Effectors of Thermogenesis

Effectors of Thermogenesis

Although E and NE act on the same thermogenic effector, their effect is realized via different regulatory sites. Steroid hormones are not necessary for inducing cold resistance and thermogenesis due to NE.

Author: Girardier

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 9783034855594

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 345

One of the most interesting aspects of thermogenesis research is that it quite naturally attracts workers from an extremely wide spectrum of interests, ranging from the mechanism of cellular respiratory control at the molecular level and neuro-hormonal control of energy dissipation both at the cellular level and that of the whole organisms to the mechanism of temperature control during the hibernating cycle and that of cold acclimatation. Thus, the Satellite Symposium on "The Effectors of Thermogenesis" brought together not only physiologists, but also biochemists, pharmacologists, zoologists and clinicians, and provided a forum for the airing of new ideas as well as for the confrontation of different points of view. These are now reproduced in this book in exactly the same form and order in which they were presented at the Symposium, in the hope of providing a bird's-eye view of the various facets of thermogenesis research. A "mini-review", summarizing the current knowledge in each domain, therefore precedes the corresponding papers. The editors are deeply indebted to the contributors of these introductory lectures for so competently selecting from the mass of available information in each field, only the most essential elements. This book is dedicated to Dr. Robert Emrie Smith, a pioneer and path-finder in this field, who organized the first meeting on thermogenesis as a satellite of the XXI International Congress of Physiological Sciences and took an active part in the four subsequent meetings. L. Girardier DEDICATION Dr.
Categories: Science

Mammalian Thermogenesis

Mammalian Thermogenesis

Initially, our problem was to determine whether there was a requirement for a book devoted to current knowledge of the effectors of mammalian thermogenesis. It soon appeared that, even by limiting the field to non-shivering ...

Author: Lucien Girardier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401160322

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 151

an attempt to rationalize these terminological and conceptual difficulties we have considered the origins of mammalian heat production from two different points of view. The scheme depicted in Fig. 1. 1 illustrates the fate of energy in the body as seen by the nutritionist. After allowing for losses of energy in faeces and urine, the metabolizable energy obtained from food is utilized for main taining and increasing body energy content (maintenance, external work, growth and production). The transformation of metabolizable energy into these forms of net energy also involves inevitable energy losses in the form of heat - thermic energy. Similarly, maintaining homeothermy in cold en vironments involves shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and the energy costs of assimilating nutrients and retaining net energy results in obligatory heat losses due to diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). This obligatory DIT is mainly due to the energy cost of protein and fat synthesis but, in addition to this, there is an adaptive component of DIT that helps maintain body energy content (i. e. body weight) by dissipating the metabolizable energy consumed in excess of the requirements for maintenance, growth and production. In Fig. 1. 2, we have converted this nutritionist's scheme (A) into one that A B r-------. . . , I I Production, Growth I I External work I I I I Essential energy expenditure NET BASAL Obligatory 1 I ENERGY Maintenance HEAT heat I FASTING at (BMR) productlpn for t ROC thermoneutrallty homeothermia r.
Categories: Science

Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function

Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function

NEUROENDOCRINE MECHANISMS IN THE THERMOGENIC RESPONSES TO DIET, INFECTION, AND TRAUMA Nancy J. Rothwell University ... Effector Mechanisms of Thermogenesis It was the results of studies on the mechanism of NST that first highlighted the ...

Author: Daniela Jezová

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468457995

Category: Medical

Page: 520

View: 304

During the past several decades, much research effort has gone into the elucidation of the role of neuroendocrine systems as secretory and metabolic regulators of cells of a variety of organs and structures, including the testes, ovaries, adrenals, thyroid, pituitary gland, and mammary glands. However, the role of cells comprising such organs and structures in the modulation of neuroendocrine processes has received considerably less is generally less well appreciated. attention and Nonetheless, it is important that we understand the actions on neuroendocrine systems of substances that reach the brain by way of the vasculature, including hormones, cytokines, toxins, amino acids, drugs, and similar agents. In order to analyze the present state of knowledge on this topic, experimental scientists and clinicians, whose shared interests include actions of circulating agents on the brain, met at a satellite symposium of the XXXI International Congress of Physiological Sciences. This symposium, entitled Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function, was held in Smolenice Castle, Czechoslovakia, June 26-July 1, 1989, and reviews delivered at this symposium as invited presentations are published in this volume. Presentations given as free communications have been published separately and are available in Endocrinologia Experimentalis 24: 1-273, 1990.
Categories: Medical

Strategies in Cold

Strategies in Cold

In: Effectors of Thermogenesis. Girardier, L. and J. Seydoux (editors). Basel: Experientia (In press). Edelman, I. S. and F. Ismail—Beigi. Thyroid thermogenesis and active sodium transport. Recent Prog. Hormone Res. 30: 235-257, 1974.

Author: Lawrence C.H. Wang

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323141680

Category: Nature

Page: 730

View: 356

Strategies in Cold: Natural Torpidity and Thermogenesis is a collection of review papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Mammalian Hibernation, held at Jasper Park Lodge, Alberta, Canada on October 3-8, 1977. The book is organized into four sections encompassing 20 chapters that cover the advances made since the 1971 symposium in the areas of molecular, biochemical, and cellular adaptations of natural torpidity and the role of the central nervous system in regulation of natural torpidity. The opening section discusses the possible ways of generating circannual cycle in constant condition and the historical progress in understanding the mechanism of shallow, daily torpor and its distribution in various families predominantly from the marsupial, insectivore, and rodent orders. The application of simple economic models to biological systems to illustrate the principles of torpor in non-mammalian organisms and temperature regulation is also described in this text. Section II examines the central nervous structures involved in thermoregulation in hibernators and compares these data with the results of corresponding experiments in non-hibernators. Topics on the influence of serotonergic pathways in the brain on hypothalamic hormonal factor release and the maintenance and regulation of hibernation through a parasympathetic response are discussed in this section. Section III deals with the cellular and biochemical adaptations in natural torpidity, with an emphasis on the metabolic and endocrine changes in hibernation. Section IV tackles postulated mechanisms for nonshivering thermogenesis and the neurohumoral factors regulating these mechanisms in mammals exposed to short-term as well as to prolonged periods of cold. A discussion on significance and possible central mechanisms of thermoregulatory threshold deviations in the course of thermal adaptation is also provided.
Categories: Nature

Current Challenges for Targeting Brown Fat Thermogenesis to Combat Obesity

Current Challenges for Targeting Brown Fat Thermogenesis to Combat Obesity

... 5,6-EET as novel compounds associated with the recruitment of brown and brite adipocytes in mice and humans. Further studies need to establish whether these oxylipins are mere markers or functional effectors of thermogenic capacity.

Author: Takeshi Yoneshiro

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889662821

Category: Science

Page:

View: 113

Categories: Science

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E Book

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E Book

Receptors WR body core Hypothal post Interneurons Effector neurons SC NR Lower brain stem Heat prod Effectors Heat loss CR Receptorsskin WR Figure 46-8 Highly ... Cold receptors directly activate the effectors for thermogenesis.

Author: Richard A. Polin

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323352321

Category: Medical

Page: 2050

View: 752

Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.
Categories: Medical

Clinical Obesity in Adults and Children

Clinical Obesity in Adults and Children

Peripheral effectors of thermogenesis Of particular interest for SNS-mediated thermogenesis is the potential control by NE over biochemical mechanisms, the activation of which leads either to an increased use of ATP (e.g. ion pumping ...

Author: Peter G. Kopelman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444307630

Category: Medical

Page: 512

View: 525

Obesity is a major problem facing doctors in the 21st century.This third edition of a highly-respected textbook combines thelatest in clinical research with a practical approach to guide thesuccessful evaluation, management and treatment of the obesepatient including the large number of complications and otherconditions that can arise as a consequence of it. Written by experts from around the globe, this book is a trulyinternational work recognizing that the approach for the treatmentand management of obesity may vary between differing ethnicitiesand in different countries. The book addresses obesity and itssocial and cultural aspects, biology, associated diseases, lifestages (pediatric and adult), management, and environmental policyapproaches in six sections. As well as covering the latestapproaches to treatment of obesity, Clinical Obesity in Adultsand Children considers the effects of the environment, ofgender and of culture on this problem. This is an invaluable resource for all health careprofessionals, research scientists and public health practitionersinvolved in the prevention and care of patients who are at risk ofobesity or are already obese.
Categories: Medical

Experientia

Experientia

If the latter controls thermogenesis through brown adipose tissue or other effectors ( Fig . 1 ) , a link would have been established between energy intake and output . This might contribute to explain the " regulatory thermogenesis " ...

Author: Jean Mauron

Publisher:

ISBN: UCLA:31158008959693

Category: Nutrition

Page: 382

View: 989

Categories: Nutrition