Enzyme Engineering

Author: E. Pye

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147575163X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 580

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The recent worldwide explosion of interest in enzymes as cata lysts in industrial processes has arisen primarily because of the potential of major innovative advances which have taken place over the last two decades, foremost among these being novel methods of enzyme immobilization and affinity chromatography for rapid enzyme purification. This interest is now being further stimulated by the remarkable commercial success of several enzyme-based industrial processes, particularly the production of high-fructose syrup in the U. S. and amino acid production in Japan. With the initiation of these and other processes, together with the readying for commercial ization of several other enzyme-based operations, interest has ex panded in other areas in which enzymes may playa useful role, particularly in medicine and analytical chemistry. The development of this technology has required the cooperative efforts of practi tioners of several disciplines, primarily chemical engineers, bio chemists and other life scientists. Indeed, from this cooperation is arising the new interdisciplinary field of Enzyme Engineering. To stimulate communication, information exchange and advance ment of knowledge in this new field on an international level the Engineering Foundation, through the efforts of Lemuel B. Wingard, Jr. , initiated in 1971 a series of international conferences on Enzyme Engineering to be held biannually. The first two conferences were held in Henniker, New Hampshire, in the summers of 1971 and 1973, respectively, while the third conference, from which these proceedings derived, was held in August 1975 in Portland, Oregon.
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Enzyme Engineering

Author: Ichiro Chibata,Saburo Fukui,Lemuel B. Jr. Wingard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461592909

Category: Science

Page: 560

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Presently, intensive and global attention is being devoted to "biotechnology"--the technology utilizing marvelous capacities of living things for human welfare. Each country is strongly promo ting its development. In particular, enzyme engineering, whose pur pose is to utilize efficiently enzymes, microorganisms, and cultured plant as well as animal cells as organic catalysts, is one of the main themes in the field of biotechnology. Under these circumstances, the Sixth Enzyme Engineering Confe rence was held at Kashikojima, Mie Prefecture, Japan from September 20 to 25, 1981, under the joint auspices of the Engineering Foun dation of New York and the Japanese Society of Enzyme Engineering. This series of international conferences has been held biannually since 1971. The first three and the fifth conferences were held in the United States and the fourth one was in the Federal Republic of Germany. This sixth conference was the first to be held in Asia; and it was significant that a number of participant£ could visit Japany, which has produced successful achievements in the field of biotechnology.
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Enzyme Engineering

Future Directions

Author: Lemual B. Wingard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468437194

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 522

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The Soviet Union has had an active research and development program in the study and applica tion of soluble and immobilized enzymes since about 1970. Therefore, it was a natural conse quence that an international conference should be held in the Soviet Union to focus on some of the developments that may lead to new and exciting practical applications of enzymatic catalysts in a variety of areas, especially carbohydrate con versions, medicine, energy transduction, and photochemistry. The International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Study, with its goal of focusing international scientific and technological exper tise on world problems, also has been very active in the area of enzyme engineering, with a major effort during 1972-1977 in several of the sub areas covered in this volume. The conference was held June 20-24, 1978 in the city of Tbilisi in the Georgian SSR of the USSR, under the title "The Future of Enzyme En gineering Development." The participants expressed a high sense of gratitude to the State Committee for Science and Technology and especially to the Georgian Academy of Sciences for their hospitality. The services of the Soviet linguists in providing simultaneous translation between Russian and English, and the brass band that played for the departing participants at the Tbilisi airport helped to make both the scientific and cultural parts of the conference memorable.
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Enzyme Engineering

Author: Howard H. Weetall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468437496

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 485

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Enzyme technology continues to maintain a high degree of interest both in the academic and industrial communities. Since the last Enzyme Engineering Conference held in Bad Neuenahr, Federal Republic of Germany, two years ago, an increasing emphasis has been placed on the study and application of immobilized whole cells and organelles. This new emphasis has been reflected in the number of presentations directed to this area. The Fifth International Enzyme Engineering Conference was held in Henniker, New Hampshire, July 29 to August 3, 1979. The organizers of this conference are especially grateful for the generous support received from a number of industrial organizations. The conference was attended by 183 participants representing over 22 countries making this truly an international conference. During this conference, emphasis was placed on a wide variety of areas including: enzyme production, energy transduction, co factor modification, biomass conversion, immobilized enzymes, cells and organelles, and enzymatic synthesis of chemicals and pharma ceuticals. This volume contains most of the presentations and posters presented at the Fifth Conference. The names of the session co chairmen, workshop chairmen, committee members and sponsoring organizations are included as an appreciation of their efforts in making this a successful conference. The preparation of this volume was carried out by the editors including editing and proofing of the individual manuscripts and the final copy of this volume. The editors are indebted to Ms. S.
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Enzyme Engineering

Author: G. B. Broun

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468469851

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 492

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The unique catalytic properties of enzymes and the numerous techniques for immobilization of enzymes and cells continue to maintain a high degree of practical and scientific interest in this area called Enzyme Engineering. This fourth International Enzyme Engineering Confer ence was the first to be held outside of the United States. Europe was chosen as the site primarily to en able greater participation by investigators from that continent. The Engineering Foundation of New York, which was the principal sponsor of the first three conferences, was most fortunate in having the DECHEMA (Deutsche Gesell schaft fur chemisches Apparatewesen e. V.) of Frankfurt (Main), F. R. Germany as the cosponsor for this fourth conference. The success of the conference also was due in large part to the generous financial support, especially by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as by European enzyme and chemical companies. The fourth conference, held September 25-30, 1977 at Bad Neuenahr, Federal Republic of Germany was certainly successful, with 240 participants from 23 countries, repre senting many academic disciplines and occupational special ties. At this conference special emphasis was placed on the immobilization of whole cells and organelles, medical applications of immobilized enzymes and organelles, and the industrial status and future for immobilized biological materials.
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Enzyme Engineering

Author: Preethi Kartan

Publisher: Delve Publishing

ISBN: 9781773611068

Category:

Page: 400

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Enzymes can be regarded as the catalysts of nature that controls the rate of a wide range of biochemical reaction often with perfection. The agriculture, chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries have been immensely benefited by applying enzymes in their production processes due to the non-toxic nature, low energy input, reduced processing time, economic viability and eco-friendly attributes of enzymes. For centuries, the common commodities like vinegar, wine, bread, etc. have been manufactured using microorganism with tremendous biocatalytic potential. However, a better understanding of the biochemical basis was still lacking.Mobilizing enzymes for various purposes generally necessitate engineering them for enhanced activity and improved stability. In this regard introduction of genetic engineering techniques in enzyme technology have been one of the most exhilarating developments in the last few decades. Enzyme engineering is nothing but the amendment of an enzyme structure, thereby modifying its functions and catalytic activities to form novel metabolites. This further allows conversion of biotransformation processes and catalyzing reactions to develop some of the unexplored biochemical pathways. Genetic engineering technique aims to improve or modify enzyme properties such as the kinetics or the yield and effortless downstream processing. It can also enhance a range of issues related to safety and enables cloning of enzymes that are extracted from harmful or pathogenic microbial sources or from limited animal or plant tissues into safe and stable microbes. The engineering technique may also lead to redesign the enzymes for enhancing its potential for industrial application. Enzymes are usually large molecules (molecular mass ranging from kilodalton for insulin to megadalton for ribosomes), comprising of amino acid polymers connected by amide bonds. The substrate specificity is determined by the catalytic site of the macromolecules, which are often hidden within hydrophobic pockets. The classification and nomenclature of an enzyme are generally based on its specificity to catalyze various chemical and biochemical reactions. In the 1940s, the field of biochemistry flourished immensely with many distinguished achievements that led to the isolation and characterization of several enzymes. This necessitated the standardization of the enzyme nomenclature. Consequently, the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) along with the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) came forward to set up an Enzyme Commission (EC) to conduct the systematic classification and naming of enzymes (Liese, Seelbach, & Wandrey, 2006). The enzymes were classified into six main classes by the Enzyme Commission, purely on the basis of the type of reaction catalyzed (Table 1).With the advancement in protein engineering and recombinant technology, enzymes have gained immense importance as a molecule being applied extensively over a range of pharmaceutical and other industrial purposes. With prompt progress in enzyme technology, much attention has been diverted towards extraction of enzymes from microbial sources. Some of the characteristics of microbial enzymes such as stability, regular availability due to the rapid growth of microorganisms and absence of seasonal fluctuation, greater catalytic activity, economic feasibility, consistency and effortless optimization made them quite preferable over other sources. Owing to their catalytic activity, ease of production, stability and broad-spectrum application, enzymes derived from microbial source have earned huge interest in pharmaceutics and other industries. Several dreaded diseases are now diagnosed, treated and monitored using microbial enzymes. Two of the most significant enzymes, lipase, and amylase have been studied extensively and have gained huge importance in various industrial applications. Enzymes produced by microorganisms are also used in wastewater treatment, remediation and degradation of heavy metals and other toxic compounds (nitriles, amines, phenols) from industrial as well as domestic effluents. In this chapter, an approach has been made to highlight the different processes and evolved techniques of enzyme engineering to improve their feasibility in different industrial and medical fields.
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Enzyme engineering

Author: Engineering Foundation (U.S.),American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Enzymes

Page: 415

View: 2292

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Enzyme Engineering

Methods and Protocols

Author: James Samuelson

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 9781493962877

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 414

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This book provides guidance to those wishing to create enzyme variants. It covers such topics as a simple method for generating site-specific mutations within bacterial chromosomes and the engineering of two difference types of rare-cutting endonucleases.
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