sized hydrophilic particles using silica nanoparticles. The encapsulated particles can be released based on an external stimulus, such as a change in pH of the external continuous phase. The use of this novel carrier system was demonstrated for the delayed release of PPG particles for conformance control. The application of this technology was then explored for microencapsulating highly concentrated acids (~10 wt.% HCl) for acid treatment of shales. The advantages of these novel acid-in-air powders over conventional acid-in-oil emulsions (which are typically used for shale acidization processes) were illustrated in terms of the thermal stability, corrosion inhibition efficiency, and shale surface reactivity.
Categories:

Protein Stabilised Foams and Emulsions

Protein Stabilised Foams and Emulsions

A critical analysis of research papers by the author on the interfacial mechanisms controlling the stability of protein stabilised foams and emulsions.

Author: Consultant Cardiac Radiologist Peter Wilde

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3848416204

Category:

Page: 64

View: 743

A critical analysis of research papers by the author on the interfacial mechanisms controlling the stability of protein stabilised foams and emulsions. Proteins can stabilise foams and emulsions, by forming a visco-elastic adsorbed layer on the surface of the bubbles and droplets. The influence of protein molecular structure and the competitive adsorption of surfactants on the interfacial properties and the subsequent effects on foam and emulsion stability are presented. Approaches to increase the resistance to competitive adsorption through using hydrophobic proteins and highly elastic interfaces are described. The displacement of proteins from interfaces by surfactants was found to be a physical displacement process which heavily depended on the visco-elasticity of the protein adsorbed layer. Finally, approaches to protect foams against competitive destabilisation using lipid binding proteins, and non-covalent crosslinking proteins at the interface are shown. This caused in increase in surface elasticity, and hence improved foam stability.
Categories:

Foams and Emulsions

Foams and Emulsions

The chapters are grouped into sections having fairly loose boundaries. Each chapter is intelligible alone, but cross referencing means that the few concepts that may not be familiar to the reader can be found in other chapters in the book.

Author: J.F. Sadoc

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 940159158X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 596

View: 984

A general and introductory survey of foams, emulsions and cellular materials. Foams and emulsions are illustrations of some fundamental concepts in statistical thermodynamics, rheology, elasticity and the physics and chemistry of divided media and interfaces. They also give rise to some of the most beautiful geometrical shapes and tilings, ordered or disordered. The chapters are grouped into sections having fairly loose boundaries. Each chapter is intelligible alone, but cross referencing means that the few concepts that may not be familiar to the reader can be found in other chapters in the book. Audience: Research students, researchers and teachers in physics, physical chemistry, materials science, mechanical engineering and geometry.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Ion Specific Effect in Stability of Foams and Emulsions

Ion Specific Effect in Stability of Foams and Emulsions

Stability of aqueous foams and hexane-in-water emulsions prepared with aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (viz. SDS) and three 1:1 salts (viz. LiCl, NaCl and CsCl) was studied in this work.

Author: Shailesh Varade

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3659579858

Category:

Page: 84

View: 127

Stability of foams and emulsions is of great importance in a large number of applications such as mineral processing, food stabilization and oil recovery. In many of these applications, inorganic salts are present in the aqueous phase along with surfactant. These salts strongly influence the adsorption characteristics of ionic surfactants. Stability of aqueous foams and hexane-in-water emulsions prepared with aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (viz. SDS) and three 1:1 salts (viz. LiCl, NaCl and CsCl) was studied in this work. The ion-specific behavior of the salts was the main focus of this study. The effectiveness of these salts in defoaming followed the sequence: LiCl > NaCl > CsCl. The same trend was observed in destabilizing the emulsions. The present work demonstrates that the ion-specific effect plays a significant role in the foaming properties of anionic surfactant solutions, size of the droplets in an emulsion, and the rate of destabilization of emulsions. It is possible to control the foam volume and emulsion stability by using different counterions of the same valence.
Categories:

Food Emulsions and Foams

Food Emulsions and Foams

Instead, I shall briefly review some aspects of importance for food emulsions and foams. Let us begin by mentioning some differences between, on the one hand, colloidal suspensions and, on the other hand, foams and emulsions.

Author: E. Dickinson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781845698300

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 290

View: 142

This text explains how properties of the system are affected by such factors as the crystallisation of the fat, the surface behaviour of the proteins, and presence of various small molecules and ions in the aqueous phase.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Emulsions Foams and Thin Films

Emulsions  Foams  and Thin Films

This commonality determines various surface properties , microstructures , and macroscopic properties of surfactant solutions , monolayers , foams , and emulsions , yielding “ master diagrams ” in support of this statement . 1.

Author: K.L. Mittal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824703669

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 520

View: 485

This volume presents the acomplishments of over 85 internationlly renowned scientists whose work was influenced by Professor Wasan's groundbreaking research on interfacial phenomena at The Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Multiphase Mixtures

Multiphase Mixtures

These classes of mixtures appear, at first glance, to be physically disparate. However, it will be demonstrated, in this book, that there exist great similarities between the physics that underpin the behavior of these different classes.

Author: Paul Stevenson

Publisher:

ISBN: 0470380225

Category:

Page: 500

View: 391

Mixtures of different phases of matter are commonly found in unit operations of chemical engineering and minerals processing. Such classes of mixtures include bubbly liquids, fluidized particles, suspensions foams and emulsions. These classes of mixtures appear, at first glance, to be physically disparate. However, it will be demonstrated, in this book, that there exist great similarities between the physics that underpin the behavior of these different classes. Various unit operations in which multiphase mixtures are found are described and methods commonly used to enhance phase segregation are explained. Copious worked examples are given to aid reader comprehension. The material presented is suitable for the undergraduate who wishes to gain a broad understanding of multiphase mixtures, and the practicing engineer who seeks information on a specific class of mixture, alike.
Categories:

Wettability of Solid Particles in Relation to Particle stabilised Foams and Emulsions

Wettability of Solid Particles in Relation to Particle stabilised Foams and Emulsions

One of the main aims of this work was to develop the Film Calliper Method for measuring contact angles at oil -water interfaces.

Author: Karl Matthew Reed

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:809549612

Category:

Page:

View: 747

Colloidal particles and surfactants are commonly used, either individually or combined, as stabilisers of emulsions and foams. While the properties of surfactants and particles under a range of conditions and concentrations are relatively well known, there are some areas that require further investigation. The wettability of colloidal particles is one of the main factors that determine how they behave in a given system but determining the wettability is difficult due to the small size of the particles. The Film Calliper Method (FCM) has been proposed as a simple technique for the direct measurement of the contact angles of micrometer and submicrometer particles in their natural environment. One of the main aims of this work was to develop the Film Calliper Method for measuring contact angles at oil -water interfaces. The FCM was therefore used to measure the contact angles at oil - water interfaces for a range of particles, such as latex and silica particles, in different systems. For the first time directly measured contact angles are linked to the types of emulsions stabilised by the particles. The FCM was also used to directly measure the contact angles of silica particles in cationic surfactant solutions at air and oil interfaces for the first time. The stability of foams and emulsions made with particle - surfactant mixtures were investigated and related to the particle contact angles. Janus particles are a special category of particles which have different properties on each hemisphere. A method for making Janus particles was developed using template silica particles masked with a polymerised Pickering emulsion. The portion of surface exposed for treating can be tuned by controlling the inherent wettability of the template particles as proven with fluorescence microscopy. Emulsions stabilised by amphiphilic Janus particles made with the method are compared with emulsions stabilised by homogeneous particles with similar wettability.
Categories:

Structure and Functional Properties of Colloidal Systems

Structure and Functional Properties of Colloidal Systems

Interfacial. Phenomena. Underlying. the. Behavior. of. Foams. and. Emulsions. Julia Maldonado-Valderrama, Antonio Martín-Rodríguez, Miguel A. Cabrerizo-Vílchez, and María Jose Gálvez Ruiz CONTENTS 10.1 Introduction .

Author: Roque Hidalgo-Alvarez

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142008447X

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 678

Integrating fundamental research with the technical applications of this rapidly evolving field, Structure and Functional Properties of Colloidal Systems clearly presents the connections between structure and functional aspects in colloid and interface science. It explores the physical fundamentals of colloid science, new developments of synthesis and conditioning, and many possible applications. Theory Divided into three parts, the book begins with a discussion of the theoretical side of colloid dynamics. It then transitions to dynamically arrested states and capillary forces in colloidal systems at fluid interfaces. Structure Covering the structural aspects of different colloidal systems, the second section examines electric double layers and effective interactions as well as the structure of extremely bimodal suspensions and filaments made up of microsized magnetic particles. The contributors analyze the role played by the attractive interaction, confinement, and external fields on the structure of colloidal systems. They also discuss structural aspects in food emulsions and the rheological properties of structured fluids. Functional Materials The last part focuses on examples of functional colloids. These include polymer colloids, protein-functionalized colloidal particles, magnetic particles, metallic nanoparticles, micro- and nanogels, responsive microgels, colloidal photonic crystals, microfluidics, gel-glass dispersed liquid crystals (GDLCs) devices, and nanoemulsions. This volume provides a sound understanding of the link between the structure and functional properties in two- and three-dimensional colloidal systems. It describes techniques to functionalize colloids, characterization methods, the physical fundamentals of structure formation, diffusion dynamics, transport properties in equilibrium, the physical fundamentals of nonequilibrium systems, the measuring principles to exploit properties in applications, the differences in designing lab experiments and devices, and several application examples.
Categories: Science

Colloidal Dispersions

Colloidal Dispersions

This new edition includes: * Updated material and major advances in the field, including the development of new equipment * In-depth instruction on methods for producing emulsions and suspensions * Extensive industrial and practical ...

Author: Ian D. Morrison

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 0471176257

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 182

From the basics to the most recent developments - A concise review of suspensions, emulsions, and foams Updating and expanding their highly popular Colloidal Systems and Interfaces, Ian Morrison and Sydney Ross now provide authoritative coverage of the concepts and techniques applicable to suspensions, emulsions, and foams. Concisely yet thoroughly encompassing the significant developments of the past fourteen years, Colloidal Dispersions: Suspensions, Emulsions, and Foams describes a wide range of topics, including particles in liquids, interactions at interfaces, surfactants, and the technology of emulsions and foams. Industrial chemists and chemical engineers will discover among the book's insights recently developed computer-based methods that offer fast, precise measurements of particle concentration, size, and charge by acoustics, application of acid-base concepts to adsorption, the role of electric charges in nonpolar media, and the fundamentals of nanotechnology. This new edition includes: Updated material and major advances in the field, including the development of new equipment In-depth instruction on methods for producing emulsions and suspensions Extensive industrial and practical applications of general principles Expanded sections on particle sizing, nonpolar dispersions, and polymer stabilization
Categories: Science

Food Emulsion and Foams

Food Emulsion and Foams

Combining three symposia from the AIChE Annual Meeting in San Francisco, November 1989, this volume demonstrates the importance of surface and colloid science in food systems.

Author: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Meeting

Publisher: Amer Inst of Chemical Engineers

ISBN: UCSD:31822006725782

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 110

View: 935

Combining three symposia from the AIChE Annual Meeting in San Francisco, November 1989, this volume demonstrates the importance of surface and colloid science in food systems. The three sections, corresponding to the three symposia, address topics in food emulsions fundamentals, food emulsions appli
Categories: Technology & Engineering