Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

" In this book – diverse perspectives on environmental security in the Arctic Ocean are shared in chapters from high-level diplomats, parliamentarians and government officials of Arctic and non-Arctic states; leaders of Arctic indigenous ...

Author: Paul Arthur Berkman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789400747135

Category: Law

Page: 459

View: 807

This seminal book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop at the University of Cambridge with Russian co-directorship, enabling the first formal dialogue between NATO and Russia about security issues in the Arctic Ocean. Involving interdisciplinary participation with experts from 17 nations, including all of the Arctic states, this workshop itself reflects progress in Arctic cooperation and collaboration. Interests now are awakening globally to take advantage of extensive energy, shipping, fishing and tourism opportunities in the Arctic Ocean as it is being transformed from a permanent sea-ice cap to a seasonally ice-free sea. This environmental state-change is introducing inherent risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities that are centralized among the Arctic states and indigenous peoples with repercussions globally. Responding with urgency, environmental security is presented as an "integrated approach for assessing and responding to the risks as well as the opportunities generated by an environmental state-change." In this book – diverse perspectives on environmental security in the Arctic Ocean are shared in chapters from high-level diplomats, parliamentarians and government officials of Arctic and non-Arctic states; leaders of Arctic indigenous peoples organizations; international law advisors from Arctic states as well as the United Nations; directors of inter-governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations; managers of multi-national corporations; political scientists, historians and economists; along with Earth system scientists and oceanographers. Building on the “common arctic issues” of “sustainable development and environmental protection” established by the Arctic Council – environmental security offers an holistic approach to assess opportunities and risks as well as develop infrastructure responses with law of the sea as the key “international legal framework” to “promote the peaceful uses” of the Arctic Ocean. With vision for future generations, environmental security is a path to balance national interests and common interests in the Arctic Ocean for the lasting benefit of all.
Categories: Law

Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

This volume proposes environmental security as providing a holistic framework to assess these security risks and then identify the appropriate adaptation and mitigation responses.

Author: Paul Arthur Berkman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136217487

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 285

The North Pole is being transformed from a sea-ice cap to a seasonally ice-free sea within the next few decades. This fundamental shift in the boundary conditions of the Arctic Ocean will create a new natural system with different dynamics than anything previously experienced by humans in the region. With the diminishing ice cover, interests are awakening globally to take advantage of extensive energy, shipping, fishing and tourism prospects in the Arctic Ocean. A range of states, including the major Arctic powers, are increasingly asserting their sovereignty seawards. National security policies are being declared and nuclear-capable states are adjusting their strategic deployments in the Arctic Ocean. There are forums for international cooperation in the Arctic, most notably the Arctic Council, but peace in the Arctic Ocean has yet to be explicitly established as a common interest because of the long-standing military presence. Risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities are inherent consequences. This volume proposes environmental security as providing a holistic framework to assess these security risks and then identify the appropriate adaptation and mitigation responses. Only after shared risk assessment and understanding of the appropriate responses, will there be sufficient clarity about the governance paths to pursue within the international legal framework of the law of the sea.
Categories: History

The Oceans and Environmental Security

The Oceans and Environmental Security

As such, the book focuses on seven specific concerns: land-based marine pollution North Pacific fisheries depletion hazardous materials transport nuclear contamination the Arctic Ocean the Southern Ocean and Antarctica the Law of the Sea

Author: James Broadus

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559632362

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 889

The concept of environmental security, drawing on the widely understood notion of international strategic interdependence (in facing, for example, threats of nuclear war or economic collapse) is gaining currency as a way of thinking about international environmental management.In 1989, the Institute for World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Marine Policy Center of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution instituted a joint project to examine environmental security as it applies to the world's oceans. The Oceans and Environmental Security is a unified expression of their findings.The oceans, as global commons, are of central importance to issues of international environmental security. Critical problems are those that are likely to destabilize normal relations between nations and provoke international countermeasures. As such, the book focuses on seven specific concerns: land-based marine pollution North Pacific fisheries depletion hazardous materials transport nuclear contamination the Arctic Ocean the Southern Ocean and Antarctica the Law of the Sea
Categories: Science

Environmental and Human Security in the Arctic

Environmental and Human Security in the Arctic

This is the first comprehensive exploration of why human security is relevant to the Arctic and what achieving it can mean, covering the areas of health of the environment, identity of peoples, supply of traditional foods, community health, ...

Author: Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134634859

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 564

This is the first comprehensive exploration of why human security is relevant to the Arctic and what achieving it can mean, covering the areas of health of the environment, identity of peoples, supply of traditional foods, community health, economic opportunities, and political stability. The traditional definition of security has already been actively employed in the Arctic region for decades, particularly in relation to natural resource sovereignty issues, but how and why should the human aspect be introduced? What can this region teach us about human security in the wider world? The book reviews the potential threats to security, putting them in an analytical framework and indicating a clear path for solutions.Contributions come from natural, social and humanities scientists, hailing from Canada, Russia, Finland and Norway. Environmental Change and Human Security in the Arctic is an essential resource for policy-makers, community groups, researchers and students working in the field of human security, particularly for those in the Arctic regions.
Categories: Business & Economics

Reducing risks and increasing environmental security in Arctic Waters How can the Nordic countries enhance cooperation

Reducing risks and increasing environmental security in Arctic Waters  How can the Nordic countries enhance cooperation

Online publication: https://pub.norden.org/temanord2020-506/ Abstract [en] The Arctic is undergoing rapid climate change, and the shrinking sea ice opens up possibilities of exploring more of the Arctic Ocean for economic development, ...

Author: Bianco, Nauja

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9789289365277

Category: Science

Page: 61

View: 551

Online publication: https://pub.norden.org/temanord2020-506/ Abstract [en] The Arctic is undergoing rapid climate change, and the shrinking sea ice opens up possibilities of exploring more of the Arctic Ocean for economic development, including new sea routes. Maritime activity and particularly commercial shipping, including cruise ship tourism, cargo transportation and fishing vessels, is projected to increase substantially. There are evident risks to human safety and environmental security related to an increase of shipping in the Arctic. This report focues on how the Nordic countries can together work towards increase environmental security in Arctic waters and reduce risks associated with increased shipping activity in the region.
Categories: Science

Climate Change and Arctic Security

Climate Change and Arctic Security

This book assesses the construction of security in the context of climate change, with a focus on the Arctic region.

Author: Lassi Heininen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030202309

Category: Social Science

Page: 137

View: 208

This book assesses the construction of security in the context of climate change, with a focus on the Arctic region. It examines and discusses changes in the security premises of the Arctic states, from traditional security to environmental and human security. In particular, the book explores how climate change impacts security discourses and premises as well as theoretically discussing the possibility for another change, from circumpolar stability into peaceful change. Chapters cover topics such as the ethics of climate change in the arctic, China’s emerging power and influence on arctic climate security, the discursive transformation of the definition of security and the intersection between urban, climate and Arctic studies. The book concludes with the question of whether a paradigm shift in our understanding of traditional security is possible, and whether it is already occurring in the Arctic.
Categories: Social Science

National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic the Case of the Northern Sea Route

National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic     the Case of the Northern Sea Route

The basic objective of this report is to place the debate about the future of the Northern Sea Route into the larger picture of Arctic politics and the emerging agenda of the Arctic as a developing region in international society.

Author: Willy Østreng

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401147606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 369

View: 374

The basic objective of this report is to place the debate about the future of the Northern Sea Route into the larger picture of Arctic politics and the emerging agenda of the Arctic as a developing region in international society. National security and international environmental cooperation, are the objects of study employed, both separately and in various conceptual combinations, to realize this purpose. To help me in this, I was privileged to draw on the profound expertise of my highly esteemed co-authors, Professor Franklyn Griffiths at the University of Toronto and Senior Researchers at IMEMO in Moscow: Raphael Vartanov, Alexei Roginko and Alexander Kolossov. To their cooperative spirit, friendship and solid contributions to this report, ( am deeply indebted. The report is the result of multiple contributions, both in terms of substance and funding, extending far beyond the inputs of the team of authors. The professional input and thorough work 'behind the scene' done by Liv Astrid Sverdrup, Researcher at FNI at an early stage of the project, has been invaluable. Senior Consultant Kjell Moe at the Norwegian Polar Institute also provided valuable comments and improvements to the biological parts of the Introductory chapter, whilst Senior Consultant Ann Skarstad at FNI, worked wonders with the language for those of us not having English as our mother tongue. Claes Lykke Ragner, Deputy head of the (NSROP secretariat, and Dr.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean

The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Tallinn, Estonia, 27 April-1 May 1998

Author: Edward Lyn Lewis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792364406

Category: Science

Page: 623

View: 597

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Tallinn, Estonia, 27 April-1 May 1998
Categories: Science

Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub Arctic Conditions

Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub Arctic Conditions

The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years.

Author: Jacques Nihoul

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402094583

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 670

The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. Such substantial additional melting of Arctic and Antarctic glaciers and ice sheets would raise the sea level worldwide, flooding the coastal areas where many of the world's population lives. Studies, led by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the University of Arizona, show that greenhouse gas increases over the next century could warm the Arctic by 3-5°C in summertime. Thus, Arctic summers by 2100 may be as warm as they were nearly 130,000 years ago, when sea levels eventually rose up to 6 m higher than today.
Categories: Science

Energy Security and Geopolitics in the Arctic

Energy Security and Geopolitics in the Arctic

This book sheds light on how global warming has caused the ongoing environmental disaster in the Arctic, namely its melting.

Author: Hooman Peimani

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814401487

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 841

This book sheds light on how global warming has caused the ongoing environmental disaster in the Arctic, namely its melting. This development, if left unabated, will have a major negative environmental impact, not only on the Arctic itself, but on the entire planet, including the worsening of global warming and rising sea levels. The latter is a major threat to all island countries and all countries having coastlines with open seas with major environmental, social, economic, political and military/security implications. The Arctic melting is bringing about challenges while opening doors for certain opportunities. These are the accessibility of the region's large oil, gas and coal reserves and minerals, including rare earth elements. They are in demand both in the Arctic littoral states (Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Norway, Russia and USA) and the Greater Arctic countries (Iceland, Finland and Sweden) as well as in other parts of the world. In particular, major oil and gas importers (China, India, Japan and South Korea) are interested in the Arctic energy resources, the main non-regional countries with a capability to engage in the region. The obvious importance of the regional energy and mineral resources makes the division of the region among the regional countries crucial. The melting of the Arctic ice will also lead to the availability for at least a few months a year of a Northern Sea Route and a Northwest Passage connecting Europe to North America and the North-Eastern part of Asia. The importance of these northern routes and the Arctic mineral and energy resources is contributing to a growing military presence of mainly the USA and Russia in this region, which could lead to an arms race. This book offers invaluable insights on the issues that have grave implications for energy security and geopolitics in the arctic. Contents:Introduction (Hooman Peimani)Is the Arctic Melting?From White to Blue: The Shrinking Arctic Cryosphere (Shawn J Marshall)Possible Changes of the Russian Arctic Environment Under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors (Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Makeev)What are the Stakes for the Littoral States?The Transnational Arctic and Russia (Nadezhda Klimovna Kharlampyeva)Norway and Russia: Neighbours with Strong Interests in the Arctic (Arild Moe)What are the Interests of the Non-Regional Large Economies?The Arctic: Geopolitics, International Relations and Energy Security — A View from India (Neil Gadihoke)The Arctic and Japan: Energy Security and Climate Security (Hiroshi Ohta)The Arctic Governance and the EU “Soft Power” (Danila Bochkarev)Conclusion (Hooman Peimani) Readership: Graduates and researchers studying energy economics, governments, embassies, military institutes, research institutes, international organizations, environmental entities, energy (oil, gas and coal) and mining corporations and shipping companies. Keywords:Arctic;Melting Arctic Ice;Arctic Shrinkage;Arctic Council;Northern Sea Route;Northwest Sea Passage;Oil Exploration;Gas Exploration;Energy Security;Geopolitics;Global Warming;Rising Sea LevelsKey Features:Only book on the Arctic focussing not just on environmental issues, but also on political, economic, energy and military/security issues geared towards the ArcticSignifies the emerging climate change-energy security-conflict nexusPolicy-oriented work designed for decision-makers
Categories: Business & Economics

Society Environment and Human Security in the Arctic Barents Region

Society  Environment and Human Security in the Arctic Barents Region

The threats arising out of these pressures result in human security challenges. This book analyses the formation, and promotion, of societal security within the context of the Arctic-Barents Region.

Author: Kamrul Hossain

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351171229

Category: Nature

Page: 216

View: 740

The Arctic-Barents Region is facing numerous pressures from a variety of sources, including the effect of environmental changes and extractive industrial developments. The threats arising out of these pressures result in human security challenges. This book analyses the formation, and promotion, of societal security within the context of the Arctic-Barents Region. It applies the human security framework, which has increasingly gained currency at the UN level since 1994 (UNDP), as a tool to provide answers to many questions that face the Barents population today. The study explores human security dimensions such as environmental security, economic security, health, food, water, energy, communities, political security and digital security in order to assess the current challenges that the Barents population experiences today or may encounter in the future. In doing so, the book develops a comprehensive analysis of vulnerabilities, challenges and needs in the Barents Region and provides recommendations for new strategies to tackle insecurity and improve the wellbeing of both indigenous and local communities. This book will be a valuable tool for academics, policy-makers and students interested in environmental and human security, sustainable development, environmental studies and the Arctic and Barents Region in particular.
Categories: Nature

Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic

Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic

The book also investigates what the main characteristics of governance in the Arctic are, and how institutions and regimes can promote stability and security in the region. The volume maintains two layers of focus.

Author: Rolf Tamnes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317801597

Category: Political Science

Page: 198

View: 734

Written by a group of leading experts on Artic affairs, this book offers a historically informed and comprehensive study of the geopolitics and security challenges of the Arctic. The key aim of the work is to identify the conditions for cooperation, stability and peace in the Arctic and to reach beyond simple description and expectation in order to explore in depth some of the main factors that will determine the future of international relations in the region. Furthermore, it addresses key topics such as the geopolitical significance of the Arctic and the importance of oil and gas resources in the Arctic. The book also investigates what the main characteristics of governance in the Arctic are, and how institutions and regimes can promote stability and security in the region. The volume maintains two layers of focus. The first relates to the dynamics within the Arctic and the second to developments outside the region, highlighting that we cannot understand the Arctic in isolation from global developments such as energy markets, security conflicts and NATO-Russian antagonism. This book will be of much interest to students of Arctic politics, security studies, geopolitics, Russian and Scandinavian politics, and international relations in general.
Categories: Political Science

The Oceans and Environmental Security

The Oceans and Environmental Security

The MARPOL " Special Areas " Regime for the Arctic Ocean Protection of the arctic marine environment would be ... powers to control compliance by foreign ships . On the other hand , the Arctic 178 THE OCEANS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY.

Author: James Broadus

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1559632356

Category: Nature

Page: 328

View: 950

The concept of environmental security, drawing on the widely understood notion of international strategic interdependence (in facing, for example, threats of nuclear war or economic collapse) is gaining currency as a way of thinking about international environmental management.In 1989, the Institute for World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Marine Policy Center of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution instituted a joint project to examine environmental security as it applies to the world's oceans. The Oceans and Environmental Security is a unified expression of their findings.The oceans, as global commons, are of central importance to issues of international environmental security. Critical problems are those that are likely to destabilize normal relations between nations and provoke international countermeasures. As such, the book focuses on seven specific concerns: land-based marine pollution North Pacific fisheries depletion hazardous materials transport nuclear contamination the Arctic Ocean the Southern Ocean and Antarctica the Law of the Sea
Categories: Nature

Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic

Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic

Interplay with the Law of the Sea Convention”, Marine Policy, 31 (4): 402–8. Stokke, O. S. (2011a) “Environmental Security in the Arctic: The Case for Multilevel Governance”, International Journal, 66 (Autumn): 835–48.

Author: Rolf Tamnes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317801580

Category: Political Science

Page: 198

View: 513

Written by a group of leading experts on Artic affairs, this book offers a historically informed and comprehensive study of the geopolitics and security challenges of the Arctic. The key aim of the work is to identify the conditions for cooperation, stability and peace in the Arctic and to reach beyond simple description and expectation in order to explore in depth some of the main factors that will determine the future of international relations in the region. Furthermore, it addresses key topics such as the geopolitical significance of the Arctic and the importance of oil and gas resources in the Arctic. The book also investigates what the main characteristics of governance in the Arctic are, and how institutions and regimes can promote stability and security in the region. The volume maintains two layers of focus. The first relates to the dynamics within the Arctic and the second to developments outside the region, highlighting that we cannot understand the Arctic in isolation from global developments such as energy markets, security conflicts and NATO-Russian antagonism. This book will be of much interest to students of Arctic politics, security studies, geopolitics, Russian and Scandinavian politics, and international relations in general.
Categories: Political Science

The Northern Sea Route

The Northern Sea Route

In: Berkman, P., Vylegzhanin, A. (Eds.), Environmental security in the Arctic Ocean. Dordrecht: Springer, 205–218. Åtland, K. 2011. Russia's armed forces and the Arctic: All quiet on the northern front? Contemporary Security Policy ...

Author: Marcus Matthias Keupp

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783658040819

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 134

View: 282

The topic, "Northern Sea Route" has become a highly relevant point on the strategic radar screen of many business and military leaders, since global climate change now opens up a hitherto impassable sea route and positions it as a strategic alternative to the Suez route. Add to this the discovery of many easily extractable commodities and metals in the arctic area. For entrepreneurs, this setting offers new opportunities and risks; for academics, a new research context emerges. The book discusses the strategic, economic, logistic, judicial and military challenges of the future great game in the arctic sea.
Categories: Business & Economics

Governing Arctic Change

Governing Arctic Change

This volume explores the governance of the transforming Arctic from an international perspective.

Author: Kathrin Keil

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137508843

Category: Political Science

Page: 319

View: 802

This volume explores the governance of the transforming Arctic from an international perspective. Leading and emerging scholars in Arctic research investigate the international causes and consequences of contemporary Arctic developments, and assess how both state and non-state actors respond to crucial problems for the global community. Long treated as a remote and isolated region, climate change and economic prospects have put the Arctic at the forefront of political agendas from the local to the global level, and this book tackles the variety of involved actors, institutional politics, relevant policy issues, as well as political imaginaries related to a globalizing Arctic. It covers new institutional forms of various stakeholder engagement on multiple levels, governance strategies to combat climate change that affect the Arctic region sooner and more strongly than other regions, the pros and cons of Arctic resource development for the region and beyond, and local and trans-boundary pollution concerns. Given the growing relevance of the Arctic to international environmental, energy and security politics, the volume helps to explain how the region is governed in times of global nexuses, multi-level politics and multi-stakeholderism.
Categories: Political Science

Routledge Handbook of Arctic Security

Routledge Handbook of Arctic Security

Arctic communities will continue to experience unique forms of environmental insecurity, as environmental security in the future ... 23 June 2015. www.cryopolitics.com/2015/06/23/the-donut-hole-at-the-center-of-the-arctic-ocean/.

Author: Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351968232

Category: Political Science

Page: 462

View: 570

The Routledge Handbook of Arctic Security offers a comprehensive examination of security in the region, encompassing both state-based and militarized notions of security, as well as broader security perspectives reflecting debates about changes in climate, environment, economies, and societies. Since the turn of the century, the Arctic has increasingly been in the global spotlight, resulting in the often invoked idea of “Arctic exceptionalism” being questioned. At the same time, the unconventional political power which the Arctic’s Indigenous peoples hold calls into question conventional ideas about geopolitics and security. This handbook examines security in this region, revealing contestations and complementarities between narrower, state-based and/or militarized notions of security and broader security perspectives reflecting concerns and debates about changes in climate, environment, economies, and societies. The volume is split into five thematic parts: • Theorizing Arctic Security • The Arctic Powers • Security in the Arctic through Governance • Non-Arctic States, Regional and International Organizations • People, States, and Security. This book will be of great interest to students of Arctic politics, global governance, geography, security studies, and International Relations.
Categories: Political Science

Arctic Ocean Shipping

Arctic Ocean Shipping

In Arctic Ocean Shipping, Donald R. Rothwell assesses contemporary navigation, security and sovereignty issues in the North American Arctic.

Author: Donald R. Rothwell

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004363885

Category: Law

Page: 96

View: 601

In Arctic Ocean Shipping, Donald R. Rothwell assesses contemporary navigation, security and sovereignty issues in the North American Arctic. Multiple issues are raised regarding the existing legal regime and maritime security, including how Canada and the United States will respond to interest being expressed in Arctic shipping by Asian States.
Categories: Law

Northern Sustainabilities Understanding and Addressing Change in the Circumpolar World

Northern Sustainabilities  Understanding and Addressing Change in the Circumpolar World

Retrieved from http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/environment-and-people/oceans/search-andrescue/209-sar-exercise-whitehorse Arctic Council. ... The European Arctic after the Cold War: How can we analyze it in terms of security?

Author: Gail Fondahl

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319461502

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 179

This edited volume examines the multiple dimensions of sustainability in the Circumpolar North, a territory facing unprecedented environmental and social challenges at the start of the 21st century. The chapters explore the cultural, economic, political and environmental aspects of sustainability, as well as examples of successful research collaboration with northern and indigenous communities. By examining a wide range of issues and places, the contributions highlight the diversity of the Circumpolar North, the challenges and opportunities it faces, and the ways in which people and communities are adapting to and influencing the changing circumstances of this dynamic region. Contributors include both Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers from eleven different countries and from across the career spectrum. This book will appeal to an academic audience interested in the manifold facets of sustainability in the Arctic and sub-arctic regions of the world.
Categories: Science