Ethics and Cyber Warfare

The Quest for Responsible Security in the Age of Digital Warfare

Author: George Lucas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190276525

Category:

Page: 256

View: 6663

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From North Korea's recent attacks on Sony to perpetual news reports of successful hackings and criminal theft, cyber conflict has emerged as a major topic of public concern. Yet even as attacks on military, civilian, and commercial targets have escalated, there is not yet a clear set of ethical guidelines that apply to cyber warfare. Indeed, like terrorism, cyber warfare is commonly believed to be a war without rules. Given the prevalence cyber warfare, developing a practical moral code for this new form of conflict is more important than ever. In Ethics and Cyber Warfare, internationally-respected ethicist George Lucas delves into the confounding realm of cyber conflict. Comparing "state-sponsored hacktivism" to the transformative impact of "irregular warfare" in conventional armed conflict, Lucas offers a critique of legal approaches to governance, and outlines a new approach to ethics and "just war" reasoning. Lucas draws upon the political philosophies of Alasdair MacIntyre, John Rawls, and Jurgen Habermas to provide a framework for understanding these newly-emerging standards for cyber conflict, and ultimately presents a professional code of ethics for a new generation of "cyber warriors." Lucas concludes with a discussion of whether preemptive self-defense efforts - such as the massive government surveillance programs revealed by Edward Snowden - can ever be justified, addressing controversial topics such as privacy, anonymity, and public trust. Well-reasoned and timely, Ethics and Cyber Warfare is a must-read for anyone with an interest in philosophy, ethics, or cybercrime. "
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Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations

A NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence Initiative

Author: Mariarosaria Taddeo,Ludovica Glorioso

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319453009

Category: Philosophy

Page: 252

View: 4171

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This book presents 12 essays that focus on the analysis of the problems prompted by cyber operations (COs). It clarifies and discusses the ethical and regulatory problems raised by the deployment of cyber capabilities by a state’s army to inflict disruption or damage to an adversary’s targets in or through cyberspace. Written by world-leading philosophers, ethicists, policy-makers, and law and military experts, the essays cover such topics as the conceptual novelty of COs and the ethical problems that this engenders; the applicability of existing conceptual and regulatory frameworks to COs deployed in case of conflicts; the definition of deterrence strategies involving COs; and the analysis of models to foster cooperation in managing cyber crises. Each essay is an invited contribution or a revised version of a paper originally presented at the workshop on Ethics and Policies for Cyber Warfare, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in collaboration with the University of Oxford. The volume endorses a multi-disciplinary approach, as such it offers a comprehensive overview of the ethical, legal, and policy problems posed by COs and of the different approaches and methods that can be used to solve them. It will appeal to a wide readership, including ethicists, philosophers, military experts, strategy planners, and law- and policy-makers.
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Cyber War

Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Author: Jens David Ohlin,Kevin Govern,Claire Finkelstein

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191027014

Category: Law

Page: 360

View: 959

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Cyber weapons and cyber warfare have become one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyber weapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Unlike past forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and Law of Armed Conflict prohibitions, cyber warfare occupies a particularly ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. Furthermore, cyber attacks put immense pressure on conventional notions of sovereignty, and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. This book, written by an unrivalled set of experts, assists in proactively addressing the ethical and legal issues that surround cyber warfare by considering, first, whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace just as they do to traditional warfare, and second, the ethical position of cyber warfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal issues in three categories. First, it addresses foundational questions regarding cyber attacks. What are they and what does it mean to talk about a cyber war? The book presents alternative views concerning whether the laws of war should apply, or whether transnational criminal law or some other peacetime framework is more appropriate, or if there is a tipping point that enables the laws of war to be used. Secondly, it examines the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber-conflicts, in particular those of proportionality and necessity. It also investigates the distinction between civilian and combatant in this context, and studies the level of causation necessary to elicit a response, looking at the notion of a 'proximate cause'. Finally, it analyses the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes. This book is unmissable reading for anyone interested in the impact of cyber warfare on international law and the laws of war.
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Cyber Warfare

Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners

Author: Jason Andress,Steve Winterfeld

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781597496384

Category: Computers

Page: 320

View: 8896

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Cyber Warfare Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners provides a comprehensive look at how and why digital warfare is waged. This book explores the participants, battlefields, and the tools and techniques used during today's digital conflicts. The concepts discussed will give students of information security a better idea of how cyber conflicts are carried out now, how they will change in the future, and how to detect and defend against espionage, hacktivism, insider threats and non-state actors such as organized criminals and terrorists. Every one of our systems is under attack from multiple vectors - our defenses must be ready all the time and our alert systems must detect the threats every time. This book provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend a network against malicious attacks. It considers relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view, as well as the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result. Starting with a definition of cyber warfare, the book’s 15 chapters discuss the following topics: the cyberspace battlefield; cyber doctrine; cyber warriors; logical, physical, and psychological weapons; computer network exploitation; computer network attack and defense; non-state actors in computer network operations; legal system impacts; ethics in cyber warfare; cyberspace challenges; and the future of cyber war. This book is a valuable resource to those involved in cyber warfare activities, including policymakers, penetration testers, security professionals, network and systems administrators, and college instructors. The information provided on cyber tactics and attacks can also be used to assist in developing improved and more efficient procedures and technical defenses. Managers will find the text useful in improving the overall risk management strategies for their organizations. Provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend your network against malicious attacks Dives deeply into relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view Details the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result
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Military Ethics and Emerging Technologies

Author: Timothy J. Demy,George R. Lucas Jr.,Bradley J. Strawser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317661664

Category: History

Page: 313

View: 8385

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This volume looks at current and emerging technologies of war and some of the ethical issues surrounding their use. Although the nature and politics of war never change, the weapons and technologies used in war do change and are always undergoing development. Because of that, the arsenal of weapons for twenty-first century conflict is different from previous centuries. Weapons in today’s world include an array of instruments of war that include, robotics, cyber war capabilities, human performance enhancement for warriors, and the proliferation of an entire spectrum of unmanned weapons systems and platforms. Tactical weapons now have the potential of strategic results and have changed the understanding of the battle space creating ethical, legal, and political issues unknown in the pre-9/11 world. What do these technologies mean for things such as contemporary international relations, the just-war tradition, and civil-military relations? Directed at readers in the academic, scientific, military, and public policy communities, this volume offers current thought on ethics and emerging technologies from internationally-recognized scholars addressing the full spectrum of issues in present warfare technology. It includes current and ongoing topics of multi-discipline and international interest, such as ethics, law, international relations, war studies, public policy, science and technology. This book was originally published in various issues and volumes of the Journal of Military Ethics.
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The Basics of Cyber Warfare

Understanding the Fundamentals of Cyber Warfare in Theory and Practice

Author: Steve Winterfeld,Jason Andress

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0124051812

Category: Computers

Page: 164

View: 1644

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The Basics of Cyber Warfare provides readers with fundamental knowledge of cyber war in both theoretical and practical aspects. This book explores the principles of cyber warfare, including military and cyber doctrine, social engineering, and offensive and defensive tools, tactics and procedures, including computer network exploitation (CNE), attack (CNA) and defense (CND). Readers learn the basics of how to defend against espionage, hacking, insider threats, state-sponsored attacks, and non-state actors (such as organized criminals and terrorists). Finally, the book looks ahead to emerging aspects of cyber security technology and trends, including cloud computing, mobile devices, biometrics and nanotechnology. The Basics of Cyber Warfare gives readers a concise overview of these threats and outlines the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber warfare. It is a valuable resource for policy makers, CEOs and CIOs, penetration testers, security administrators, and students and instructors in information security. Provides a sound understanding of the tools and tactics used in cyber warfare. Describes both offensive and defensive tactics from an insider's point of view. Presents doctrine and hands-on techniques to understand as cyber warfare evolves with technology.
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Cyber Warfare

A Multidisciplinary Analysis

Author: James A. Green

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317645553

Category: Political Science

Page: 196

View: 5057

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This book is a multi-disciplinary analysis of cyber warfare, featuring contributions by leading experts from a mixture of academic and professional backgrounds. Cyber warfare, meaning interstate cyber aggression, is an increasingly important emerging phenomenon in international relations, with state-orchestrated (or apparently state-orchestrated) computer network attacks occurring in Estonia (2007), Georgia (2008) and Iran (2010). This method of waging warfare – given its potential to, for example, make planes fall from the sky or cause nuclear power plants to melt down – has the capacity to be as devastating as any conventional means of conducting armed conflict. Every state in the world now has a cyber-defence programme and over 120 states also have a cyber-attack programme. While the amount of literature on cyber warfare is growing within disciplines, our understanding of the subject has been limited by a lack of cross-disciplinary engagement. In response, this book, drawn from the fields of computer science, military strategy, international law, political science and military ethics, provides a critical overview of cyber warfare for those approaching the topic from whatever angle. Chapters consider the emergence of the phenomena of cyber warfare in international affairs; what cyber-attacks are from a technological standpoint; the extent to which cyber-attacks can be attributed to state actors; the strategic value and danger posed by cyber conflict; the legal regulation of cyber-attacks, both as international uses of force and as part of an on-going armed conflict, and the ethical implications of cyber warfare. This book will be of great interest to students of cyber warfare, cyber security, military ethics, international law, security studies and IR in general.
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Encyclopedia of Cyber Warfare

Author: Paul J. Springer

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440844259

Category: History

Page: 379

View: 5050

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This definitive reference resource on cyber warfare covers all aspects of this headline topic, providing historical context of cyber warfare and an examination its rapid development into a potent technological weapon of the 21st century. • Provides comprehensive coverage of the major individuals, organizations, impacts, and issues related to cyber warfare that enables readers to better understanding of the impact of cyber warfare on modern conflicts • Includes a detailed chronology that documents the evolution and use of cyber warfare over the past few decades • Supplies further readings and a lengthy bibliography that offer a wealth of options to students conducting extensive research on the subject
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Binary Bullets

The Ethics of Cyberwarfare

Author: Fritz Allhoff,Adam Henschke,Bradley Jay Strawser

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190464178

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 4325

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Philosophical and ethical discussions of warfare are often tied to emerging technologies and techniques. Today we are presented with what many believe is a radical shift in the nature of war-the realization of conflict in the cyber-realm, the so-called "fifth domain" of warfare. Does an aggressive act in the cyber-realm constitute an act of war? If so, what rules should govern such warfare? Are the standard theories of just war capable of analyzing and assessing this mode of conflict? These changing circumstances present us with a series of questions demanding serious attention. Is there such a thing as cyberwarfare? How do the existing rules of engagement and theories from the just war tradition apply to cyberwarfare? How should we assess a cyber-attack conducted by a state agency against private enterprise and vice versa? Furthermore, how should actors behave in the cyber-realm? Are there ethical norms that can be applied to the cyber-realm? Are the classic just war constraints of non-combatant immunity and proportionality possible in this realm? Especially given the idea that events that are constrained within the cyber-realm do not directly physically harm anyone, what do traditional ethics of war conventions say about this new space? These questions strike at the very center of contemporary intellectual discussion over the ethics of war. In twelve original essays, plus a foreword from John Arquilla and an introduction, Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare, engages these questions head on with contributions from the top scholars working in this field today.
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The Ethics of Information Warfare

Author: Luciano Floridi,Mariarosaria Taddeo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319041355

Category: Philosophy

Page: 211

View: 9438

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This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare. The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the development and deployment of robots in various circumstances, including warfare.
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