Educational Research Discourses of Change and Changes of Discourse

Educational Research  Discourses of Change and Changes of Discourse

This collection addresses concepts and theories of change, contexts and functions of reform discourses, and fields of change in educational research.

Author: Paul Smeyers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319304564

Category: Education

Page: 227

View: 726

This collection addresses concepts and theories of change, contexts and functions of reform discourses, and fields of change in educational research. It examines a wide variety of issues such as girls’ education in France, educational neuroscience, the professionalization in Child Protection, and mathematics discourses. It pays attention to the pervasiveness of crisis rhetoric in American Education Research, to the current university climate, and to perspectives for teacher education. The volume presents in-depth studies that integrate the perspective of history and philosophy of education. Educational research has been typically carried out within a discourse of change: changing educational practice, changing policy, or changing the world. Sometimes these expectations have been grand, as in claims of emancipation; sometimes they have been more modest, as in research as a support for specific reforms. This book explores the answers to such questions as: Are these expectations justified? How have these discourses of change themselves changed over time? What have researchers meant by change, and related concepts such as reform, improvement, innovation, progress and the new? Does this teleological and hopeful discourse itself reflect a particular historical and national/cultural point of view? Is it over promising for educational research to claim to solve social problems, and are these properly understood as educational problems? In doing so, it challenges prevailing ideas about the application of philosophy and history of education, and demonstrates the relevance of philosophical and historical approaches for the practice and theory of education and for educational research. This publication, as well as the ones that are mentioned in the preliminary pages of this work, were realized by the Research Community (FWO Vlaanderen / Research Foundation Flanders, Belgium) Philosophy and History of the Discipline of Education: Faces and Spaces of Educational Research.
Categories: Education

Past Present and Future Possibilities for Philosophy and History of Education

Past  Present  and Future Possibilities for Philosophy and History of Education

Journal of Philosophy of Education, 50(1). Smeyers, P., & Depaepe, M. (Eds.). (2016). Educational research: Discourses of change and changes of discourse.

Author: Stefan Ramaekers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319942537

Category: Education

Page: 149

View: 452

On the occasion of the retirement of Paul Smeyers, this book considers the state and status of the philosophy and history of education today. Over the last 20 years, the conditions in which research takes place have changed considerably. They have done so in ways that are often less than favourable to disciplines such as history and philosophy of education, and the space and time for the practices that constitute these disciplines – of reading, of writing, of collegiality – is increasingly under pressure. During this time, the Research Community on the History and Philosophy of Educational Research has convened annually to bring its critical lenses to bear on these emergent conditions and to suggest ways that educational research might, or ought to, be done otherwise. As co-founder and co-convenor of the Research Community, this volume explores and recounts Paul Smeyers' development of Wittgensteinian scholarship and its legacy in education, his formative role in the development of philosophy of education as an international field, his many international collaborations, the “useless” educational-philosophical deepening of concepts, and the wider educational-philosophical import of this. This gives rise to consideration of the failure of these fields to halt the changes in the governance and status of the university that threatens them, and those practices that remain and that are emerging in academia that we wish to protect, to pass on to the next generation of researchers in these fields.
Categories: Education

A Companion to Wittgenstein on Education

A Companion to Wittgenstein on Education

In P. Smeyers & M. Depaepe (Eds.), Educational research: Discourses of change and changes of discourse. Dordrecht: Springer. Cavell, S. (1999).

Author: Michael A. Peters

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811031366

Category: Education

Page: 782

View: 236

This book, bringing together contributions by forty-five authors from fourteen countries, represents mostly new material from both emerging and seasoned scholars in the field of philosophy of education. Topics range widely both within and across the four parts of the book: Wittgenstein’s biography and style as an educator and philosopher, illustrating the pedagogical dimensions of his early and late philosophy; Wittgenstein’s thought and methods in relation to other philosophers such as Cavell, Dewey, Foucault, Hegel and the Buddha; contrasting investigations of training in relation to initiation into forms of life, emotions, mathematics and the arts (dance, poetry, film, and drama), including questions from theory of mind (nativism vs. initiation into social practices), neuroscience, primate studies, constructivism and relativity; and the role of Wittgenstein’s philosophy in religious studies and moral philosophy, as well as their profound impact on his own life. This collection explores Wittgenstein not so much as a philosopher who provides a method for teaching or analyzing educational concepts but rather as one who approaches philosophical questions from a pedagogical point of view. Wittgenstein’s philosophy is essentially pedagogical: he provides pictures, drawings, analogies, similes, jokes, equations, dialogues with himself, questions and wrong answers, experiments and so on, as a means of shifting our thinking, or of helping us escape the pictures that hold us captive.
Categories: Education

Navigating Challenges in Qualitative Educational Research

Navigating Challenges in Qualitative Educational Research

In P. Smeyers & M. Depaepe (Eds.) Educational research: Discourses of change and changes of discourse (pp. 9–16). Cham: Springer.

Author: Todd Ruecker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429509247

Category: Education

Page: 224

View: 130

How do education researchers navigate the qualitative research process? How do they manage and negotiate myriad decision points at which things can take an unexpected – and sometimes problematic – turn? Whilst these questions are relevant for any research process, the specific issues qualitative researchers face can have impactful repercussions, that if managed adeptly, can lead to successful and even new research opportunities. Navigating Challenges in Qualitative Educational Research includes narratives that provide real world experiences and accounts of how researchers navigated problematic situations, as well as their considerations in doing so. These contributions give students and researchers a chance to understand the possibilities of research challenges and better prepare for these eventualities and how to deal with them. Providing educative windows into the challenges and missteps even seasoned researchers face along the way, this book is an invaluable resource for graduate students and early career qualitative researchers, particularly those who are interested in education.
Categories: Education

Educational Research Ethics Social Justice and Funding Dynamics

Educational Research  Ethics  Social Justice  and Funding Dynamics

In P. Smeyers & M. Depaepe (Eds.), Educational research: Discourses of change and changes of discourse. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. .... (forthcoming).

Author: Paul Smeyers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319739212

Category: Education

Page: 295

View: 117

This book examines the conduct and purposes of educational research. It looks at values of researchers, at whose interests are served by the research, and the inclusion or exclusion of practitioners and subjects of research. It asks if educational research should be explicitly committed to promoting equality and inclusion, and whether that requires research to be more aware of the cultural and global contexts of research questions. It explores the ethical challenges encountered in the conduct of research and the potential ethical and social justice constraints imposed by comparative research rankings. Next, it discusses the research funding aspects of the above issues both philosophically and historically, thus examining the changing sources, patterns, and effects of educational research funding over time. Since the conduct of most educational research increasingly requires institutional and financial support, the question is whether funding shapes the content of research, and what counts as research. The book discusses if funding is a factor in the shift of efforts of researchers from pure or basic research to more applied research, and if it encourages the development of large research teams, to the detriment of individual scholars. It looks at the ownership of the content, results, and data of publicly funded research. Finally, it tries to establish whether scholars solicit funding to support research projects, or generate research projects to attract funding. This publication, as well as the ones that are mentioned in the preliminary pages of this work, were realized by the Research Community Philosophy and History of the Discipline of Education: Purposes, Projects, and Practices of Educational Research.
Categories: Education

Citizenship for the Learning Society

Citizenship for the Learning Society

... and Finding a Home in the University' in Smeyers, P. and Depaepe, M. (Eds) Educational Research: Discourses of Change and Changes of Discourse, ...

Author: Naomi Hodgson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119152071

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 471

Within Citizenship for the Learning Society, the governance of the learning citizen is mapped in relation to European educational and cultural policy. Prevalent notions of voice and narrative - in policy and in educational research - are analysed in relation to Europe’s history. The text is concerned with the way in which ‘European citizenship’ is understood in current policy, the way in which the term ‘citizenship’ operates, and how learning is central to this Analysis combines educational philosophy and theory with anthropological, sociological, and classic philosophical literature Draws on both Continental European (Foucault, Deleuze, Heidegger, Levinas) and American (Cavell, Emerson, Thoreau) philosophy Material is organised in two parts: Part One discusses the discourses and practices of citizenship in the European learning society, in both educational and cultural policy and educational research, from the perspective of governmentality; Part Two provides analysis of particular aspects of this discourse
Categories: Philosophy

Neuroscience and Education

Neuroscience and Education

“Neurophilia: Guiding Educational Research and the Educational Field?” In Educational Research: Discourses of Change and Changes of Discourse, ...

Author: Clarence W. Joldersma

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317623113

Category: Education

Page: 216

View: 201

This volume makes a philosophical contribution to the application of neuroscience in education. It frames neuroscience research in novel ways around educational conceptualizing and practices, while also taking a critical look at conceptual problems in neuroeducation and at the economic reasons driving the mind-brain education movement. It offers alternative approaches for situating neuroscience in educational research and practice, including non-reductionist models drawing from Dewey and phenomenological philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. The volume gathers together an international bevy of leading philosophers of education who are in a unique position to contribute conceptually rich and theoretically framed insight on these new developments. The essays form an emerging dialogue to be used within philosophy of education as well as neuroeducation, educational psychology, teacher education and curriculum studies.
Categories: Education

Universities as Agencies

Universities as Agencies

Educational Research: Discourses of Change and Changes of Discourse (pp. 101–117). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Laird, T. F. N. (2005).

Author: Tom Christensen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319927138

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 973

This book discusses how modern universities increasingly use reputation management in relation to internal and external challenges. Universities are increasingly characterized by social embeddedness, relating to many external stakeholders and international markets of students, researchers and research projects. This implies global pressure to standardize, formalize and rationalize their internal organization. The book uses data from China, Norway and US to show how reputation symbols are used and balanced, based on their web pages. Further, it uses extensive data from US universities to show how their internal organization structure is developing over time, related to three types of units/positions - development, diversity and legal offices and roles.
Categories: Political Science

Educational Research and Innovation Pedagogical Knowledge and the Changing Nature of the Teaching Profession

Educational Research and Innovation Pedagogical Knowledge and the Changing Nature of the Teaching Profession

“knowing that” (e.g. knowledge of the facts of teaching) and “knowing how” (e.g. ... between vertical and horizontal discourses based on Bernstein's work.

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9789264270695

Category:

Page: 276

View: 797

Highly qualified and competent teachers are fundamental for equitable and effective education systems. Teachers today are facing higher and more complex expectations to help students reach their full potential and become valuable members of 21st century society. The nature and variety of these ...
Categories:

Reframing Educational Research

Reframing Educational Research

Every so often, the communicational meta-rules that regulate research practices change so drastically as to end up producing a new discourse incom- ...

Author: Valerie Farnsworth

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135069667

Category: Education

Page: 248

View: 787

Possibilities for the use of research in educational practice are often written off due to the history, politics and interests of the ostensibly separate worlds that researchers and practitioners occupy. However, a more optimistic account highlights the ways these communities share a common need for practice-based theories, which enable them to make sense of a wide range of issues in education, including pedagogy, learning, and educational equity. In applying theory to situated accounts of various educational practices and learning contexts, this book explores mistaken assumptions about the ways that research can ‘inform’ or otherwise impact practice. It problematises a ‘what works’ agenda but also points to potentially more productive research-practice relationships in education. Experienced contributors describe how they have used a variety of context-sensitive theoretical approaches in the socio-cultural and discursive traditions to both understand practice and address a wide range of practical issues in education. At its core Reframing Educational Research challenges two commonly held assumptions: that "best practice" is readily identifiable in a way that is then transferrable to new contexts for use by practitioners more widely, and that theory will not help with what to do on Monday morning in the classroom or in developing policies with direct and visible impact. Drawing on the experience of a number of highly respected expert contributors, including Mel Ainscow, Harry Daniels, Anna Sfard and Etienne Wenger-Trayner, the book discusses a range of issues that must be explicitly addressed if we are to make headway in developing a sustainable and productive relationship between research, policy and practice. The authors make it clear that the politics, policies, institutional practices, market systems and social dynamics currently at play in education have a tendency to derail the idealised pathway from research to reform. This book aims to move the discussion towards alternative, and potentially more fruitful, ways of linking research with practice. Reframing Educational Research is an invitation to all researchers to identify new opportunities for advancing theory and practice in education. It is a must-read for all practitioners and researchers in education.
Categories: Education

International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research

International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research

Different orders of discourse are characterized by their distinctive configuration of genres, discourses, and styles. Given that these are never ...

Author: Paul Smeyers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789401792820

Category: Education

Page: 1662

View: 530

This handbook focuses on the often neglected dimension of interpretation in educational research. It argues that all educational research is in some sense ‘interpretive’, and that understanding this issue belies some usual dualisms of thought and practice, such as the sharp dichotomy between ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ research. Interpretation extends from the very framing of the research task, through the sources which constitute the data, the process of their recording, representation and analysis, to the way in which the research is finally or provisionally presented. The thesis of the handbook is that interpretation cuts across the fields (both philosophically, organizationally and methodologically). By covering a comprehensive range of research approaches and methodologies, the handbook gives (early career) researchers what they need to know in order to decide what particular methods can offer for various educational research contexts/fields. An extensive overview includes concrete examples of different kinds of research (not limited for example to ‘teaching’ and ‘learning’ examples as present in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, but including as well what in the German Continental tradition is labelled ‘pädagogisch’, examples from child rearing and other contexts of non-formal education) with full description and explanation of why these were chosen in particular circumstances and reflection on the wisdom or otherwise of the choice – combined in each case with consideration of the role of interpretation in the process. The handbook includes examples of a large number of methods traditionally classified as qualitative, interpretive and quantitative used across the area of the study of education. Examples are drawn from across the globe, thus exemplifying the different ‘opportunities and constraints’ that educational research has to confront in different societies.
Categories: Education

The Relationality of Race in Education Research

The Relationality of Race in Education Research

It also explains how a change in management and authorising principles of governance ... Now, white staff assumed that if the regulative discourse changed, ...

Author: Greg Vass

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351386579

Category: Education

Page: 182

View: 930

This edited collection examines the ways in which the local and global are key to understanding race and racism in the intersectional context of contemporary education. Analysing a broad range of examples, it highlights how race and racism is a relational phenomenon, that interconnects local, national and global contexts and ideas. The current educational climate is subject to global influences and the effects of conservative, hyper-nationalist politics and neoliberal economic rationalising in local settings that are creating new formations of race and racism. While focused predominantly on Australia and southern world or settler colonial contexts, the book aims to constructively contribute to broader emerging research and debates about race and education. Through the adoption of a relational framing, it draws the Australian context into the global conversation about race and racism in education in ways that challenge and test current understandings of the operation of race and racism in contemporary social and educational spaces. Importantly, it also pushes debates about race and racism in education and research to the foreground in Australia where such debates are typically dismissed or cursorily engaged. The book will guide readers as they navigate issues of race in education research and practice, and its chapters will serve as provocations designed to assist in critically understanding this challenging field. It reaches beyond education scholarship, as concerns to do with race remain intertwined with wider social justice issues such as access to housing, health, social/economic mobility, and political representation.
Categories: Education

International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education

International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education

Key figures in Australia in reconceptualizing educational research along these ... between (changing) discourse and educational practice in this field.

Author: Robert B. Stevenson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136699313

Category: Education

Page: 592

View: 905

The environment and contested notions of sustainability are increasingly topics of public interest, political debate, and legislation across the world. Environmental education journals now publish research from a wide variety of methodological traditions that show linkages between the environment, health, development, and education. The growth in scholarship makes this an opportune time to review and synthesize the knowledge base of the environmental education (EE) field. The purpose of this 51-chapter handbook is not only to illuminate the most important concepts, findings and theories that have been developed by EE research, but also to critically examine the historical progression of the field, its current debates and controversies, what is still missing from the EE research agenda, and where that agenda might be headed. Published for the American Educational Research Association (AERA).
Categories: Education

The Future of Educational Change

The Future of Educational Change

While I am against this bifurcation, educational research has become ... attention to changing educational structures in the Irish context since the 1990s.

Author: Ciaran Sugrue

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134084678

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 639

This timely book provides a systematic overview and critique of contemporary approaches to educational change from some of the best-known writers and scholars in the field, including Andy Hargreaves, Larry Cuban, Ivor Goodson, Jeannie Oakes, Milbrey McLaughlin, Judyth Sachs and Ann Liebermann. Divided into four sections, the book addresses the key themes: What has been the impact of educational change? How has the impact differed in different circumstances? What are the new directions for research on policy and practice? How can we link research, policy and practice? By highlighting critical lessons from the past, the book aims to set an agenda for policy-related research and the future trajectories of educational reforms, while also taking into account the dominant rhetorics of international ‘social movements’ and the ‘refracted’ nature of policy agenda at national and local levels. This book addresses issues which with many educators around the world are currently grappling. It will appeal to academics and researchers in the field, as well as providing an introduction to key issues and themes in Educational Change for graduates and practitioners.
Categories: Education

Teacher Education for the Changing Demographics of Schooling

Teacher Education for the Changing Demographics of Schooling

Education. for. Inclusion. to. Move. the. Research. Agenda. Forward. In the outer circle of the model are four discourses representing issues that may seem ...

Author: Lani Florian

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319543895

Category: Education

Page: 241

View: 907

The book takes as its premise the argument that diverse learner groups are a fact of demographic change that should be considered foundational in the preparation of teachers rather than be problematized as a challenge. It promotes the idea of teacher education for inclusive education based on a consideration of what it means to educate all children together. Divided into four parts, the book considers key issues for teacher education, teacher agency, teacher education for diversity, and a research agenda for the future. In today’s world, the demographic profile of students in schools is more complex than ever before, and the increasing cultural, linguistic and developmental diversity of today’s classrooms, along with the pressure to achieve high academic standards for everybody has significant implications for how classroom teachers should be prepared to meet these demands. This book advances a new understanding of inclusive education that addresses the limitations inherent in current approaches that problematize differences between learner groups by promoting a view of difference as an aspect of human individuality. It considers the implications of the research evidence underpinning teacher education for diversity and makes suggestions for future research in the field.
Categories: Education

Higher Education Handbook of Theory and Research

Higher Education  Handbook of Theory and Research

18) Informed by Gee's description and framing of discourse, we define “diversity discourses” in this research as policies, practices and language integrated ...

Author: Michael B. Paulsen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319724904

Category: Education

Page: 595

View: 796

Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.
Categories: Education

The Impacts of Neoliberal Discourse and Language in Education

The Impacts of Neoliberal Discourse and Language in Education

Showing how neoliberalism has changed discourses about education and ... intervention in the studies of neoliberalism and education by developing a holistic ...

Author: Mitja Sardoč

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000360639

Category: Education

Page: 234

View: 982

This edited collection combines quantitative content and critical discourse analysis to reveal a shift in the rhetoric used as part of the neoliberal agenda in education. It does so by analysing, uncovering, and commenting on language as a central tool of education. Focussing on vocabulary, metaphors, and slogans used in strategy documents, advertising, policy, and public discourse, the text illustrates how concepts such as justice, opportunity, well-being, talent, and disadvantage have been hijacked by educational institutes, governments, and universities. Showing how neoliberalism has changed discourses about education and educational policy, these chapters trace issues such as anti-intellectualism, commercialization, meritocracy, and an erasure of racial difference back to a contradictory growth in egalitarian rhetoric. Given its global scope, this volume offers a timely intervention in the studies of neoliberalism and education by developing a holistic vision of how the language of neoliberalism has changed how we think about education. It will prove to be an essential resource for scholars and researchers working at the intersections of education, policymaking, and neoliberalism.
Categories: Education

Discourse Strategies for Science Teaching and Learning

Discourse Strategies for Science Teaching and Learning

As these texts are produced, they have the power to change the network, ... and consumption changes over time, it also changes the discourses that are ...

Author: Kok-Sing Tang

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000209327

Category: Education

Page: 198

View: 491

This engaging and practical volume looks at discourse strategies and how they can be used to facilitate and enhance science teaching and learning within the classroom context, offering a synthesis of research on classroom discourse in science education as well as practical discourse strategies that can be applied to the classroom. Focusing on the connection between research and practice, this comprehensive guide unpacks and illustrates key concepts on the role of discourse in students’ thinking and learning based on empirical analysis of real conversations in a number of science classrooms. Using real-life classroom examples to extend the scope of research into science classroom discourse begun during the 1990s, Kok-Sing Tang offers original discourse strategies as explicit methods of using discourse to engage in meaning-making and work towards a specific instructional goal. This volume covers new and informative topics including how to use discourse to: Establish classroom activity and interaction Build and assess scientific content knowledge Organize and evaluate scientific narrative Enact scientific practices Coordinate the use of multimodal representations Building on more than ten years of research on classroom discourse, Discourse Strategies for Science Teaching and Learning is an ideal text for science teacher educators, pre-service science teachers, scholars, and researchers.
Categories: Education

Qualitative Educational Research in Action

Qualitative Educational Research in Action

Skillington, T. (1997) Politics and the struggle to define: a discourse analysis ... Tritter, J. (1995) The context of educational policy research: changed ...

Author: Tom O'Donoghue

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134409112

Category: Education

Page: 224

View: 976

Qualitative research is a key form of research in education; the findings of such projects frequently play a central role in shaping policy and practice. First time qualitative researchers require clear and practical guidance from the outset. However, given the diversity of both subject matter and methodological approaches encompassed by qualitative research, such guidance is not always easily come by. Qualitative Educational Research in Action: Doing and Reflecting is a collection of ten first-hand accounts by educational researchers of qualitative inquiries they carried out. The subjects are diverse, taking in school restructuring, policy analysis, critical literacy, phenomenology and the student teacher relationship. Each chapter outlines the research question investigated and provides an overview of the project's findings, before going on to describe how each researcher approached the challenges of their particular inquiry. The researchers reflect upon the unexpected turns qualitative research can take and the way such projects can move through different theoretical and methodological positions, often ending up significantly removed from the original premise, but all the more valuable for that. Anyone conducting qualitative research in education will be heartened and inspired by this collection, and will also find in it invaluable guidance on dealing effectively with the idiosyncrasies and pitfalls of qualitative research - guidance that is all the more valuable for coming from those who have themselves navigated similar difficulties.
Categories: Education

Sociology for Education Studies

Sociology for Education Studies

Isolating some of the historical and political discourses around education allows us to see how education has been changed to serve the purposes of dominant ...

Author: Catherine A. Simon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429673559

Category: Education

Page: 156

View: 340

Sociology for Education Studies provides a fresh look at the sociology of education, focusing on themes such as habitus, hegemony and intersectionality. It supports students in applying sociological theory to their own educational experiences and developing an understanding of why social orders appear to be predetermined, why the state continues to create education policy in certain forms and, crucially, how to make it better. The book explores the multi-faceted perspectives that influence the sociology of education and presents examples of the applications of sociology to a wide variety of different educational contexts, including education in schools and in the community. Chapters cover topics such as: Morality, education and social order Spaces of invisibility and marginalisation in schools The global political economy of education Rethinking the ‘international perspective’ in Education Studies This accessible book is an essential read for students of Education Studies as well as those involved in teacher education and training.
Categories: Education