Sample-Size Determination in Quantitative Social Work Research

Author: Patrick Dattalo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198043089

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 9053

DOWNLOAD NOW »

A researcher's decision about the sample to draw in a study may have an enormous impact on the results, and it rests on numerous statistical and practical considerations that can be difficult to juggle. Computer programs help, but no single software package exists that allows researchers to determine sample size across all statistical procedures. This pocket guide shows social work students, educators, and researchers how to prevent some of the mistakes that would result from a wrong sample size decision by describing and critiquing four main approaches to determining sample size. In concise, example-rich chapters, Dattalo covers sample-size determination using power analysis, confidence intervals, computer-intensive strategies, and ethical or cost considerations, as well as techniques for advanced and emerging statistical strategies such as structural equation modeling, multilevel analysis, repeated measures MANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. He also offers strategies for mitigating pressures to increase sample size when doing so may not be feasible. Whether as an introduction to the process for students or as a refresher for experienced researchers, this practical guide is a perfect overview of a crucial but often overlooked step in empirical social work research.
Release

Conducting Substance Use Research

Author: Audrey L. Begun,Tom Gregoire,Thomas K. Gregoire

Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)

ISBN: 0199892318

Category: Social Science

Page: 186

View: 7930

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book assists new and experienced scholars in planning and conducting high quality, contemporary studies for knowledge building about substance use. The target audience is individuals new to substance use as a field of study, either as novice researchers or as experienced researchers in other areas who find themselves lacking experience to address overlapping issues of substance use. Organized around a translational science framework, the contents address substance use research about epidemiology, etiology, intervention efficacy and effectiveness, and implementation of evidence-informed interventions. In addition, examples and issues are drawn from social work traditions involving multiple levels of study (organisms to large social systems), integrating biopsychosocial aspects, and adopting a lifespan perspective. The authors examine the implications for research of current "great debates" in the field and present readers with a variety of specific substance use research resources and tools. This practical "how to" guide takes the reader step-by-step through issues specific to substance use research in study design, participant recruitment and retention, measurement and analysis, and the processes involved in the dissemination, diffusion, and implementation of evidence-informed innovations. A variety of technical resources and measurement tools are provided, as are references to journals for scholars to consider both as knowledge resources and as outlets for disseminating their work. In sum, this book offers a fresh approach to conducting substance use research that is not readily available in other texts.
Release

Sample Size Determination and Power

Author: Thomas P. Ryan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118439228

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 5598

DOWNLOAD NOW »

A comprehensive approach to sample size determination and power with applications for a variety of fields Sample Size Determination and Power features a modern introduction to the applicability of sample size determination and provides a variety of discussions on broad topics including epidemiology, microarrays, survival analysis and reliability, design of experiments, regression, and confidence intervals. The book distinctively merges applications from numerous fields such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, and engineering in order to provide a complete introduction to the general statistical use of sample size determination. Advanced topics including multivariate analysis, clinical trials, and quality improvement are addressed, and in addition, the book provides considerable guidance on available software for sample size determination. Written by a well-known author who has extensively class-tested the material, Sample Size Determination and Power: Highlights the applicability of sample size determination and provides extensive literature coverage Presents a modern, general approach to relevant software to guide sample size determination including CATD (computer-aided trial design) Addresses the use of sample size determination in grant proposals and provides up-to-date references for grant investigators An appealing reference book for scientific researchers in a variety of fields, such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, mathematics, ecology, and geology, who use sampling and estimation methods in their work, Sample Size Determination and Power is also an ideal supplementary text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in statistical sampling.
Release

Basic Statistics in Multivariate Analysis

Author: Karen A. Randolph,Laura L. Myers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199982147

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 5771

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The complexity of social problems necessitates that social work researchers understand and apply multivariate statistical methods in their investigations. In this pocket guide, the authors introduce readers to three of the more frequently used multivariate methods in social work research with an emphasis on basic statistics. The primary aim is to prepare entry-level doctoral students and early career social work researchers in the use of multivariate methods by providing an easy-to-understand presentation, building on the basic statistics that inform them. The pocket guide begins with a review of basic statistics, hypothesis testing with inferential statistics, and bivariate analytic methods. Subsequent sections describe bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses, one-way and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), and path analysis. In each chapter, the authors introduce the various basic statistical procedures by providing definitions, formulas, descriptions of the underlying logic and assumptions of each procedure, and examples of how they have been used in social work research literature, particularly with diverse populations. They also explain estimation procedures and how to interpret results. The multivariate chapters conclude with brief step-by-step instructions for conducting multiple regression analysis and one-way ANOVA in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and path analysis in Amos, using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). As an additional supplement, the book offers a companion website that provides more detailed instructions, as well as data sets and worked examples.
Release

Research with Diverse Groups

Research Designs and Multivariate Latent Modeling for Equivalence

Author: Antoinette Y. Farmer PhD,G. Lawrence Farmer PhD

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019939590X

Category: Social Science

Page: 144

View: 527

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Social work researchers often conduct research with groups that are diverse in terms of gender, sexual orientation, race or ethnic background, or age. Consequently, social work researchers must take great care to establish research-design equivalence at all phases of the research process (e.g., problem formulation, research design, sampling, measurement selection, data collection, and data analysis); otherwise, the results might reflect methodological flaws rather than true group differences and therefore lead to erroneous conclusions. This book introduces the methodological precautions that must be taken into consideration when conducting research with diverse groups. Multigroup Confirmatory Analysis (MG-CFA) using structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to demonstrate how to assess seven types of measurement and structural equivalence that Milfont and Fischer (2010) have deemed important for studies with diverse samples. A hypothetical example was provided to illustrate how to design a study with good research-design equivalence. A case example was provided to demonstrate how to conduct an MG-CFA for each type of measurement and structural equivalence discussed. The Mplus syntax used to conduct the MG-CFA was provided. The results from the MG-CFA analyses were written up as they would be for publication.
Release

A Social Justice Approach to Survey Design and Analysis

Author: Llewellyn Joseph Cornelius,Donna Harrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199739307

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 8475

DOWNLOAD NOW »

A Social Justice Approach to Survey Design and Analysis is written for students, teachers, researchers and anyone who is interested in conducting research. It draws heavily on current discussions regarding social justice, equity, health disparities and social determinants of health to provide a framework for researchers to use both to engage in social justice research as well as to evolve as social justice practitioners. This research book includes a framework of the continuum of social justice research, a presentation on how to provide an active voice for the community in the design and exaction of research, examples of social justice data sources along with how researchers have used that data to measure social inequities, and an overview of how to analyze data, using the social justice research framework. The book also includes several in depth case scenarios that highlight how social justice research has been used to document, monitor and evaluate inequities encountered by underserved populations
Release

Participatory Action Research

Author: Hal A. Lawson,James Caringi,Loretta Pyles,Janine Jurkowski,Christine Bozlak

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190204400

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 2969

DOWNLOAD NOW »

As novel, complex social problems increase, especially those involving vulnerable people who reside in challenging places, the limitations of conventional research methods implemented by just one or two investigators become apparent. Research and development alternatives are needed, particularly methods that engage teams of researchers in real world problem solving while simultaneously generating practice- and policy-relevant knowledge. Research methods that effectively tap the expertise of everyday people, especially those impacted by these targeted social problems, are a special priority because academic researchers often lack experiential knowledge that stems from direct, everyday encounters with these vexing problems. Participatory action research (PAR) responds to these manifest needs. It provides a methodological structure and operational guidelines for preparing and deploying people from various walks of life as co-researchers, and it provides a proven strategy for generating practice- and policy-relevant knowledge as problem-solving in real world contexts proceeds.
Release

Key Concepts in Measurement

Author: Brian E. Perron,David F. Gillespie

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190235977

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 8052

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Measurement refers generally to the process of assigning a numeric value to, or ordering characteristics or traits of, entities under study. Measurement is necessary for building and testing theory, specifying problems, and defining goals. It is arguably one of the most important and diffcult tasks in social work research. Social work researchers who are not expert in developing, selecting, and using measures will not be able to contribute maximally to the social work knowledge base. Such knowledge and skills related to measurement ultimately determines the extent to which social work research can effectively inform social policy and social work interventions. This book is to serve as a guide for developing, selecting, and using measures in social work research. In particular, this book provides a detailed review of contemporary validity theory; an update on the major issues of reliability; common errors in measurement of latent variables; and suggestions on measurement of social networks and collectives. An important theme of this book is the focus on the creative potential of measurement - that is, helping social work researchers think about the wide variety of ways that social work concepts can be measured. Reflecting on these differences raises questions about underlying assumptions that in turn inspires creative theoretical insights. Rather than seeing measurement as simply a task to be completed in the research process, we will encourage the reader to think creatively about measurement and theory. This book also addresses the interdependency of measurement and theory construction. In other words, this book covers how measurement and theory are connected in two different ways. First, every measure has its own working theory that relates the measure to the concept being measured. Second, theory construction is dependent on measurement. What we learn using a given measure could be different if a concept was measured in a different way.
Release

Tenencia de la tierra y desarrollo rural

Author: N.A

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789253048465

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 66

View: 2875

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Esta guia ha sido preparada para que el lector se familiarice con los asuntos claves de la tenencia de la tierra, especialmente cuando dichos asuntos se relacionan con la inseguridad alimentaria y con el desarrollo rural. Muchas veces las cuestiones de tenencia de la tierra son ignoradas en las intervenciones de desarrollo rural, y ello suele tener efectos duraderos muy negativos."
Release