Early Years in Machine Translation

Early Years in Machine Translation

This volume contains contributions by or about the major MT pioneers from the United States, Russia, East and West Europe, and Japan, with recollections of personal experiences, colleagues and rivals, the political and institutional ...

Author: W. John Hutchins

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027283719

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 400

View: 853

Machine translation (MT) was one of the first non-numerical applications of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s. With limited equipment and programming tools, researchers from a wide range of disciplines (electronics, linguistics, mathematics, engineering, etc.) tackled the unknown problems of language analysis and processing, investigated original and innovative methods and techniques, and laid the foundations not just of current MT systems and computerized tools for translators but also of natural language processing in general. This volume contains contributions by or about the major MT pioneers from the United States, Russia, East and West Europe, and Japan, with recollections of personal experiences, colleagues and rivals, the political and institutional background, the successes and disappointments, and above all the challenges and excitement of a new field with great practical importance. Each article includes a personal bibliography, and the editor provides an overview, chronology and list of sources for the period.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Early Years in Machine Translation

Early Years in Machine Translation

Machine translation research took place also in the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. After Bel'skaja died in 1964 her place at the head of the machine ...

Author: W. John Hutchins

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027245861

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 400

View: 217

This title details the history of the field of machine translation (MT) from its earliest years. It glimpses major figures through biographical accounts recounting the origin and development of research programmes as well as personal details and anecdotes on the impact of political and social events on MT developments.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Scientific Babel

Scientific Babel

Michael Zarechnak, “The Early Days of GAT-SLC,” in Hutchins, ed., Early Years in Machine Translation (2000): 111–128, on 113. 11. L. E. Dostert to Alberto ...

Author: Michael D. Gordin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226000299

Category: History

Page: 415

View: 954

English is the language of science today. No matter which languages you know, if you want your work seen, studied, and cited, you need to publish in English. But that hasn’t always been the case. Though there was a time when Latin dominated the field, for centuries science has been a polyglot enterprise, conducted in a number of languages whose importance waxed and waned over time—until the rise of English in the twentieth century. So how did we get from there to here? How did French, German, Latin, Russian, and even Esperanto give way to English? And what can we reconstruct of the experience of doing science in the polyglot past? With Scientific Babel, Michael D. Gordin resurrects that lost world, in part through an ingenious mechanism: the pages of his highly readable narrative account teem with footnotes—not offering background information, but presenting quoted material in its original language. The result is stunning: as we read about the rise and fall of languages, driven by politics, war, economics, and institutions, we actually see it happen in the ever-changing web of multilingual examples. The history of science, and of English as its dominant language, comes to life, and brings with it a new understanding not only of the frictions generated by a scientific community that spoke in many often mutually unintelligible voices, but also of the possibilities of the polyglot, and the losses that the dominance of English entails. Few historians of science write as well as Gordin, and Scientific Babel reveals his incredible command of the literature, language, and intellectual essence of science past and present. No reader who takes this linguistic journey with him will be disappointed.
Categories: History

Idiom Treatment Experiments in Machine Translation

Idiom Treatment Experiments in Machine Translation

(2000), “Gilbert W. King and the USAF Translator”, in: Hutchins, W.J. (Ed.), Early years in machine translation: memoirs and biographies of pioneers, ...

Author: Dimitra Anastasiou

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781443825405

Category: Computers

Page: 265

View: 697

In 1975, Searle stated that one should speak idiomatically unless there is some good reason not to do so. Fillmore, Kay, and O’Connor in 1988 defined an idiomatic expression or construction as something that a language user could fail to know while knowing everything else in the language. Our language is rich in conversational phrases, idioms, metaphors, and general expressions used in metaphorical meaning. These idiomatic expressions pose a particular challenge for Machine Translation (MT), because their translation for the most part does not work literally, but logically. The present book shows how idiomatic expressions can be recognized and correctly translated with the help of a bilingual idiom dictionary (English-German), a monolingual (German) corpus, and morphosyntactic rules. The work focuses on the field of Example-based Machine Translation (EBMT). A theory of idiomatic expressions with their syntactic and semantic properties is provided, followed by the practical part of the book which describes how the hybrid EBMT system METIS-II is able to correctly process idiomatic expressions. A comparison of METIS-II with three commercial systems shows that idioms are not impossible to translate as it was predicted in 1952: “The only way for a machine to treat idioms is—not to have idioms!” This book furnishes plenty of examples of idiomatic phrases and provides the foundation for how MT systems can process and translate idioms by means of simple linguistic resources.
Categories: Computers

Machine Translation

Machine Translation

Mechanical Translation, 3(2): 37. Karen Sparck Jones (2000). “R. H. Richens: Translation in the NUDE.” In Early Years in Machine Translation (W.J. Hutchins, ...

Author: Thierry Poibeau

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262342452

Category: Computers

Page: 296

View: 667

A concise, nontechnical overview of the development of machine translation, including the different approaches, evaluation issues, and major players in the industry. The dream of a universal translation device goes back many decades, long before Douglas Adams's fictional Babel fish provided this service in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Since the advent of computers, research has focused on the design of digital machine translation tools—computer programs capable of automatically translating a text from a source language to a target language. This has become one of the most fundamental tasks of artificial intelligence. This volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series offers a concise, nontechnical overview of the development of machine translation, including the different approaches, evaluation issues, and market potential. The main approaches are presented from a largely historical perspective and in an intuitive manner, allowing the reader to understand the main principles without knowing the mathematical details. The book begins by discussing problems that must be solved during the development of a machine translation system and offering a brief overview of the evolution of the field. It then takes up the history of machine translation in more detail, describing its pre-digital beginnings, rule-based approaches, the 1966 ALPAC (Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee) report and its consequences, the advent of parallel corpora, the example-based paradigm, the statistical paradigm, the segment-based approach, the introduction of more linguistic knowledge into the systems, and the latest approaches based on deep learning. Finally, it considers evaluation challenges and the commercial status of the field, including activities by such major players as Google and Systran.
Categories: Computers

A Dictionary of Translation Technology

A Dictionary of Translation Technology

“ From First Conception to First Demonstration : The Nascent Years of Machine Translation , 1947–1954 . A Chronology . ” Machine Translation , Vol .

Author: Sin-wai Chan

Publisher: Chinese University Press

ISBN: 9629961482

Category: Computers

Page: 639

View: 393

This dictionary is intended for anyone who is interested in translation and translation technology. Especially, translation as an academic discipline, a language activity, a specialized profession, or a business undertaking. The book covers theory and practice of translation and interpretation in a number of areas. Addressing and explaining important concepts in computer translation, computer-aided translation, and translation tools. Most popular and commercially available translation software are included along with their website addresses for handy reference. This dictionary has 1,377 entries. The entries are alphabetized and defined in a simple and concise manner.
Categories: Computers

Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology

Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology

Early Years in Machine Translation, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 279−298. Worth, Roland H. (1992) Bible Translations: A ...

Author: Sin-Wai Chan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317608158

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 718

View: 829

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology provides a state-of-the art survey of the field of computer-assisted translation. It is the first definitive reference to provide a comprehensive overview of the general, regional and topical aspects of this increasingly significant area of study. The Encyclopedia is divided into three parts: Part One presents general issues in translation technology, such as its history and development, translator training and various aspects of machine translation, including a valuable case study of its teaching at a major university; Part Two discusses national and regional developments in translation technology, offering contributions covering the crucial territories of China, Canada, France, Hong Kong, Japan, South Africa, Taiwan, the Netherlands and Belgium, the United Kingdom and the United States Part Three evaluates specific matters in translation technology, with entries focused on subjects such as alignment, bitext, computational lexicography, corpus, editing, online translation, subtitling and technology and translation management systems. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology draws on the expertise of over fifty contributors from around the world and an international panel of consultant editors to provide a selection of articles on the most pertinent topics in the discipline. All the articles are self-contained, extensively cross-referenced, and include useful and up-to-date references and information for further reading. It will be an invaluable reference work for anyone with a professional or academic interest in the subject.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

Two Voices in One

Two Voices in One

Essays in Asian and Translation Studies Chan Sin-wai, John C. Y. Wang, ... M.I.T. in Search of Adequate Theory,” in Early Years in Machine Translation, ed.

Author: Chan Sin-wai

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781443863490

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 190

View: 167

Two Voices in One: Essays in Asian and Translation Studies is a collection of papers by eight scholars of international standing. Concentrating on what really makes Asian and Translation Studies fascinating and worth one’s while, it opens the reader’s eyes to new horizons, horizons not found in collections or monographs that look at either discipline in isolation. In going through the collection, the reader will see how a translation problem can rear a “yellow-ochre head,” why a Chinese garden can become a source language text, and in what way a commentary can shine with “Multiflorate Splendour.” Emerging from the surreal world, the reader must be prepared, first to have his/her breath taken away by a translation project on a truly grand scale, then to see the difference between the page and the stage, and finally to be amazed by the speed at which computer-aided translation has been developing. With equal amazement, the reader will learn that Chinese can sometimes be more effectively taught, not through Chinese, but through translation, and that the Greek philosopher Aristotle and the Chinese philosopher Mencius are linked, not only by philosophy, but also by translation.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology

The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology

Hutchins, J. (1997) 'From first conception to first demonstration: the nascent years of machine translation, 1947–1954. A chronology', Machine Translation ...

Author: Minako O'Hagan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315311234

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 536

View: 482

The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of the dynamically evolving relationship between translation and technology. Divided into five parts, with an editor's introduction, this volume presents the perspectives of users of translation technologies, and of researchers concerned with issues arising from the increasing interdependency between translation and technology. The chapters in this Handbook tackle the advent of technologization at both a technical and a philosophical level, based on industry practice and academic research. Containing over 30 authoritative, cutting-edge chapters, this is an essential reference and resource for those studying and researching translation and technology. The volume will also be valuable for translators, computational linguists and developers of translation tools.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Automating Linguistics

Automating Linguistics

Early years in machine translation. Amsterdam: Benjamins (SiHoLS 97). ———. 2000b. Gilbert W. King and the IBM-USAF translator. In Early years in machine ...

Author: Jacqueline Léon

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030706425

Category: Computers

Page: 179

View: 911

Automating Linguistics offers an in-depth study of the history of the mathematisation and automation of the sciences of language. In the wake of the first mathematisation of the 1930s, two waves followed: machine translation in the 1950s and the development of computational linguistics and natural language processing in the 1960s. These waves were pivotal given the work of large computerised corpora in the 1990s and the unprecedented technological development of computers and software.Early machine translation was devised as a war technology originating in the sciences of war, amidst the amalgamate of mathematics, physics, logics, neurosciences, acoustics, and emerging sciences such as cybernetics and information theory. Machine translation was intended to provide mass translations for strategic purposes during the Cold War. Linguistics, in turn, did not belong to the sciences of war, and played a minor role in the pioneering projects of machine translation.Comparing the two trends, the present book reveals how the sciences of language gradually integrated the technologies of computing and software, resulting in the second-wave mathematisation of the study of language, which may be called mathematisation-automation. The integration took on various shapes contingent upon cultural and linguistic traditions (USA, ex-USSR, Great Britain and France). By contrast, working with large corpora in the 1990s, though enabled by unprecedented development of computing and software, was primarily a continuation of traditional approaches in the sciences of language sciences, such as the study of spoken and written texts, lexicography, and statistical studies of vocabulary.
Categories: Computers

Adding Sense

Adding Sense

2000a, Early Years in Machine Translation: Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 197ff. 85 Victor H. Yngve, 2000, ...

Author: Mary Kalantzis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108857215

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 645

In recent years, with the rise of new media, the phenomenon of 'multimodality' (communication via a number of modes simultaneously) has become central to our everyday interaction. This has given rise to a new kind of literacy that is rapidly gaining ground as an area of research. A companion to Making Sense, which explored the functions of reference, agency and structure in meaning, Adding Sense extends this analysis with two more surrounding functions. It addresses the ways in which 'context' and 'interest' add necessary sense to immediate objects of meaning, proposing a 'transpositional grammar' to account for movement across these different forms of meaning. Adding Sense weaves its way through philosophy, semiotics, social theory and the history of ideas. Its examples cross a range of social contexts, from the meaning universes of the First Peoples, to the new forms of meaning that have emerged in the era of digitally-mediated communication.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Translation and Technology

Translation and Technology

In the early years of machine technology, the common term used was 'automatic translation' or 'mechanical translation' (Tong 1994: 4,731).

Author: Chiew Kin Quah

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230287105

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 221

View: 404

Chiew Kin Quah draws on years of academic and professional experience to provide an account of translation technology, its applications and capabilities. Major developments from North America, Europe and Asia are described, including developments in uses and users of the technology.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Bibliography of Translation Studies 2001

Bibliography of Translation Studies  2001

Title Early Years in Machine Translation: Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers Publisher Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Date 2000 Pages 400 ISBN ...

Author: Lynne Bowker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351573856

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 93

View: 690

A volume of selected, annotated references arranged under specific headings to provide a non-partisan guide to teachers involved in designing courses in translation and/or interpreting.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence The Past Present and Future of AI

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  The Past  Present  and Future of AI

Early Years in Machine Translation: Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Locke, William Nash, and Andrew Donald Booth, eds.

Author: Philip L. Frana

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440853272

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 378

View: 763

This authoritative reference work will provide readers with a complete overview of artificial intelligence (AI), including its historic development and current status; existing and projected AI applications; and present and potential future impact on the United States and the world. Some people believe that artificial intelligence (AI) will revolutionize modern life in ways that improve human existence. Others say that the promise of AI is overblown. Still others contend that AI applications could pose a grave threat to the economic security of millions of people by taking their jobs and otherwise rendering them "obsolete"—or, even worse, that AI could actually spell the end of the human race. This volume will help users understand the reasons AI development has both spirited defenders and alarmed critics; explain theories and innovations like Moore's Law, mindcloning, and Technological Singularity that drive AI research and debate; and give readers the information they need to make their own informed judgment about the promise and peril of this technology. All of this coverage is presented using language and terminology accessible to a lay audience. Introduction explaining the historical evolution of AI Chronology of important AI-related events Authoritative entries on leading pioneers, entrepreneurs, and thinkers; AI concepts and theories; AI's potential impact on different facets of society; and major movies and other cultural touchstones exploring AI technology
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Computers in Translation

Computers in Translation

Machine translation has undergone a long evolutionary development at the Air ... do in the early years, and because it was believed that machine translation ...

Author: John Newton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134937905

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 703

First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Categories: Education

Decoding Chomsky

Decoding Chomsky

... in Palestine four years earlier and become excited about machine translation. Trained by Harris, Chomsky's first forays into generative grammar treated ...

Author: Chris Knight

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300221466

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 440

A fresh and fascinating look at the philosophies, politics, and intellectual legacy of one of the twentieth century's most influential and controversial minds Occupying a pivotal position in postwar thought, Noam Chomsky is both the founder of modern linguistics and the world's most prominent political dissident. Chris Knight adopts an anthropologist's perspective on the twin output of this intellectual giant, acclaimed as much for his denunciations of US foreign policy as for his theories about language and mind. Knight explores the social and institutional context of Chomsky's thinking, showing how the tension between military funding and his role as linchpin of the political left pressured him to establish a disconnect between science on the one hand and politics on the other, deepening a split between mind and body characteristic of Western philosophy since the Enlightenment. Provocative, fearless, and engaging, this remarkable study explains the enigma of one of the greatest intellectuals of our time.
Categories: Philosophy

Translation Brains and the Computer

Translation  Brains and the Computer

Conscious Cogn 12(1):31–48 Kay M, Hays DG (2000) In: John Hutchins W (ed) Early years in machine translation. John Benjamin Publishing ...

Author: Bernard Scott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319766294

Category: Computers

Page: 241

View: 992

This book is about machine translation (MT) and the classic problems associated with this language technology. It examines the causes of these problems and, for linguistic, rule-based systems, attributes the cause to language’s ambiguity and complexity and their interplay in logic-driven processes. For non-linguistic, data-driven systems, the book attributes translation shortcomings to the very lack of linguistics. It then proposes a demonstrable way to relieve these drawbacks in the shape of a working translation model (Logos Model) that has taken its inspiration from key assumptions about psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic function. The book suggests that this brain-based mechanism is effective precisely because it bridges both linguistically driven and data-driven methodologies. It shows how simulation of this cerebral mechanism has freed this one MT model from the all-important, classic problem of complexity when coping with the ambiguities of language. Logos Model accomplishes this by a data-driven process that does not sacrifice linguistic knowledge, but that, like the brain, integrates linguistics within a data-driven process. As a consequence, the book suggests that the brain-like mechanism embedded in this model has the potential to contribute to further advances in machine translation in all its technological instantiations.
Categories: Computers

Linguistic Bibliography for the Year 2000 Bibliographie Linguistique de l Ann e 2000

Linguistic Bibliography for the Year 2000   Bibliographie Linguistique de l Ann  e 2000

and supplements for previous years / et complément des années précédentes Sijmen ... 5359 Early years in machine translation : memoirs and biographies of ...

Author: Sijmen Tol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402030088

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1564

View: 512

Bibliographie Linguistique/ Linguistic Bibliography is the annual bibliography of linguistics published by the Permanent International Committee of Linguists under the auspices of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies of UNESCO. With a tradition of more than fifty years (the first two volumes, covering the years 1939-1947, were published in 1949-1950), Bibliographie Linguistique is by far the most comprehensive bibliography in the field. It covers all branches of linguistics, both theoretical and descriptive, from all geographical areas, including less known and extinct languages, with particular attention to the many endangered languages of the world. Up-to-date information is guaranteed by the collaboration of some forty contributing specialists from all over the world. With over 20,000 titles arranged according to a detailed state-of-the-art classification, Bibliographie Linguistique remains the standard reference book for every scholar of language and linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Data intensive Text Processing with MapReduce

Data intensive Text Processing with MapReduce

Webegin by giving abriefintroduction tostatistical machinetranslation and ... Fully automated translation has been studied since the earliest days of ...

Author: Jimmy Lin

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781608453429

Category: Computers

Page: 165

View: 130

Our world is being revolutionized by data-driven methods: access to large amounts of data has generated new insights and opened exciting new opportunities in commerce, science, and computing applications. Processing the enormous quantities of data necessary for these advances requires large clusters, making distributed computing paradigms more crucial than ever. MapReduce is a programming model for expressing distributed computations on massive datasets and an execution framework for large-scale data processing on clusters of commodity servers. The programming model provides an easy-to-understand abstraction for designing scalable algorithms, while the execution framework transparently handles many system-level details, ranging from scheduling to synchronization to fault tolerance. This book focuses on MapReduce algorithm design, with an emphasis on text processing algorithms common in natural language processing, information retrieval, and machine learning. We introduce the notion of MapReduce design patterns, which represent general reusable solutions to commonly occurring problems across a variety of problem domains. This book not only intends to help the reader "think in MapReduce", but also discusses limitations of the programming model as well. This volume is a printed version of a work that appears in the Synthesis Digital Library of Engineering and Computer Science. Synthesis Lectures provide concise, original presentations of important research and development topics, published quickly, in digital and print formats. For more information visit www.morganclaypool.com
Categories: Computers

Four Words for Friend

Four Words for Friend

Brief Biographical Note', in Early Years in Machine Translation, edited by W.J. Hutchins, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 17–20. Hutchins, W. John. 2004.

Author: Marek Kohn

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300231083

Category: Bilingualism

Page: 250

View: 902

A compelling argument about the importance of using more than one language in today's world In a world that has English as its global language and rapidly advancing translation technology, it's easy to assume that the need to use more than one language will diminish--but Marek Kohn argues that plural language use is more important than ever. In a divided world, it helps us to understand ourselves and others better, to live together better, and to make the most of our various cultures. Kohn, whom the Guardian has called "one of the best science writers we have," brings together perspectives from psychology, evolutionary thought, politics, literature, and everyday experience. He explores how people acquire languages; how they lose them; how they can regain them; how different languages may affect people's perceptions, their senses of self, and their relationships with each other; and how to resolve the fundamental contradiction of languages, that they exist as much to prevent communication as to make it happen.
Categories: Bilingualism