At the center of IAMs are damage functions that identify the impacts of climate change and attempt to put monetary values on them. Damage functions are the
spline that joins the science and economics of climate change. We then dig down
Author: Charles S. Pearson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming is a balanced and comprehensive analysis of the role of economics in confronting global warming, the central environmental issue of the twenty-first century. It avoids a technical exposition in order to reach a wide audience and is up to date in its theoretical and empirical underpinnings. It is addressed to all who have some knowledge of economic concepts and a serious interest in how economics can (and cannot) help in crafting climate policy. The book is organized around three central questions. First, can benefit-cost analysis guide us in setting warming targets? Second, what strategies and policies are cost-effective? Third, and most difficult, can a global agreement be forged between rich and poor, North and South? While economic concepts are foremost in the analysis, they are placed within an accessible ethical and political matrix. The book serves as a primer for the post-Kyoto era.
natural ecosystems to climate change (Nordhaus and Boyer, 2000, p. 172). The
issue of what discount rate to use to ... Nordhaus, W. (2007). The Challenges of Global Warming: Economic Models and Environmental Policy. Yale University.
Author: Lucas Bernard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Business & Economics
The first World Climate Conference, which was sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization in Genève in 1979, triggered an international dialogue on global warming. From the 1997 United Nations-sponsored conference-during which the Kyoto Protocol was signed-through meetings in Copenhagen, Cancún, Durban, and most recently Doha (2012) and Warsaw (2013), worldwide attention to the issue of global warming and its impact on the world's economy has rapidly increased in intensity. The consensus of these debates and discussions, however, is less than clear. Optimistically, many geoscience researchers and members of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have supported CO2 emission reduction pledges while maintaining that a 2°C limit in increased temperature by the year 2100 is achievable through international coordination. Other observers postulate that established CO2 reduction commitments such as those agreed to at the Copenhagen United Nations Climate Change Conference (2009) are insufficient and cannot hold the global warming increase below 2°C. As experts theorize on precisely what impact global warming will have, developing nations have become particularly alarmed. The developed world will use energy to mitigate global warming effects, but developing countries are more exposed by geography and poverty to the most dangerous consequences of a global temperature rise and lack the economic means to adapt. The complex dynamics that result from this confluence of science and geopolitics gives rise to even more complicated issues for economists, financial planners, business leaders, and policy-makers. The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming analyzes the economic impact of issues related to and resulting from global warming, specifically the implications of possible preventative measures, various policy changes, and adaptation efforts as well as the different consequences climate change will have on both developing and developed nations. This multi-disciplinary approach, which touches on issues of growth, employment, and development, elucidates for readers state-of-the-art research on the complex and far-reaching problem of global warming.
INTRODUCTION According to Angel Gurrìa, Secretary General of the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), tackling Climate Change can be considered the greatest environmental challenge the
world is facing ...
Author: Anna Praz
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Political Science
Research Paper from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: A, Free University of Berlin, course: Introduction to Africa ́s Political and Economic Systems, language: English, abstract: According to Angel Gurrìa, Secretary General of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), tackling Climate Change can be considered the greatest environmental challenge the world is facing today. 1 Developing countries are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of Climate Change because they heavily rely on climate-sensitive sectors, with a high dependence on natural resources, a high level of poverty, low levels of education and limited human, institutional, economic, technical and financial capacities to cope with them. In particular, Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to Climate Change and variability. Ghana, is an example of how Climate Change, especially global warming and rain variability, can affect negatively the human and economic development of a country. The impacts are significant, and affect more or less indirectly all the eight Millennium Development Goals: eradicate poverty and hunger (1), promote gender equality (2), improve health and child mortality (4, 5, 6), ensure environmental sustainability (7) and foster global partnership (8). In particular, in Ghana (despite of its relative good position in terms of Human Development Index2 among sub-Saharan African countries), poverty is a predominant multi-dimensional phenomenon. Poverty has a dynamic attribute in the sense that it changes over time across space and individuals, through natural hazards, war and politics. But while the latter are directly man-driven, natural hazards, climate variability and global warming are global effects not easily under man’s control. They remain however, at least for the moment, manageable, through adaptation and mitigation strategies. The role of the international community towards these commitments is central. It’s clear, that as a broad development challenge, Climate Change mitigation and adaptation need also to be mainstreamed into the national governance organization and processes. The whole research has been conducted on the ground, with the consultation of renowned experts in the field. The fact of working with the German Development Cooperation on this topic has enabled me to have an insight on how bilateral and international cooperation address such an issue in a west African middleincome country.
Such dire scenarios are not inevitable even with worsethan-anticipated climate change impacts, however. Economic development, the spread of new
technologies, and robust new mechanisms for multilateral cooperation to deal
with climate ...
Author: Rymn J. Parsons
Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute
Category: Climatic changes
"Climate change, in which man-made global warming is a major factor, will likely have dramatic and long lasting consequences with profound security implications, making it a challenge the United States must urgently take up. The security implications will be most pronounced in places where the effects of climate change are greatest, particularly affecting weak states already especially vulnerable to environmental destabilization. Two things are vitally important: stemming the tide of climate change and adapting to its far-reaching consequences. This project examines the destabilizing effects of climate change and how the military could be used to mitigate global warming and to assist at-risk peoples and states to adapt to climate change, thereby promoting stability and sustainable security. Recommendations are made on the importance of U.S. leadership on the critical issue of global warming, on defining and dealing with the strategic dimensions of climate change, and, as a case in point, on how Sino-American cooperation in Africa would not only benefit areas where climate change effects are already pronounced, but also strengthen a crucial bilateral relationship."--Abstract.
I he Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is a 700-page report
released on October 30, 2006, ... the economics of climate change to acquire a
better understanding of the nature of economic challenges and how they can be
Author: Nick Dallas
Category: Business & Economics
Proven techniques to create a more energy-efficient and profitable enterprise As environmental issues become more pressing, businesses must find ways to conserve energy-saving on expenses and improving their bottom line. Green Business Basics helps you gain a better understanding on the many “green” topics of our day that can affect their business (such as greenhouse gasses and emission trading). It then goes on to show how you can develop your own green strategy to make the most of your resources and create a more marketable image for your company.
Author: Daniel P. PerlmutterPublish On: 2011-06-13
The men and women in the tales are usually divided in their responses, siding as
might be expected with their particular national or ethnic identities, their economic interests, or the degree of their xenophobic tendencies. This remains
the case ...
Author: Daniel P. Perlmutter
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Global warming and climate change present complex interlocking issues of public policy, multilateral negotiation, and technological advancement. This book explores both the problems and the opportunities presented by international agreements, and examines the technological developments and policy goals that can be pursued to effect the changes necessary. Specific steps are proposed in the form of a list of priorities. This book represents a cooperative enterprise between two authors of different backgrounds - engineering and international relations - and is directed to an educated but non-professional lay audience without any formal training in either science or international relations. The points of view of negotiators from both developed and developing nations are presented and compared. Each topic is presented from both technical and policy perspectives as a means to evaluate the variety of proposals that have been offered as remedies to global warming. The text is supported by illustrations and tables where appropriate, including a list of References at the end of each chapter.
An Approach to Environmental, Political, and Economic Problems Todd Sandler,
Vibhooti Shukla Professor of Economics and Political Economy Todd Sandler. GLOBAL WARMING Of the many global challenges confronting the planet ,
Author: Todd Sandler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Using simple economic reasoning, this book analyzes a broad range of global challenges including global warming, ozone shield depletion, acid rain, nuclear waste disposal, revolution dispersion, international terrorism, disease eradication, population growth, tropical deforestation, and peacemaking. These challenges are put into perspective in terms of scientific, economic, and political considerations. This book is intended for a wide audience drawn from the social sciences. It should also interest the general reader who wants to learn about global challenges.
Implications of Global Warming on the Economy Pappis, Costas P. ... makers,
being they government officials or business analysts, in their endeavor to meet
the economic, social and environmental challenges posed by global warming.
Author: Pappis, Costas P.
Publisher: IGI Global
Category: Business & Economics
Mounting scientific evidence shows that Earth?s climate is dramatically changing due to the greenhouse emissions caused by human activities, notably by burning fossil fuels for energy production and transport. Climate Change, Supply Chain Management and Enterprise Adaptation: Implications of Global Warming on the Economy aims to provide one among many diverse responses to a growing sense of urgency fed by climate change and experienced by international institutions, governments, local authorities, and enterprises. It provides an interdisciplinary treatment of issues raised by climate change in connection with its implications for society, environment and economy, particularly at the company and the supply chain levels.
MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE I. Economic Mechanisms □
All measures to cope with climate warming will have economic consequences,
and their benefits and costs must be evaluated. □A major question concerns the
Author: Lydia Dotto
Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press
There are many things we can choose to do about climate change, including doing nothing at all. All of them have consequences, many of which will be unforeseen. If we could foretell more accurately what would happen to the climate in the future, our choices might be clearer, if not necessarily easier to make. Unfortunately, predicting future climate change is fraught with uncertainty, and we will be forced to make choices in the face of that uncertainty. To what extent are we motivated in this difficult process by a desire to do the “right thing”? And how do we decide what is the right thing to do? The answer to these questions depends on whose ethical interests are considered. What is best for a Canadian living in the last decade of the twentieth century—even supposing we could discover what that is—might not be best for a Somali, or for our great-grandchildren, or for the rain forest of the Amazon or the kangaroos of Australia. Decisions about what to do about global warming will therefore be influenced by how much relative weight we give to the ethical interests of Canadians, Somalis, grandchildren, rain forests, kangaroos and a host of other variables. Weighing these competing interests is an exercise in applied ethics. This book examines the role that ethics can and should play in our decisions about how to deal with global warming.
(Explaining the daunting economic alternatives behind COP21) Vincent Lannoye
. Russia 5.5% Japan 3% Brazil ... The private sector must step up to the challenge of developing cheap carbon-free technologies. The market should take
off after ...
The policy challenges to maintaining fragile confidence and kick-starting the global economy are severe for both the ... to postpone action on climate change
for a year or two for the sake of the greater global economic challenge is false for
Author: Fan Gang
Category: Political Science
China faces many modernization challenges, but perhaps none is more pressing than that posed by climate change. China must find a new economic growth model that is simultaneously environmentally sustainable, can free it from its dependency on fossil fuels, and lift living standards for the majority of its population. But what does such a model look like? And how can China best make the transition from its present macro-economic structure to a low-carbon future? This ground-breaking economic study, led by the Stockholm Environment Institute and the Chinese Economists 50 Forum, brings together leading international thinkers in economics, climate change, and development, to tackle some of the most challenging issues relating to China's low-carbon development. This study maps out a deep carbon reduction scenario and analyzes economic policies that shift carbon use, and shows how China can take strong and decisive action to make deep reductions in carbon emission over the next forty years while maintaining high economic growth and minimizing adverse effects of a low-carbon transition. Moreover, these reductions can be achieved within the finite global carbon budget for greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the hard constraints of climate science. The authors make the compelling case that a transition to a low-carbon economy is an essential part of China's development and modernization. Such a transformation would also present opportunities for China to improve its energy security and move its economy higher up the international value chain. They argue that even in these difficult economic times, climate change action may present more opportunities than costs. Such a transformation, for China and the rest of the world, will not be easy. But it is possible, necessary and worthwhile to pursue.
The Potential of Systems Analysis for Addressing Global Policy Challenges in the
21st Century OECD, International ... (2014), "Modelling Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture", OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, No.
Publisher: OECD Publishing
In Systemic Thinking for Policy Making world experts from the OECD and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) pool their expertise and experience to propose new approaches to analysing the interconnected trends and issues shaping today’s and tomorrow’s world.
Author: Dean E. Natural Resources Defense CouncilPublish On: 1989-04
Specifically, we urged President Reagan to call upon nations to begin the
negotiations of a global climate convention. ... organize international research
and begin developing consensus among nations on strategies to reduce the risks
of climate change. ... Economic development is consistent with protection of the
earth's climate, and economic growth and energy efficiency can and must go
hand in hand.
Author: Dean E. Natural Resources Defense Council
Challenge of Global Warming examines the causes and effects of global climate change.
The Challenge of a Climate Neutral Society Andre Faaij, David Jager, Marcel Kok
. References Arthur, W.B., Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy, Michigan, The University of Michigan Press, 1994. Arthur, W.B.,
Author: Andre Faaij
Category: Political Science
Societies need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 80 per cent in order to counter the risks of climate change. This study envisions a climate neutral society - one where the output of polluting gases is minimised by social innovations set up in households, by local authorities, through developments in information and communications technologies and dematerialization, and through the shift towards product service systems and emissions trading. The work discusses the possibilities for steering and orchestrating this long-term transition towards a climate-friendly society, mapping paths through current dilemmas in climate policy and exploring the legal issues of making this transition.
The Economic Costs of Mitigation and Adaptation James C. White. A CRITICAL ...
Abstract After more than a decade of warning from scientists, the policy
community has begun to take up the challenge of global climate change. This
Author: James C. White
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Bacteria in a test tube and humans on our planet follow the same population curve as time elapses. We on this earth, largely through control of disease, are rapidly ap proaching maximum population, and through energy demands are using up our resour ces and accumulating wastes. We have come to realize the danger of a maturing system but have made essential ly no impact in mitigating or preventing the problems we face. While we have been able to change the world we live in, most of our effects have been to degrade the planet. We have nibbled away at the quality of the atmosphere for centuries and the ac cumulated damage has resulted in changing the world's climate at an ever-increasing rate. We now face the possibility of higher average temperatures over most of our planet, changing patterns of rainfall, rising sea levels, aggravated storm systems and a myriad of social effects.
A major — and undisputed — challenge that faces every country is access to
energy on terms that facilitate economic growth while respecting environmental
integrity . This challenge affects different countries to different degrees ; even ...
Author: Resources for the Future
Publisher: Resources for the Future
Category: Political Science
In concise, informative chapters, "Climate Economics and Policy" considers the key issues involved in one of the most important policy debates of the time. Beginning with an overview and policy history, the book explores the potential impact of climate change on a variety of domains, including water resources, agriculture, and forests. (Environmental Studies)
Author: Agustin Valera-MedinaPublish On: 2020-09-30
Mainly, there are two main obstacles: the lack of confidence in the country to
develop green technologies and the lack of environmental education, thus
leading to confusion around concepts like climate change, pollution and weather,
Author: Agustin Valera-Medina
Publisher: Academic Press
Techno-Economic Challenges of Green Ammonia as an Energy Vector presents the fundamentals, techno-economic challenges, applications, and state-of-the-art research in using green ammonia as a route toward the hydrogen economy. This book presents practical implications and case studies of a great variety of methods to recover stored energy from ammonia and use it for power, along with transport and heating applications, including its production, storage, transportation, regulations, public perception, and safety aspects. As a unique reference in this field, this book can be used both as a handbook by researchers and a source of background knowledge by graduate students developing technologies in the fields of hydrogen economy, hydrogen energy, and energy storage. Includes glossaries, case studies, practical concepts, and legal, public perception, and policy viewpoints that allow for thorough, practical understanding of the use of ammonia as energy carrier Presents its content in a modular structure that can be used in sequence, as a handbook, in individual parts or as a field reference Explores the use of ammonia, both as a medium for hydrogen storage and an energy vector unto itself
Nearly all regions, European, African, Asian and American, are expected to be
negatively affected by some future impacts of climate change and these will pose challenges to many economic 242 sectors. The previous IPCC report argued that
Author: Hongyuan Yu
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Since the early 1990s, there are two increasingly hot topics attracting numerous scholarly attentions in Chinese politics: first, it is the transformation of China's political system. Second, it is China's increasingly involvement in international regimes. Nevertheless, until now, there are only a few scholars to work out the distinctive relations between them, and even less people work on the bureaucratic politics level. By explaining and evaluating the development of policymaking coordination in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the author demonstrates the argument that international regimes have contributed to the development of coordination in Chinese Policymaking, taking the UNFCCC as a departure.
Nordhaus, W., The Challenge of Global Warming: Economic Models and
Environmental Policies, April 2007; http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/pub/faculty/lloyd-
ellis/econ835/readings/dice2007.pdf; accessed November 2011 OECD, Taxation
Author: Gerald Kutney
Category: Political Science
Carbon Politics and the Failure of Kyoto charts the framework and political evolution of the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and examines the ensuing failure of the international community to adequately address climate change. The focus is not on the science or consequences of climate change but on the political gamesmanship of the major players throughout the UNFCCC negotiation process. More than an updated history of the subject matter, this book provides a detailed study of the carbon targets which became the biggest influencing factor on the reaction of nations to Kyoto’s binding agreements. The book provides an in-depth analysis of the leading nations’ motives, including the US, China and Germany, in entering the negotiations, in particular, their economic interests. Despite the effort to combat climate change in politics that the negotiations represent, the book concludes that an agreement which requires almost 200 very different nations to agree on a single protocol is doomed to failure. The book offers a novel contribution to our understanding of this failure and suggests alternative frameworks and policies to tackle what is arguably the most complex political issue of our time.
Global warming is likely to uproot hundreds of millions, perhaps even billions of
people, forcing them to leave their homes and creating severe global political
and economic challenges. The largest numbers of those forced to move by
Author: Robert G. Watts
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
The globally averaged surface temperature of the Earth has increased during the past century by about 0.7Â°C. Most of the increase can be attributed to the greenhouse effect, the increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide that is emitted when fossil fuels are burned to produce energy.The book begins with the important distinction between weather and climate, followed by data showing how carbon dioxide has increased and the incontrovertible evidence that it is caused by burning fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas). I also address the inevitable skepticism that global warming arouses and offer a number of responses to the global warming skeptics. After dealing with the skeptics, I analyze both the current and future effects of global warming. These future effects are based on scenarios or â€œstorylinesâ€ put forth by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. In closing, I address the controversial (and grim) suggestion that we have already passed the â€œtipping point,â€ which is the time after which, regardless of our future actions, global warming will cause considerable hardship on human society. I intend this book to be approachable for all concerned citizens, but especially students of the sciences and engineering who will soon be in a position to make a difference in the areas of energy and the environment. I have tried to frame the debate in terms of what the engineering community must do to help combat global warming. We have no choice but to think in terms of global environmental constraints as we design new power plants, factories, automobiles, buildings, and homes. The best thing for scientists to do is to present what we know, clearly separating what is known from what is suspected, in a non-apocalyptic manner. If matters are clearly and passionately presented to the public, we must be prepared to accept the will of the people. This presents the scientific community with an enormous responsibility, perhaps unlike any we have had in the past.Contents: Weather and Climate (and a Little History) / Are the Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Increasing? / The Greenhouse Effect and the Evidence of Global Warming / The Skeptics: Are Their Doubts Scientifically Valid / Impacts: The "So What" Question / The Bottom Line