Author: Kwame Anthony AppiahPublish On: 2010-03-30
He traces an intellectual genealogy of the burgeoning discipline of “experimental philosophy,” provides a balanced, lucid account of the work being done in this controversial and increasingly influential field, and offers a fresh way of ...
Author: Kwame Anthony Appiah
Publisher: Harvard University Press
In the past few decades, scientists of human nature—including experimental and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, evolutionary theorists, and behavioral economists—have explored the way we arrive at moral judgments. They have called into question commonplaces about character and offered troubling explanations for various moral intuitions. Research like this may help explain what, in fact, we do and feel. But can it tell us what we ought to do or feel? In Experiments in Ethics, the philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah explores how the new empirical moral psychology relates to the age-old project of philosophical ethics. Some moral theorists hold that the realm of morality must be autonomous of the sciences; others maintain that science undermines the authority of moral reasons. Appiah elaborates a vision of naturalism that resists both temptations. He traces an intellectual genealogy of the burgeoning discipline of “experimental philosophy,” provides a balanced, lucid account of the work being done in this controversial and increasingly influential field, and offers a fresh way of thinking about ethics in the classical tradition. Appiah urges that the relation between empirical research and morality, now so often antagonistic, should be seen in terms of dialogue, not contest. And he shows how experimental philosophy, far from being something new, is actually as old as philosophy itself. Beyond illuminating debates about the connection between psychology and ethics, intuition and theory, his book helps us to rethink the very nature of the philosophical enterprise.
The purpose of this volume is to identify, debate, and propose practical solutions to the most critical of these new ethical issues.
Author: Scott Desposato
Category: Political Science
For most of political science's history, discussions about professional ethics had nothing to do with human subjects. Professional ethics involved integrity in the classroom, fair tenure and promotion rule, and the careful avoidance of plagiarism. As most research was observational, there was little need for attention to how scholarly activities might directly affect the subjects of our work. Times have changed. The dramatic growth in the use of experiments in social science, especially overseas, is generating unexpected ethical controversies. The purpose of this volume is to identify, debate, and propose practical solutions to the most critical of these new ethical issues. A leading team of internationally distinguished political science scholars presents the first examination of the practical and ethical challenges of research with human subjects in social science and policy studies. Part 1 examines contextual challenges provided by experiments conducted overseas - questions of culture, religion, security, and poverty. Part 2 examines questions of legal constraints on research, focusing on questions of foreign review of international experiments. Part 3 tackles the critical issues in field experiments, including deception and consent, impact on elections and careers, the boundaries of the public officials' exemption, and the use of partner organizations to avoid Institutional Review Body (IRB) review. Part 4 considers strategies for the future, including training and education, IRB reform, institutional changes, and norm development.
The aim of this book is to assist irwestigators in preparing to meet some of the ethical problems that await the unwary. It offers perspectives, values, and guidelines for anticipating problems and devising solutions.
Author: Joan E. Sieber
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Social scientists are unprepared for many of the ethical problems that arise in their research, and for criticisms of their ethics that seem to ignore such cherished scientific values as objectivity and freedom of inquiry. Yet, they possess method ological talent and insight into human nature that can be used to understand and resolve these problems. The contributors to this book demonstrate that criticism of the ethics of social research can stimulate constructive development of meth odology. Both volumes of The Ethics of Social Research were written for and by social scientists to show how ethical dilemmas arise in the day-to-day conduct of social research and how they can be resolved. The topics discussed in this book include ethical problems that arise in experiments and sample surveys; the companion volume deals with the ethical issues involved in fieldwork and in the regulation and publication of research. With candor and humor, many of the contributors describe lessons they have learned about themselves, their methods, and their research participants. Collectively, they illustrate that both humanists and detenninists are likely to encounter ethical dilemmas in their research, albeit different ones, and that a blending of detenninistic and humanistic approaches may be needed to solve these dilemmas. The aim of this book is to assist irwestigators in preparing to meet some of the ethical problems that await the unwary. It offers perspectives, values, and guidelines for anticipating problems and devising solutions.
Dr McNeill argues that committees of review, as they are presently constituted, cannot be relied on to ensure an equitable balance between the interests of researchers and the interests of the human subjects experimented on.
Author: Paul M. McNeill
Publisher: CUP Archive
Category: Biography & Autobiography
The author finds that these committees are predominantly influenced by members of research institutions and by the researchers themselves. Yet researchers, and their institutions, stand to gain considerable benefits from the experiments they conduct. Dr McNeill argues that committees of review, as they are presently constituted, cannot be relied on to ensure an equitable balance between the interests of researchers and the interests of the human subjects experimented on. He proposes a radically different rationale and model for committee review.
Bibliography : leaves 13-14 . Language : English Descriptors : Animal experimentation ; Illinois ; Animal experimentation ; United States ; Bioethics ;
Animal welfare 16 NAL Call No : SF756.39.A54 1990 Animal ethics committees
the role of the ...
A fresh and evocative look at the changing world of ethics as it applies to health and illness, this is an important book for all those touched by illness or suffering.
Author: Paul Komesaroff
Publisher: Greenleaf Book Group
Experiments in Love and Death is about the depth and complexity of the ethical issues that arise in illness and medicine. In his concept of ‘microethics’ Paul Komesaroff provides an alternative to the abstract debates about principles and consequences that have long dominated ethical thought. He shows how ethical decisions are everywhere: in small decisions, in facial expressions, in almost inconspicuous acts of recognition and trust. Through powerful descriptions of case studies and clear and concise explanations of contemporary philosophical theory the book brings discussions about ethics in medicine back to where they belong—to the level of the everyday experience where people live, suffer and hope. A fresh and evocative look at the changing world of ethics as it applies to health and illness, this is an important book for all those touched by illness or suffering.
Author: United States. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation ExperimentsPublish On: 1995
Contemporary Practices File Records of the staff group researching current
ethical practices in experimentation . Ethics Mapping Team File Records of the
staff group tracking the history and policy contexts of government discussions of
Author: United States. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Justice is the ethical side of the struggle. Justice ... As an experimental ethics of
power, obeah existed in this realm of justice. Such an ethics of ... For spiritual
workers in the Caribbean, the disjuncture between law experIMeNtS wItH juStICe
Author: J. Brent Crosson
"J. Brent Crosson's Experiments with Power opens in Trinidad in 2011 with the declaration of a state of emergency. Arguing that the nation's dramatic upsurge in violence was due to "thugs" and "demons," the government arrested thousands of people, mostly black men from lower-class neighborhoods. Under martial law, the police and military enjoyed near-total impunity and yet, to everyone's surprise, six of the seven police officers involved in civilian deaths were actually arrested for murder. The single-word explanation, in the words of a TV host, was obeah, sorcery. Crosson uses this episode to set up an illuminating ethnography of Trinidad's complex religious ecosystem. Obeah is a pejorative term to describe the activities of Afro-Caribbean spiritual workers, ones long associated with retributive force. Obeah was only decriminalized in Trinidad in 2000, and it remains a crime in much of the rest of the Anglophone Caribbean. Crosson examines obeah as a category and interrogates legal, religious, and popular definitions of the work, including those generated by the spiritual workers themselves. In describing their own justice-making practices as work, science, and experiments with power, obeah practitioners challenge the moral and racial foundations of the Western category of religion and offer a way of reframing religious practice as a critique of the exclusionary limits of religion in modernity"--
This attitude , in turn , provoked conflict and competition with an older principle of
primary patient benefit from medical intervention . World War II , and the Nazi
medical experiments in particular , exposed the weakness of experimental ethics
Author: Harmon L. Smith
Publisher: Durham : Duke University Press
This volume moves beyond ethics as problem-solving or ethics as etiquette to offer a look at ethics in primary care—as opposed to life-or-death—medical care. Professional Ethics and Primary Care Medicine deals with the ethics of routine, day-to-day encounters between doctors and patients. It probes beneath the hard decisions to look at the moral frameworks, habits of thought, and customs of practice that underlie choices. Harmon Smith and Larry Churchill argue that primary care, far from being merely a setting for the rendering of care, provides a new understanding of both physician and patient, and thereby offers a fresh basis for medical ethics.
131 - 148 Chapter 7 Experimental Fiction and the Ethics of a Verité : The
Encounter with the Other in Martin Amis ' Night Train María Jesús Martínez Alfaro
149 - 169 Chapter 8 Experimental Ethics : Autonomy and Contingency in the
Novels of ...
Author: Susana Onega Jaén
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub
Category: Literary Criticism
Some humanist critics contend that only realist texts have an ethical function, that there is no ethical message behind the parodic and self-conscious games played by experimental fiction and that, since emotion neutralises the ethical faculties, there is no ethical dimension in such excess-pedling postmodernist genres and modes as kitsch, melodrama and romance. Yet, one may argue that the defamiliarisation imposed by parody, metafictional overkill and sundry devices symptomatic of emotional paroxysm on the realist text involves some measure of criticism of received truth and makes for the practice of a non-deontic ethics of truths that is also fairly often an ethics of alterity. This volume examines analytical evidence for the ethical component in key experimental British novels from the 1960's to the present, with special focus on John Fowles, Brigid Brophy, B. S. Johnson, Angela Carter, Peter Ackroyd, A. S. Byatt, Martin Amis, Zadie Smith, Will Self, Ian McEwan and Julian Barnes.
Author: Beneficial Professor of Law Charles FriedPublish On: 2016-05-30
This new edition of Charles Fried's Medical Experimentation includes a general introduction by Franklin Miller and the late Alan Wertheimer, a reprint of the 1974 text, an in-depth analysis by Harvard Law School scholars I. Glenn Cohen and ...
Author: Beneficial Professor of Law Charles Fried
Publisher: Oxford University Press
First published in 1974, Charles Fried's Medical Experimentation is a classic statement of the moral relationship between doctor and patient, as expressed within the concept of personal care. This concept is then tested in the context of medical experimentation and, more specifically, the randomized controlled trial (RCT). Regularly referred to as a point of departure for ethical and legal discussions of the RCT, the book has long been out of print. This new, second edition includes a general introduction by Franklin Miller and the late Alan Wertheimer, a reprint of the 1974 text, and an in-depth analysis by Harvard Law School scholars I. Glenn Cohen and D. James Greiner which discusses the extension of RTCTs to social science and public policy contexts. The volume concludes with a new essay by Charles Fried that reflects on the original text and how it applies to the contemporary landscape of medicine and medical experimentation.
ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION ETHICS FROM AN EXPERIMENTER ' S POINT OF
VIEW Berndt E . J . Ehinger Department of Opthalmology , University of Lund , S -
221 85 Lund , Sweden Abstract : The experimental biologist faces two kinds of ...
In this exploration of philosophy, Cohen challenges the reader to think philosophically about every day dilemmas. Each problem is presented with a separate discussion designed to stimulate hours of lively philosophical debate.
Author: Martin Cohen
Does Farmer Field really know his prize cow, Daisy, is in the field? When is an unexpected exam not wholly unexpected? Are all bachelors (really) unmarried? Martin Cohen's 101 Philosophy Problems, Fourth Edition introduces philosophy in an entertaining but informative and stimulating way. Using philosophical puzzles, conundrums and paradoxes he skilfully unwraps some of the mysteries of the subject, from what we know - or think we know - to brainteasing thought experiments about ethics, science and the nature of the mind. For the Fourth Edition there are many new problems, including Maxwell's Moving Magnets, Einstein Changes Train Times, and Zeno's Paradox of Place; as well as two brand new sections including puzzles such as Lorenz's Waterywheel, and the Battle for Fractal Farm, and perplexing ethical dilemmas. The book has been extensively revised to bring it up to date with new developments in philosophy and society. With an updated glossary of helpful terms and possible solutions to the problems at the end of the book, 101 Philosophy Problems is essential reading for anyone coming to philosophy for the first time.
Basic ethical issues The basic ethical problem in human experimentation - as
well as the central social issue - is that experimentation is the use of one person
by another to gain knowledge or other benefits that may be only partly good, if at
Author: Peter P. De Deyn
Category: Animal experimentation
This volume on ethical considerations regarding biomedical experimental methods and techniques focuses on ethical problems present in animal and human experimentation. It presents a multi-disciplinary approach, with chapters written by philosophers, statisticians, lawyers, clinical and laboratory researchers. Contributors represent academia and industry, as well as animal rights organizations.
Comprehensive in scope and depth, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students.
Author: Ezekiel J. Emanuel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first comprehensive and systematic reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the U.S. National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book's 73 chapters offer a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings. Considering the historical triumphs of research as well as its tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analyzing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the contributors examine issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent to focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests, and other aspects of responsible conduct of research. The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research. Comprehensive in scope and depth, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students.