Flora of the Codex Cruz Badianus

Flora of the Codex Cruz Badianus

In the present work, 183 of 185 phytomorphs were systematically re-evaluated and identified on the generic, as well as specific level, along with their botanical descriptions, previous identifications, putative identification, distribution, ...

Author: Arthur O. Tucker

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030469597

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Flora of the Codex Cruz Badianus

Flora of the Codex Cruz Badianus

In the present work, 183 of 185 phytomorphs were systematically re-evaluated and identified on the generic, as well as specific level, along with their botanical descriptions, previous identifications, putative identification, distribution, ...

Author: Arthur O. Tucker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030469581

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 137

In 1929, Charles Upson Clark (1975-1960), a history Professor at Columbia University carrying out bibliographic research on the early history of the Americas in the Vatican Library, came across a remarkable illustrated Latin manuscript entitled Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Little Book of Indian Medicinal Herbs) completed in 1552. The manuscript now known as the Codex Cruz-Badianus (CCB) contained 185 illustrations (phytomorphs) of plants with text that described their medicinal uses. This manuscript spread new light on botanical and medicinal knowledge of the indigenous peoples of Mexico known today as the Nahuas or Aztecs. It was to have major repercussions on our knowledge of Aztec culture and the history of New Spain in the 16th century. CCB was produced at the Colegio of Imperial de Santa Cruz at Tlatelolco established in 1536 to train sons of the Aztec nobility for the clergy. The authors were two indigenous faculty members, Martin (Martinus in Latin) de la Cruz and Juan Badiano (Juannes Badianus in Latin) whose Spanish names were conferred upon their baptism. Martin de la Cruz was the Colegio’s indigenous doctor who gave instruction in medicine and Juan Badiano, a Latin teacher and former student translated the book into Latin. The herbal dedicated to the Viceroy Francisco de Mendoza was sent to Spain as a gift to King Carlos I soon after its completion in 1552. The original ended up in the Vatican Library until 1990 when John Paul II returned it to Mexico. In 1931, the Mayanist scholar, William Gates, and the biologist Emily Walcott Emmart became aware of the manuscript and independently translated it to English. In 2009, Martin Clayton, Luigi Guerrini, and Alejandro de Avila identified plants of the CCB based on Emmart’s book and a 17th century copy found in the Windsor library. Of the 185 phytomophs, Gates identified 85 on the generic level, Emmart 9, and Clayton et al. 126. However most of these identifications disagree. In the present work, 183 of 185 phytomorphs are systematically re-evaluated and identified on the generic, as well as specific level, along with their botanical descriptions, previous identifications, putative identification, distribution, names, and uses.
Categories: Science

Flora of the Voynich Codex

Flora of the Voynich Codex

9r (Plate 11) in the 1552 Mexican Codex Cruz-Badianus, which has been identified as Ipomoea murucoides Roem. & Schult. (Emmart 1940; Cruz and Badiano 1991; ...

Author: Arthur O. Tucker

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030193775

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 160

The Voynich Codex is one the most fascinating and bizarre manuscripts in the world. The manuscript (potentially equivalent to 232 pages), or more properly a codex, consists of many foldout pages. It has been divided by previous researchers into sections known as Herbal/Botanical/Pharmacology; Balenological/Biological; Cosmology; one page known as The Rosette; and a final Recipe section. All the sections contain text in an unknown writing system, yet to be deciphered. Cryptological analyses by modern computer programs nevertheless have determined that the language is real and not a hoax, as has been suggested by some. Despite the fact that this codex is largely an herbal, the interpreters of this manuscript with two exceptions, have not been botanists. To this end, our recent research suggests that the Voynich is a 16th century codex associated with indigenous Indians of Nueva España educated in schools established by the Spanish. This is a breakthrough in Voynich studies. We are convinced that the Voynich codex is a document produced by Aztec descendants that has been unfiltered through Spanish editors. The flora of New Spain is vast, and the medicinal and culinary herbs used by the Aztecs were equally as copious. Even though it is our hypothesis that the Voynch Codex was written as a private herbal in 16th century New Spain, many of these herbs have relevance today because they or closely related species have been noted to be medicinal or have culinary value. The Voynich Codex has an estimated 359 illustration of plants (phytomorphs), 131 in the Herbal Section (large images) and 228 in the Pharmaceutical Section (small images of plant parts). In our book “Unraveling of the Voynich Codex”, to be published by Springer this summer, Tucker and Janick have partially identified species in the Herbal Section. In this proposed work, all of the plants of the Herbal Section will be identified along with those plants of the Pharmacology Section where identification is feasible. Each plant identification will include subdivisions to include descriptors (formal botanical identification), names in English, Spanish, and Mesoamerican names where known, ecology and range, and properties (medicinal and culinary) of these and related species. Photographs of the phytomorphs and contemporary plants will be included. These identifications represent hard evidence that the Voynich Codex is a 16th Century Mexican manuscript. Exploring the herbs of the Aztecs through the Voynich Codex will be a seminal work for all Voynich researchers and also of interest to a wider audience in medicinal and culinary herbs, artists, and historians. In summary, our new book project Flora of the Voynich Codex will provide a photo-illustrated guide to complete the botanical evidence related to the Voynich Codex, one of the most valuable historic texts of the 16th century.
Categories: Science

Flora

Flora

Biblioteca apostolica vaticana Barb. Lat. 241). The texts of the manuscript are given in Latin transcriptions with parallel English translations. Introductory essays and commentary in English.

Author: Martin Clayton

Publisher: Harvey Miller Pub

ISBN: 1905375301

Category: Art

Page: 255

View: 189

Presents the contents of the manuscript Royal Library, Windsor Castle, RCIN 970335, which is in turn copied from the Aztec herbal known as the Codex Cruz-Badianus (ms. Biblioteca apostolica vaticana Barb. Lat. 241). The texts of the manuscript are given in Latin transcriptions with parallel English translations. Introductory essays and commentary in English.
Categories: Art

Horticultural Reviews

Horticultural Reviews

... including the Codex Cruz-Badianus (Emmart 1940; Cruz and Badiano 1991; ... two-dimensional representation of plants reminiscent of pressed specimens, ...

Author: Jules Janick

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119281597

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 609

Horticultural Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on topics in horticultural science and technology covering both basic and applied research. Topics covered include the horticulture of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamentals. These review articles, written by world authorities, bridge the gap between the specialized researcher and the broader community of horticultural scientists and teachers.
Categories: Science

Handbook to Life in the Aztec World

Handbook to Life in the Aztec World

CODEX DE LA CRUZ-BADIANO The Codex de la Cruz-Badiano contains 184 exquisitely ... It is a postconquest listing of Mexican plants and herbs from the native ...

Author: Manuel Aguilar-Moreno

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195330830

Category: History

Page: 440

View: 298

Since its violent dissolution in 1521, the Aztec Empire of Mexico has continually intrigued us. Recent discoveries resulting from the excavation of the Templo Mayor in the heart of Mexico City have taught us even more about this fascinating culture. The increasing recognition that the achievements of Mesoamerican civilizations were among the most sophisticated of the ancient world has led to a demand for introductions to the basic methods and theories of scholars working throughout the region. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World gathers the results from recent archaeological discoveries and scholarly research into a single accessible volume. Organized thematically, the handbook covers all aspects of life in the Aztec world: Mesoamerican civilizations and Aztec archeology; evolution of Aztec civilization; geography of the Aztec world; society and government; religion, cosmology, and mythology; funerary beliefs and customs; Aztec art; Aztec architecture; Nahuatl literature; the calendar, astronomy, and mathematics; economy, industry, and trade; daily life; the Aztec after conquest and today. Each chapter includes an extensive bibliography, and more than 165 original line drawings, photographs, and maps complement the text. Handbook to Life in the Aztec World provides all the essential information required by anyone interested in Aztec history or culture.
Categories: History

A History of Mexican Literature

A History of Mexican Literature

Although the Codex Cruz Badianus, an herbal describing Mexico's native plants and their medicinal uses, was created at former viceroy Antonio de Mendoza's ...

Author: Ignacio M. Sänchez Prado

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316489802

Category: Literary Criticism

Page:

View: 432

A History of Mexican Literature chronicles a story more than five hundred years in the making, looking at the development of literary culture in Mexico from its indigenous beginnings to the twenty-first century. Featuring a comprehensive introduction that charts the development of a complex canon, this History includes extensive essays that illuminate the cultural and political intricacies of Mexican literature. Organized thematically, these essays survey the multilayered verse and fiction of such diverse writers as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mariano Azuela, Xavier Villaurrutia, and Octavio Paz. Written by a host of leading scholars, this History also devotes special attention to the lasting significance of colonialism and multiculturalism in Mexican literature. This book is of pivotal importance to the development of Mexican writing and will serve as an invaluable reference for specialists and students alike.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Guardians of Idolatry

Guardians of Idolatry

... the Florentine Codex contains descriptions of about 150 medicinal plants ... Nahua physician Martín de la Cruz had produced the Codex CruzBadianus in ...

Author: Viviana Díaz Balsera

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 9780806162164

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 170

In 1629, Catholic priest Hernando Ruiz de Alarcón produced the Treatise on the Heathen Superstitions That Today Live among the Indians Native to This New Spain to aid the church in its abolishment of native Nahua religious practices. The bilingual Nahuatl-Spanish Treatise collected diverse incantations, or nahualtocaitl, used to conjure Mesoamerican deities for daily sustenance and medical activities. Today this work is recognized as one of the most significant firsthand records of indigenous religious practices in postconquest Mexico. Yet, as Viviana Díaz Balsera argues in Guardians of Idolatry, the selection process for the incantations recorded in the Treatise reflects two sites of agency: Ruiz de Alarcón’s desire to present the most flagrant examples of Nahua “demonic” practices, and Nahua efforts to share benign nahualtocaitl in order to preserve their preconquest traditions while negotiating with colonial Christian hegemony. Guardians of Idolatry offers readers a rare, in-depth look at the nahualtocaitl and the native cosmogonies, beliefs, and medical practices they reveal. Through close reading of four incantations—for safe travel, maguey sap harvesting, bow-and-arrow deer hunting, and divination through maize kernels—Díaz Balsera shows the nuances of a Nahua spiritual world populated by intelligent superhuman and nonhuman entities that directly responded to human appeals for intercession. She also addresses Jacinto de la Serna’s Manual for Ministers of These Indians (1656), an elaborate commentary on the Treatise. Guardians of Idolatry tells a compelling story of the robust presence of a unique form of Postclassic Mesoamerican ritual knowledge, fully operative one hundred years after the incursion of Christianity in south Central Mexico. Together, Ruiz de Alarcón’s Treatise and de la Serna’s Manual reveal the highly sophisticated language of the nahualtocaitl, and the disparate ways in which both colonizers and resilient indigenous agents contributed to the conservation of Mesoamerican epistemology.
Categories: History

New Horizons for Early Modern European Scholarship

New Horizons for Early Modern European Scholarship

“The Codex Cruz-Badianus: Directions for Future Research.” In Flora: The Aztec Herbal; The Paper Museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo, edited by Martin Clayton, ...

Author: Ann Blair

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421440941

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 162

Contributors: Alexander Bevilacqua, Ann Blair, Daniela Bleichmar, William J. Bulman, Frederic Clark, Anthony Grafton, Jill Kraye, Yuen-Gen Liang, Elizabeth McCahill, Nicholas Popper, Amanda Wunder
Categories: Science

Orchids as Aphrodisiac Medicine or Food

Orchids as Aphrodisiac  Medicine or Food

Since he loved Americana, Barberini should have remembered the Codex, ... Altogether, the de la Cruz-Badianus Codex mentioned 249 medicinal plants but ...

Author: Eng Soon Teoh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030182557

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 906

Did you know that Vanilla was formerly served as aphrodisiac by Cassanova and Madam Pompadour, and Elizabeth I loved its flavor? This is the first book that provides a complete worldwide coverage of orchids being employed as aphrodisiacs, medicine or charms and food. Opening with an in-depth historical account of orchids (orchis Greek testicle), the author describes how the Theory of Signatures influenced ancient herbalists to regard terrestrial orchid tubers as aphrodisiacs. Doctors and apothecaries promoted it during the Renaissance. Usage of orchids in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Indian Ayurvedic Medicine; by Tibetan yogins and Amchi healers for longevity pills, tonics and aphrodisiacs; by Africans to prepare 'health promoting' chikanda or as survival food when lost in the Australian bush are some highlights of the book. Early settlers in America and the East Indies often relied on native remedies and employment of orchids for such needs is described. Also covered are the search for medicinal compounds by scientists, attempts to prove the orchid's efficacy by experiment and the worry of conservationists.
Categories: Science

A Selected Guide to the Literature of the Flowering Plants of Mexico

A Selected Guide to the Literature of the Flowering Plants of Mexico

CRUZ , Martín de la , and Juan BADIANUS . 1552. Libellus de medicinalibus Indorum herbis Codex Barberini . Ms. Lat . , No. 241 in the Vatican .

Author: Ida Kaplan Langman

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9781512803372

Category: Nature

Page: 1024

View: 543

This bibliography is a guide to the literature on Mexican flowering plants, beginning with the days of the discovery and conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards in the early sixteenth century.
Categories: Nature

Visual Voyages

Visual Voyages

“The Codex Cruz-Badianus: Directions for Future Research.” In Flora: The Aztec Herbal, ed. by Martin Clayton, Luigi Guerrini, and Alejandro de Ávila ...

Author: Daniela Bleichmar

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300224023

Category: Art

Page: 226

View: 723

An unprecedented visual exploration of the intertwined histories of art and science, of the old world and the new From the voyages of Christopher Columbus to those of Alexander von Humboldt and Charles Darwin, the depiction of the natural world played a central role in shaping how people on both sides of the Atlantic understood and imaged the region we now know as Latin America. Nature provided incentives for exploration, commodities for trade, specimens for scientific investigation, and manifestations of divine forces. It also yielded a rich trove of representations, created both by natives to the region and visitors, which are the subject of this lushly illustrated book. Author Daniela Bleichmar shows that these images were not only works of art but also instruments for the production of knowledge, with scientific, social, and political repercussions. Early depictions of Latin American nature introduced European audiences to native medicines and religious practices. By the 17th century, revelatory accounts of tobacco, chocolate, and cochineal reshaped science, trade, and empire around the globe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, collections and scientific expeditions produced both patriotic and imperial visions of Latin America. Through an interdisciplinary examination of more than 150 maps, illustrated manuscripts, still lifes, and landscape paintings spanning four hundred years, Visual Voyages establishes Latin America as a critical site for scientific and artistic exploration, affirming that region's transformation and the transformation of Europe as vitally connected histories.
Categories: Art

Plants and Indigenous Medicine and Diet

Plants and Indigenous Medicine and Diet

All medicines recommended for headache in the Florentine Codex (Dibble and ... la Cruz 1964), Hernandez (1959), Ximenez (1888), Ruiz de Alarcon (1953), ...

Author: Nina L. Etkin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135882778

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 525

First Published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company. Humans have long been acute observers of their biological surroundings and have been involved in dynamic relationships with ambient flora and fauna since the development of the earliest medical systems and food-getting technologies. Human-plant interactions can, then, be viewed as one expression of a population’s encounter with their environment and have been the subject of considerable interest in various disciplines which seek to understand how the use of plants affects patterns of health and disease. The aim of this volume is to promote a bio-behavioral focus for indigenous plant research.
Categories: Social Science

Standardized Hierarchical Vegetation Classification

Standardized Hierarchical Vegetation Classification

De la Cruz M, Badianus J (1940) The Badianus manuscript –an Aztec herbal. ... Emmart EW (1940) The Badianus Manuscript (Codex Barberini, Latin 241).

Author: Alejandro Velázquez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319412221

Category: Science

Page: 143

View: 423

This book outlines the transitions between cultured and natural land cover/vegetation types and their implications in the search for alternatives to reverse the trend of anthropogenic environmental degradation. It also elaborates on the proposed “standardized hierarchical Mexican vegetation classification system” and geobotanical mapping, a critical transversal environmental issue. The first chapter consists of an historical review of the common approaches to the study of vegetation both in Mexico and in other regions of the world. The second chapter concisely analyzes the existing schools of thought that have led to the development of vegetation classification systems based on physiognomic, structural and floristic approaches. The focal point of the book is the “standardized hierarchical Mexican vegetation classification system” (SECLAVEMEX – “Sistema jerárquico estandarizado para la clasificación de la vegetación de México”). Chapter 3 describes the system’s organizational levels along with the criteria defining them and the nomenclatural basis for the denomination of each type of vegetation. It also includes a series of tables explaining and precisely defining the meaning of each concept, criterion, character and element used to help readers successfully identify the type of vegetation in a determined area. The fourth chapter highlights SECLAVEMEX's inclusive character as evidenced through its compatibility with other systems currently used around the globe. Three concepts are critically reviewed: land cover, land use and vegetation. These are often the study subject of the contrasting disciplines geography, agronomy and ecology, which all rely upon plant species assemblages. As such, the final chapter focuses on a critical transversal environmental issue – geobotanical mapping. Geobotanical mapping offers a baseline for land cover/use planning and provides critical information on ecological, economic and cultural attributes, which can be used as a basis for environmental-policy decisions. The proposed SECLAVEMEX was applied to Mexico as an example of land cover, land use and vegetation patterns intermingling as the result of a long human influence. SECLAVEMEX, however, can be adapted and hopefully adopted globally as a baseline for consistently comparing geobotanical patterns and their transitions.
Categories: Science

Medicine Across Cultures

Medicine Across Cultures

There were cold plants, like huitzquílitl (Cirsium sp.) ... For example, in the de la Cruz-Badianus Codex, the treatment for child burns starts with ...

Author: Helaine Selin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402011665

Category: Medical

Page: 417

View: 879

This work deals with the medical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Egyptian, and Tibetan medicine, the book includes essays on comparing Chinese and western medicine and religion and medicine. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography.
Categories: Medical

Searching for the Secrets of Nature

Searching for the Secrets of Nature

See plants and plant products “ Codex Comptoniensis , ” 145 Codex Pomar ... See botanical taxonomies Cruz , Martín de la , 111 , 112 Cruz / Badianus ...

Author: Simon Varey

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804739641

Category: Medical

Page: 229

View: 930

This collection of essays by historians, historians of science and medicine, and literary and textual scholars from several countries analyzes the achievements of Dr. Francisco Hernández (1515-87), author of the monumental The Natural History of New Spain, in the history of medicine and science in Europe and the Americas.
Categories: Medical

Plants

Plants

on page 8), and it describes 365 medicines derived from plants, animals, ... and in 1552 Martinus de la Cruz and Juannes Badiano (sometimes called Badianus, ...

Author: Michael Allaby

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 9781438129679

Category: Botany

Page: 241

View: 233

Explores the research conducted by philosophers, botanists, and scientists over centuries that resulted in the emergent fields of botany, plant sociology, ecology, and biodiversity.
Categories: Botany

The Medicine Wheel Garden

The Medicine Wheel Garden

special attention is given to drought-hardy plants suitable for xeriscaping. ... American plants used in medicine is the 1552 Badianus Manuscript (Codex ...

Author: E. Barrie Kavasch

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 9780307488084

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 368

View: 497

The American Indian medicine wheel was an ancient way of creating sacred space and calling forth the healing energies of nature. Now, drawing on a lifetime of study with native healers, herbalist and ethnobotanist E. Barrie Kavasch offers a step-by-step guide to bringing this beautiful tradition into your own life--from vibrantly colorful outdoor circle designs to miniature dish, windowsill, or home altar adaptations. Inside you’ll find: • Planting guides for medicine wheel gardens in every zone, from desert Southwest to northern woodlands • A beautifully illustrated encyclopedia of 50 key healing herbs, including propagation needs, traditional and modern uses, and cautions • Easy-to-follow herbal recipes, from teas and tonics to skin creams and soaps--plus delicious healing foods • Ideas for herbal crafts and ceremonial objects, including smudge sticks, wind horses, prayer ties, and spirit shields • Seasonal rituals, offerings, and meditations to bless and empower your garden and your friends, and much more Practical, beautiful, and inspiring, The Medicine Wheel Garden leads us on a powerful journey to rediscovering the sacred in everyday life as we cultivate our gardens . . . and our souls.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Harvard Papers in Botany

Harvard Papers in Botany

FROM THE CODEX BADIANUS TO CARL VON LINNÉ The Codex Badianus The
Expedition of Francisco Hernández to The first ... Its author was the Aztec
physician Martín de la with the title First Physician General of the New Cruz , and
it was translated from Náhuatl ... Hernández was the first became part of the
library of Cardinal European to investigate the flora of Mexico , Francesco
Barberini , and it is ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015061907039

Category: Botany

Page:

View: 453

Categories: Botany

A Companion to the Spanish Renaissance

A Companion to the Spanish Renaissance

The Badianus Codex belongs to two cultural traditions at once. Visually, exceptfortheunfamiliarityof theplantsillustratedinthetext,thecodexcould ...

Author:

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004360372

Category: Art

Page: 700

View: 759

A renewed case for the inclusion of Spain within broader European Renaissance movements. This interdisciplinary volume offers a snapshot of the best new work being done in this area.
Categories: Art