English Fiction Since 1984

English Fiction Since 1984

This book focuses on representative novels by eleven key English novelists who have broken from the realist novel of the post Second World War period.

Author: B. Finney

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230207073

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 233

View: 286

This book focuses on representative novels by eleven key English novelists who have broken from the realist novel of the post Second World War period. They have reacted to the Thatcherite revolution that thrust Britain into the modern world of multi-national capitalism by giving unusual fictional shape to the impact of global events and culture.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Aesthetics and Ethics in Twenty First Century British Novels

Aesthetics and Ethics in Twenty First Century British Novels

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 6 See Paul Gilroy, 'It ain't where you're from, ... 2005); Brian Finney, English Fiction Since 1984: Narrating a Nation ...

Author: Peter Childs

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781441135568

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 192

View: 482

A fresh set of concerns face the twenty-first century British novelist. In this study of the four key novelists Zadie Smith, Nadeem Aslam, Hari Kunzru and David Mitchell, the the changes in narrative approaches and critical directions of a new post-1989 fiction are explored. Close readings of the writers are informed by a range of contemporary theorists, critics and commentators to reveal the emphases of twenty-first century fiction. Terror, fear, consumerism, multinationalism, and corporatism: the terms circulating in culture and social networks are evident in Smith's faith in ethical living, Aslam's consideration of multiculturalism, the novels Kunzru builds around the politics of identity and in the importance Mitchell places on the interconnectedness of human life. By putting the emergence of a new British literary dynamic in the context of ethical as well as global contexts, this study analyzes the transformed fictional perceptions of a world no longer defined by the stand off of super powers.
Categories: Literary Criticism

The Contemporary British Historical Novel

The Contemporary British Historical Novel

Connor, Steven, The English Novel in History 1950–1995 (London: Routledge, 1996). ... Finney, Brian, English Fiction since 1984: Narrating a Nation ...

Author: M. Boccardi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230240803

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 193

View: 768

A detailed study of an increasingly popular genre, this book offers readings of a group of significant and representative works, drawing on a range of interpretative strategies to examine the ways in which the contemporary historical novel engages with questions of nation and identity to illuminate Britain's post-imperial condition.
Categories: Literary Criticism

John Fowles

John Fowles

James Acheson is former Senior Lecturer in English at the University of Canterbury in ... Martin Amis, English Fiction Since 1984: Narrating a Nation and ...

Author: James Acheson

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781137244406

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 208

View: 398

John Fowles (1926-2005) has the distinction of being both a best-selling novelist and one whose work has earned the respect of academic critics. This vibrant collection of original essays sheds new critical light on all of Fowles's writings, with a special focus on The French Lieutenant's Woman as the most widely studied of his works. The stellar cast of contributors offers an outstanding range of expertise on Fowles, providing fresh reassessments and new perspectives on his fiction and non-fiction.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Indian English Literature

Indian English Literature

Goyal , B.S. , “ Indo - English Novel Since 1947 , ” Culture and Commitment , Meerut : Shalabh Book House , 1984 . Iyengar , K.R. Srinivasa , Indian Writing ...

Author: Ed. Basavaraj Naikar

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 812690593X

Category: Indic literature (English)

Page: 256

View: 678

In Recent Years, The Indian English Literature Has Made Conspicuous Progress In All Its Forms, Mainly In Fiction And Poetry. The Present Anthology Aims At Presenting An In-Depth Study Of Twenty-One Authors Who Are Both Established As Well As Upcoming Writers: Nissim Ezekiel, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Girish Karnad, R.K. Narayan, Raja Rao, Manohar Malgonkar, Bhabani Bhattacharya, Taslima Nasrin, Salman Rushdie, Anita Desai, Shashi Deshpande, Amitav Ghosh, Vikram Seth, Githa Hariharan, Kavita Daswani, Manju Kapoor, M.N. Roy, Sri. Aurobindo, Mahatma Gandhi, Lohia And Ambedkar. The Articles On Poets Contained In This Anthology Acquaint The Readers With The Fluctuating Scene Of Thematic Concerns And Technical Experimentations In Indian English Poetry. All Other Articles Are Also Unique Of Its Kind, Reflecting The Above-Mentioned Authors Treatment Of Their Chosen Literary Genre.Since Most Of The Authors Included In The Present Volume For Discussion Are Prescribed In The English Syllabus In The Various Indian Universities, It Is Hoped That Both The Teachers And Students Will Find Them Extremely Useful. Even The General Readers Who Are Interested In Literature In English Will Find Them Intellectually Stimulating.
Categories: Indic literature (English)

Oscar Wilde s Chatterton

Oscar Wilde s Chatterton

Roscius Anglicanus, or, an Historical View of the Stage, from 1660 to 1706. ... Survey of English Literature, 1780–1830. ... English Fiction since 1984.

Author: Joseph Bristow

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300213263

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 488

View: 473

This book explores Oscar Wilde’s fascination with the eighteenth-century forger Thomas Chatterton, who tragically took his life at the age of seventeen. This innovative study combines a scholarly monograph with a textual edition of the extensive notes that Wilde took on the brilliant forger who inspired not only Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Keats but also Victorian artists and authors. Bristow and Mitchell argue that Wilde’s substantial “Chatterton” notebook, which previous scholars have deemed a work of plagiarism, is central to his development as a gifted writer of criticism, drama, fiction, and poetry. This volume reveals that Wilde’s research on Chatterton informs his deepest engagements with Romanticism, plagiarism, and forgery, especially in his later works. Grounded in painstaking archival research that draws on previously undiscovered sources, Oscar Wilde’s Chatterton explains why, in Wilde’s personal canon of great writers, Chatterton stood as an equal in this most distinguished company.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Making Sense of the Holocaust by Means of Backward Narration

Making Sense of the Holocaust by Means of Backward Narration

In the novel, the story of the Nazi doctor Odilo Unverdorben is narrated vice versa, following his life from end to start through the eyes of a ghostlike narrator who emerges at the point of his death.

Author: Thomas Neumann

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783638046213

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 16

View: 982

Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,0, University of Augsburg, course: Literature and the Holocaust, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The problem of finding appropriate ways to represent the Holocaust has been haunting Holocaust literature ever since Theodor Adorno's famous dictum that there cannot be any poetry after Auschwitz. In fact, the uniqueness of the Holocaust raises serious ethical questions whether there can be any appropriate representation of these atrocious events at all. As the horror of Auschwitz goes beyond human imagination, the problem boils down to the one question: How can you imagine the unimaginable? Martin Amis's novel Time's Arrow or the Nature of the Offence (1991) has a rather bold answer to this question: by narrating it backwards. In the novel, the story of the Nazi doctor Odilo Unverdorben is narrated vice versa, following his life from end to start through the eyes of a ghostlike narrator who emerges at the point of his death. As the technique of backward narration distinguishes Time's Arrow from almost any other Holocaust fiction, in the following my focus will be on the novel's use of narrative reversal to represent the Holocaust. I will argue that the technique of backward narration offers a way to make sense of the Holocaust and Nazism in general, thereby showing that the novel's form and content are inseparably linked. In order to do this, I will first go over some of the negative criticism that Time's Arrow was exposed to, focusing on the problem of form and content. I will then show how backward narration offers a solution to specific problems in Holocaust literature and how it helps to avoid the danger of aestheticising Auschwitz. After that, I will point out that backward narration can help to understand the Holocaust, exploring the connections between Nazism and the temporal and moral reversal effected by narrative reversal. Finally I will examine the influence of Robert Jay Lifton's The Nazi Doctors on Time's Arrow. By applying Lifton's theory of psychological doubling to the novel, the close connections between form and content will once again be highlighted.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Grotesque Contemporary British Fiction

Grotesque Contemporary British Fiction

The well-established and continued influence of this group of writers on their contemporaries is difficult to overstate and this book comprises the first serious critical attempt to apprehend their work through the discourse of the ...

Author: Robert Duggan

Publisher:

ISBN: 1526127172

Category:

Page: 284

View: 593

The grotesque in contemporary British fiction reveals the extent to which the grotesque endures as a dominant artistic mode in British fiction and presents a new way of understanding six authors who have been at the forefront of British literature over the past four decades. Starting with a sophisticated exploration of the historical development of the grotesque in literature, the book outlines the aesthetic trajectories of Angela Carter, Martin Amis, Ian McEwan, Iain Banks, Will Self and Toby Litt and offers detailed critical readings of key works of modern fiction including The Bloody Chamber (1979), Money (1984), The Child in Time (1987), The Wasp Factory (1984), Great Apes (1997) and Ghost Story (2004). The book shows how the grotesque continues to be a powerful force in contemporary writing and provides an illuminating picture of often controversial aspects of recent fiction.
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The Fictional Art of Arun Joshi

The Fictional Art of Arun Joshi

Pathak , R.S. “ The Alienated Protagonist in the Indo - English Fiction , ” Glimpses of Indo - English Fiction , Vol . ... Scholar Critic 4.6 ( 1984 ) .

Author: Vachaspati Dwivedi

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 8126903821

Category:

Page: 166

View: 972

The Fictional Art Of Arun Joshi: An Existential Perspective Examines The Achievements Of Arun Joshi As A Novelist From A New Perspective. Divided In Six Chapters Followed By Overall Evaluation, It Analyses The Entire Corpus Of Arun Joshi S Novels And Demonstrates That There Is A Pattern In His Works. The Innate Urge To Determine Life S Meaning In Positive Terms Leads Joshi S Protagonists To Wage An Incessant War Against Challenging Situations. The Author S Capacity Of Critical Judgment Is Reflected In The Analysis Of Novels. He Derives Conclusions In A Convincing Manner And The Organisation Of Critical Material Is Remarkable. The Five Substantive Chapters Devoted To Arun Joshi S Five Novels Have Been Indigenously Designed In Such A Way That The Arguments Are Corroborated By Textual Citations. The Endeavour Is Commendable For The Reason That It Strives To Undo The Injustice Done To One Of The Most Distinguished Indian English Novelists. Joshi Stands In The Line Of Raja Rao And R.K. Narayan For His Perspicuity And Perception That Are Discerningly Indian. It Also Presents The Socio-Economic And Cultural Background Leading To The Literary Milieu Of The Period To Which Joshi Belongs And There Is No Doubt That It Will Make A Valuable Book In Terms Of Its Contribution To The Field Of Scholarship Pertaining To Arun Joshi.
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Structures of Opposition in Old English Poems

Structures of Opposition in Old English Poems

A Documentary Conspectus from Contemporary Periodicals . ... Amsterdam 1984. 274 pp . ... STUDIES IN SEVENTEENTH - CENTURY ENGLISH LITERATURE , HISTORY AND ...

Author: Marie Nelson

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 905183134X

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 195

View: 532

Categories: Literary Criticism

Madness in Post 1945 British and American Fiction

Madness in Post 1945 British and American Fiction

heated and, at times, hysterical debate about what had happened to English literature (Jenkins, 1981; Williams, 1984a, 1984b). At the heart of this crisis ...

Author: C. Baker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230290440

Category: Fiction

Page: 223

View: 355

A comprehensive and thematic exploration of representations of madness in postwar British and American Fiction, this book is relevant to those with interests in literary studies and is a vital read for psychiatric clinicians and professionals who are interested in how literature can inform and enhance clinical practices.
Categories: Fiction

The Image of the English Gentleman in Twentieth Century Literature

The Image of the English Gentleman in Twentieth Century Literature

Munton, Alan, English Fiction of the Second World War (London: Faber & Faber ... 1984) Parker, Peter, The Old Lie: The Great War and the Public-School Ethos ...

Author: Dr Christine Berberich

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9781409489979

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 218

View: 636

Studies of the English gentleman have tended to focus mainly on the nineteenth century, encouraging the implicit assumption that this influential literary trope has less resonance for twentieth-century literature and culture. Christine Berberich challenges this notion by showing that the English gentleman has proven to be a remarkably adaptable and relevant ideal that continues to influence not only literature but other forms of representation, including the media and advertising industries. Focusing on Siegfried Sassoon, Anthony Powell, Evelyn Waugh and Kazuo Ishiguro, whose presentations of the gentlemanly ideal are analysed in their specific cultural, historical, and sociological contexts, Berberich pays particular attention to the role of nostalgia and its relationship to 'Englishness'. Though 'Englishness' and by extension the English gentleman continue to be linked to depictions of England as the green and pleasant land of imagined bygone days, Berberich counterbalances this perception by showing that the figure of the English gentleman is the medium through which these authors and many of their contemporaries critique the shifting mores of contemporary society. Twentieth-century depictions of the gentleman thus have much to tell us about rapidly changing conceptions of national, class, and gender identity.
Categories: Literary Criticism

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

53–135 · Christensen , Russell P. , The Blind Owland Other Hidayat Stories , Minneapolis , 1984 · Costello , D.P. , The Blind Owl , New York / London ...

Author: Peter France

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199247846

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 656

View: 977

This guide highlights the place of translation in our culture, encouraging awareness of the process of translating and the choices involved, making the translator more 'visible'. Concentrating on major writers and works, it covers translations out of many languages, from Greek to Hungarian, Korean to Turkish. For some works (e.g. Virgil's Aeneid) which have been much translated, the discussion is historical and critical, showing how translation has evolved over the centuries and bringing out the differences between versions. Elsewhere, with less familiar literatures, the Guide examines the extent to which translation has done justice to the range of work available.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Foucault and Fiction

Foucault and Fiction

[This interview was originally conducted and published in English, and the French ... in Foucault, Michel (1997), Essential Works of Foucault 1954–1984, ...

Author: Timothy O'Leary

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781441190215

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 762

Foucault and Fiction develops a unique approach to thinking about the power of literature by drawing upon the often neglected concept of experience in Foucault's work. For Foucault, an 'experience book' is a book which transforms our experience by acting on us in a direct and unsettling way. Timothy O'Leary develops and applies this concept to literary texts. Starting from the premise that works of literature are capable of having a profound effect on their audiences, he suggests a way of understanding how these effects are produced. Offering extended analyses of Irish writers such as Swift, Joyce, Beckett, Friel and Heaney, O'Leary draws on Foucault's concept of experience as well as the work of Dewey, Gadamer, and Deleuze and Guattari. Combining these resources, he proposes a new approach to the ethics of literature. Of interest to readers in both philosophy and literary studies, this book offers new insights into Foucault's mature philosophy and an improved understanding of what it is to read and be affected by a work of fiction.
Categories: Philosophy

The Life of Kingsley Amis

The Life of Kingsley Amis

Randall Stevenson, The British Novel since the Thirties (London: Batsford, ... 1984). D.]. Taylor, A Vain Conceit: British Fiction in the 1980s (London: ...

Author: Zachary Leader

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 9781446418161

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 1008

View: 406

In this authorised biography, Zachary Leader argues that Kingsley Amis was not only the finest comic novelist of his generation, but a dominant figure in post-war British writing, as novelist, poet, critic and polemicist. Drawing not only on interviews with a range of Amis's friends, relatives, fellow writers, students and colleagues, many of them never before consulted, but also on hundreds of previously unpublished letters, Leader's biography will for the first time give a full picture of Amis's childhood, school days, life as a teacher, critic, political and cultural commentator, professional author, husband, father and lover. He explores Amis's fears and phobias, and the role that drink played in his life. And of course he pays due attention to Amis's work. As the editor of The Letters of Kingsley Amis, hailed in The Sunday Telegraph as 'one of the last major monuments to the epistolary art', Leader is more than qualified to be his authorised biographer. His book will surprise, entertain and illuminate.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

Character and Satire in Post War Fiction

Character and Satire in Post War Fiction

Ermarth, E. D. Realism and Consensus in the English Novel: Time, ... London: Jonathan Cape, 1984. ... Hilfer, T. American Fiction Since 1940.

Author: Ian Gregson

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781847142139

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 192

View: 156

This monograph analyses the use of caricature as one of the key strategies in narrative fiction since the war. Close analysis of some of the best known postwar novelists including Toni Morrison, Philip Roth, Joyce Carol Oates, Angela Carter and Will Self, reveals how they use caricature to express postmodern conceptions of the self. In the process of moving away from the modernist focus on subjectivity, postmodern characterisation has often drawn on a much older satirical tradition which includes Hogarth and Gillray in the visual arts, and Dryden, Pope, Swift and Dickens in literature. Its key images depict the human as reduced to the status of an object, an animal or a machine, or the human body as dismembered to represent the fragmentation of the human spirit. Gregson argues that this return to caricature is symptomatic of a satirical attitude to the self which is particularly characteristic of contemporary culture.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Class Fictions

Class Fictions

Women , Power , and Subversion : Social Strategies in British Fiction ... The Socialist Novel in Britain . ... New York : Schocken , 1983 , 1984 .

Author: Pamela Fox

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822315424

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 241

View: 793

The author looks at class-specific writing as a mode of resistance developed within the modern British working-class literary project. She focuses on fictional narratives produced between 1890 and 1945 and analyzes the historical forces that fostered the development of an identifiable class outlook, such as the rise of the Labour party, trade union activism, and the Labour College movement. She discusses the public/private domain of working-class culture, and romance and the politics of resistance in working-class writing. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Categories: Literary Criticism

CliffsNotes on Orwell s 1984

CliffsNotes on Orwell s 1984

Science fiction, English--Examinations--Study guides. 4. Totalitarianism and literature. 5. Dystopias in literature. I. Title: 1984. PR6029.

Author: Nikki Moustaki

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780544179301

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 84

View: 120

The original CliffsNotes study guides offer expert commentary on major themes, plots, characters, literary devices, and historical background. The latest generation of titles in this series also features glossaries and visual elements that complement the classic, familiar format. CliffsNotes on 1984 introduces you to the modern world as imagined by George Orwell, a place where humans have no control over their own lives, where nearly every positive feeling is squelched, and where people live in misery, fear, and repression. Orwell's vision of the future may be grim, but your understanding of his novel can be bright thanks to detailed summaries and commentaries for every chapter. Other features that help you study include Character analyses of major players A character map that graphically illustrates the relationships among the characters Critical essays A review section that tests your knowledge A Resource Center full of books, articles, films, and Internet sites Classic literature or modern-day treasure—you'll understand it all with expert information and insight from CliffsNotes study guides.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Major Trends in the Post independence Indian English Fiction

Major Trends in the Post independence Indian English Fiction

Ed . , 1984 ) , 320 . 2. Dorothy M. Spencer , Indian Fiction in English , An annotated Bibliography ( Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press ...

Author: B. R. Agrawal

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 8126902949

Category: Indic fiction (English)

Page: 278

View: 624

This Book Presents A Reasonably Comprehensive Account Of The Development Of The Indian English Novel Since Independence. The Novel During The Colonial Period Has A Different Outlook And Was More Concerned With The Problems Of The Indian People Suffering Under The British Yoke. After Independence The Indian Writers Looked At The Indian Scene From The Postcolonial Point Of View. There Were New Hopes, No Doubt, But The Problems Social, Economic, Religious, Political And Familial That Were Submerged In The Flood Of The National Movement Emerged And Drew Attention Of The Creative Writers. The Partition, The Communal Riots After Partition, The Problem Of Casteism, The Subjugation Of Women, The Poverty Of The Illiterate Masses Became The Focal Points. Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, R.K. Narayan, Nayantara Sahgal And Kamala Markandaya In The Beginning Wrote Novels Of Social Realism In The Fifties.But After The Sixties, New Trends Emerged. Writers Like Anita Desai, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Bhabani Bhattacharya, G.V. Desani, Chaman Nahal, Manohar Malgonkar And B. Rajan Portrayed The Picture Of The Post-Independence Indian Society. The Stream Of The Early Fifties Now Turned Into A Broad River With New Currents And Cross Currents. The Old Traditional Method Of Novel Writing Gave Way To Modern Techniques.The Indian English Novel Took Further Strides In The Eighties And The Decades That Followed It. Salman Rushdie Can Be Said To Be The Leader Of The New Trend. Shashi Deshpande And Arundhati Roy Followed Suit.This Book Divided Into Six Chapters Surveys And Discusses The Major Trends In The Post- Independence Indian English Novel. The Major Writers Discussed Apart From The Trio, R.K. Narayan, Raja Rao And Mulk Raj Anand Are Bhabani Bhattacharya, Nayantara Sahgal, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Anita Desai, Arundhati Roy And Kamala Markandaya.This Book Will Be Of Immense Help To The Students Of Indian English Fiction And The General Reader.
Categories: Indic fiction (English)

1984

1984

The book has been adapted into television programmes, films, radio broadcasts and plays. In 2003, the book was number 8 on BBC's survey The Big Read.

Author: George Orwell

Publisher: General Press

ISBN: 8193545834

Category:

Page: 246

View: 950

1984, published in 1949, is a dystopian and satirical novel. It revolves around Winston Smith, who lives in a nation called Oceania, in a province called Airstrip One, which represents present-day England. This state is controlled by the Party, headed by a mysterious leader who is addressed as Emmanuel Goldstein, also known as the Big Brother. The Party watches every single move that Smith and other citizens make. The nation's language and history is forcefully changed for the benefit of the Party. A new language, Newspeak, is being compulsively implemented to ensure works that have anything to do with political rebellion are omitted. In Oceania, even rebellious thoughts are illegal and are said to be the worst of all crimes. The people are suppressed and any form of individuality is not tolerated, including love and sex. Smith works as a low-ranking member of the Party who alters historical records. He hates the Party and thus buys an illegal diary in which he pens down his thoughts. He meets Julia, a coworker, who seems to been romantically inclined towards him. He however doubts that she is a Party spy who will get him imprisoned for his 'thoughtcrimes'. Her love turns out to be true and they have a covert affair. Smith's hatred for the Party grows day by day and he is convinced that a powerful Party official O'Brien is actually trying to overthrow the present government with the help of a secret group named the Brotherhood. As the story goes on, readers learn the twists and turns that life in Oceania has in store for Smith. He faces terror, betrayal, freedom, and a broken spirit. 1984 is the author's haunting vision of the future. The book has been adapted into television programmes, films, radio broadcasts and plays. In 2003, the book was number 8 on BBC's survey The Big Read. It was 6th and 13th on the reader's and editor's list of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, respectively. In 2005, it was added to the 100 Best English Language Novel from 1923 to 2005 by TIME magazine. ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell (1903-1950), was an English author and journalist. His work is marked by keen intelligence and wit, a profound awareness of social injustice, an intense opposition to totalitarianism, a passion for clarity in language, and a belief in democratic socialism. In addition to his literary career Orwell served as a police officer with the Indian Imperial Police in Burma from 1922-1927 and fought with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1937. He was severely wounded when he was shot through his throat. Orwell and his wife were accused of 'Rabid Trotskyism' and tried in absentia in Barcelona, along with other leaders of the POUM, in 1938. However by then they had escaped from Spain and returned to England. Between 1941 and 1943, Orwell worked on propaganda for the BBC. In 1943, he became literary editor of the Tribune, a weekly left-wing magazine. He was a prolific polemical journalist, article writer, literary critic, reviewer, poet and writer of fiction, and considered perhaps the twentieth century's best chronicler of English culture. Orwell is best known for the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (published in 1949) and the satirical novella Animal Farm (1945)-they have together sold more copies than any two books by any other twentieth-century author. His 1938 book Homage to Catalonia, an account of his experiences as a volunteer on the Republican side during the Spanish Civil War, together with numerous essays on politics, literature, language, and culture, are widely acclaimed. In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of 'The 50 greatest British writers since 1945'.
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