Ecological Stoichiometry

The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere

Author: Robert W. Sterner,James J. Elser

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400885698

Category: Science

Page: 464

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All life is chemical. That fact underpins the developing field of ecological stoichiometry, the study of the balance of chemical elements in ecological interactions. This long-awaited book brings this field into its own as a unifying force in ecology and evolution. Synthesizing a wide range of knowledge, Robert Sterner and Jim Elser show how an understanding of the biochemical deployment of elements in organisms from microbes to metazoa provides the key to making sense of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. After summarizing the chemistry of elements and their relative abundance in Earth's environment, the authors proceed along a line of increasing complexity and scale from molecules to cells, individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. The book examines fundamental chemical constraints on ecological phenomena such as competition, herbivory, symbiosis, energy flow in food webs, and organic matter sequestration. In accessible prose and with clear mathematical models, the authors show how ecological stoichiometry can illuminate diverse fields of study, from metabolism to global change. Set to be a classic in the field, Ecological Stoichiometry is an indispensable resource for researchers, instructors, and students of ecology, evolution, physiology, and biogeochemistry. From the foreword by Peter Vitousek: "[T]his book represents a significant milestone in the history of ecology. . . . Love it or argue with it--and I do both--most ecologists will be influenced by the framework developed in this book. . . . There are points to question here, and many more to test . . . And if we are both lucky and good, this questioning and testing will advance our field beyond the level achieved in this book. I can't wait to get on with it."
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In the Beat of a Heart

Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature

Author: John Whitfield

Publisher: Joseph Henry Press

ISBN: 0309665132

Category: Science

Page: 243

View: 6616

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For centuries, scientists have dreamt of discovering an underlying unity to nature. Science now offers powerful explanations for both the dazzling diversity and striking similarities seen in the living world. Life is complicated. It is truly the “entangled bank” that Charles Darwin described. But scientists are now discovering that energy is the unifying force that joins all life on Earth. Visionary biologists have advanced a new theory that explains how the natural world—from the tiniest amoeba to the greatest rain forest—is constructed, providing a fresh perspective on the essential interconnectivity of living systems. This revolutionary theory explains a variety of phenomena—helping us understand why a shrew eats its bodyweight in food each day, why a mammal’s heart beats about 1 billion times in its lifetime, why there are no trees as tall as the Eiffel Tower, and why more species live at the Earth’s equator than at its poles. By looking at how living things use energy, we can answer these and myriad other intriguing questions. In the Beat of a Heart combines biography, history, science and nature writing to capture the exciting advances— and the people who are making them—that are triggering a revolution as potentially important to biology as Newton’s insights were to physics.
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Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach

Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119968518

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 2848

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One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.
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Philosophies of the Sciences

A Guide

Author: Fritz Allhoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444315585

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 7772

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A collection of essays discussing a wide range of sciences and thecentral philosophical issues associated with them, presenting thesciences collectively to encourage a greater understanding of theirassociative theoretical foundations, as well as their relationshipsto each other. Offers a new and unique approach to studying and comparing thephilosophies of a variety of scientific disciplines Explores a wide variety of individual sciences, includingmathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, sociology andeconomics The essays are written by leading scholars in a highlyaccessible style for the student audience Complements more traditional studies of philosophy ofscience
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Insect Ecology

An Ecosystem Approach

Author: Timothy D. Schowalter

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080508812

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 5250

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Dr. Timothy Schowalter has succeeded in creating a unique, updated treatment of insect ecology. This revised and expanded text looks at how insects adapt to environmental conditions while maintaining the ability to substantially alter their environment. It covers a range of topics- from individual insects that respond to local changes in the environment and affect resource distribution, to entire insect communities that have the capacity to modify ecosystem conditions. Insect Ecology, Second Edition, synthesizes the latest research in the field and has been produced in full color throughout. It is ideal for students in both entomology and ecology-focused programs. NEW TO THIS EDITION: * New topics such as elemental defense by plants, chaotic models, molecular methods to measure disperson, food web relationships, and more * Expanded sections on plant defenses, insect learning, evolutionary tradeoffs, conservation biology and more * Includes more than 350 new references * More than 40 new full-color figures
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Spider Physiology and Behaviour

Physiology

Author: Jérôme Casas

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123876680

Category: Science

Page: 223

View: 848

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This latest volume in this series contains articles on Arachnid Physiology and Behaviour. The papers in this special issue give rise to key themes for the future. Contributions from the leading researchers in entomology Discusses Arachnid physiology and behavior Includes in-depth reviews with valuable information for a variety of entomology disciplines
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Darwinian Agriculture

How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Author: R. Ford Denison

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400842816

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 4363

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As human populations grow and resources are depleted, agriculture will need to use land, water, and other resources more efficiently and without sacrificing long-term sustainability. Darwinian Agriculture presents an entirely new approach to these challenges, one that draws on the principles of evolution and natural selection. R. Ford Denison shows how both biotechnology and traditional plant breeding can use Darwinian insights to identify promising routes for crop genetic improvement and avoid costly dead ends. Denison explains why plant traits that have been genetically optimized by individual selection--such as photosynthesis and drought tolerance--are bad candidates for genetic improvement. Traits like plant height and leaf angle, which determine the collective performance of plant communities, offer more room for improvement. Agriculturalists can also benefit from more sophisticated comparisons among natural communities and from the study of wild species in the landscapes where they evolved. Darwinian Agriculture reveals why it is sometimes better to slow or even reverse evolutionary trends when they are inconsistent with our present goals, and how we can glean new ideas from natural selection's marvelous innovations in wild species.
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Climate and Ecosystems

Author: David Schimel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140084603X

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 7802

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How does life on our planet respond to--and shape--climate? This question has never been more urgent than it is today, when humans are faced with the daunting task of guiding adaptation to an inexorably changing climate. This concise, accessible, and authoritative book provides an unmatched introduction to the most reliable current knowledge about the complex relationship between living things and climate. Using an Earth System framework, David Schimel describes how organisms, communities of organisms, and the planetary biosphere itself react to and influence environmental change. While much about the biosphere and its interactions with the rest of the Earth System remains a mystery, this book explains what is known about how physical and chemical climate affect organisms, how those physical changes influence how organisms function as individuals and in communities of organisms, and ultimately how climate-triggered ecosystem changes feed back to the physical and chemical parts of the Earth System. An essential introduction, Climate and Ecosystems shows how Earth's living systems profoundly shape the physical world.
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Bio

College of Biological Sciences

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biology

Page: N.A

View: 2244

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Interactions of the major biogeochemical cycles

global change and human impacts

Author: Jerry M. Melillo,Christopher B. Field,Bedřich Moldan,International Council for Science. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

Publisher: Island Pr

ISBN: 9781559630658

Category: Nature

Page: 357

View: 4943

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The circulation and interactions of major elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, oxygen, and hydrogen are critical for the maintenance of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities including agriculture, industry, and urbanization alter element interactions and contribute to major environmental problems ranging from climate change and depletion of the ozone layer to acidification of soils to the destruction of coral reefs. Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles is a new scientific assessment of element interactions in the biosphere. It provides an up-to-date review of biogeochemistry and its effects on earth's systems, with leading experts in biogeochemical cycling in atmospheric, land, freshwater, and marine environments offering chapters that summarize and synthesize information in each discipline. The book opens with chapters on cross-cutting issues that have significance in understanding global change effects and their potential management. These chapters address:* trends in element interactions in response to global change the effects of natural disturbances new approaches and methods for advancing our understanding of element interactions the potential for managing element interactions to address major environmental issues
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