This book is the most comprehensive treatment available of one of the most urgent problems in bioethics: decision-making for incompetents.
Author: Allen E. Buchanan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book is the most comprehensive treatment available of one of the most urgent--and yet in some respects most neglected--problems in bioethics: decisionmaking for incompetents. Part I develops a general theory for making treatment and care decisions for patients who are not competent to decide for themselves. It provides an in-depth analysis of competence, articulates and defends a coherent set of principles to specify suitable surrogate decisionmakers and to guide their choices, examines the value of advance directives, and investigates the role that considerations of cost ought to play in decisions concerning incompetents. Part II applies this theoretical framework to the distinctive problems of three important classes of individuals, many of whom are incompetent: minors, the elderly, and psychiatric patients. The authors' approach combines a probing analysis of fundamental issues in ethical theory with a sensitive awareness of the concrete realities of health care institutions and the highly personal and individual character of difficult practical problems. Its broad scope will appeal to health professionals, moral philosophers and lawyers alike.
Author: Raymond J. DevetterePublish On: 2016-05-20
What is ethics?
Author: Raymond J. Devettere
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
This is a new edition of a classic textbook in health care ethics, one that offers an alternative to the principle-based approach from Beauchamp and Childress (Principles of Biomedical Ethics, now in its seventh edition from OUP) and traditional Catholic approaches of Ashley and O'Rourke. In the early chapters Devettere spells out the meaning of ethics and the importance of prudential reasoning in seeking the good life. The rest of the book deals with issues and cases, including determinations of life and death, reproduction and research and genetics, and the distribution of health care. In this fourth edition Devettere updates all chapters and adds new cases and new sections on the following: neuroscience, social psychology, overriding advance directives, studies on the fetus, the palliative care movement, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, pharmacists and reproductive issues, prenatal life and abortion, neonatal testing and mandatory vaccinations, the US governments' STD research in Guatemala, the emergence of biobanks, facial transplantations, genetic testing, legal issues around the Affordable Care Act, and more. This is an accessible and comprehensive textbook covering all aspects of the field.
The common theme of all studies is uncertainty. The first four essays study individual decisions that have uncertain consequences, be it due to the actions of others or chance.
Author: Kinga Posadzy
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of human behavior that goes beyond monetary rewards. In particular, it investigates social influences in individual’s decision making in situations that involve coordination, competition, and deciding for others. Further, it compares how monetary and social outcomes are perceived. The common theme of all studies is uncertainty. The first four essays study individual decisions that have uncertain consequences, be it due to the actions of others or chance. The last essay, in turn, uses the advances in research on decision making under uncertainty to predict behavior in riskless choices. The first essay, Fairness Versus Efficiency: How Procedural Fairness Concerns Affect Coordination, investigates whether preferences for fair rules undermine the efficiency of coordination mechanisms that put some individuals at a disadvantage. The results from a laboratory experiment show that the existence of coordination mechanisms, such as action recommendations, increases efficiency, even if one party is strongly disadvantaged by the mechanism. Further, it is demonstrated that while individuals’ behavior does not depend on the fairness of the coordination mechanism, their beliefs about people’s behavior do. The second essay, Dishonesty and Competition. Evidence from a stiff competition environment, explores whether and how the possibility to behave dishonestly affects the willingness to compete and who the winner is in a competition between similarly skilled individuals. We do not find differences in competition entry between competitions in which dishonesty is possible and in which it is not. However, we find that due to the heterogeneity in propensity to behave dishonestly, around 20% of winners are not the best-performing individuals. This implies that the efficient allocation of resources cannot be ensured in a stiff competition in which behavior is unmonitored. The third essay, Tracing Risky Decision Making for Oneself and Others: The Role of Intuition and Deliberation, explores how individuals make choices under risk for themselves and on behalf of other people. The findings demonstrate that while there are no differences in preferences for taking risks when deciding for oneself and for others, individuals have greater decision error when choosing for other individuals. The differences in the decision error can be partly attributed to the differences in information processing; individuals employ more deliberative cognitive processing when deciding for themselves than when deciding for others. Conducting more information processing when deciding for others is related to the reduction in decision error. The fourth essay, The Effect of Decision Fatigue on Surgeons’ Clinical Decision Making, investigates how mental depletion, caused by a long session of decision making, affects surgeon’s decision to operate. Exploiting a natural experiment, we find that surgeons are less likely to schedule an operation for patients who have appointment late during the work shift than for patients who have appointment at the beginning of the work shift. Understanding how the quality of medical decisions depends on when the patient is seen is important for achieving both efficiency and fairness in health care, where long shifts are popular. The fifth essay, Preferences for Outcome Editing in Monetary and Social Contexts, compares whether individuals use the same rules for mental representation of monetary outcomes (e.g., purchases, expenses) as for social outcomes (e.g., having nice time with friends). Outcome editing is an operation in mental accounting that determines whether individuals prefer to first combine multiple outcomes before their evaluation (integration) or evaluate each outcome separately (segregation). I find that the majority of individuals express different preferences for outcome editing in the monetary context than in the social context. Further, while the results on the editing of monetary outcomes are consistent with theoretical predictions, no existing model can explain the editing of social outcomes.
Few of the judges discuss the nonargument cases with each other prior to
convening ( see table 27 ) . Only one judge said he frequently talks with the other
judges , usually by telephone , and two said they occasionally telephone or write
Author: Scotland. Court of SessionPublish On: 1864
What occurred to me as to the convenience of not deciding it now was this . Of
course if your Lordships should decide it one way , that would stop the trial under
certain counts of this Information ; but it would just lead to this , that we would
As Tannenbaum and Schmidt depict in Figure 8 – 2 , this is the situation in which
the administrator decides what is to be done and communicates the decision to others to be carried out . But you will notice that this is only the starting point in a ...
Author: Robert G. Owens
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Category: Okul Yönetimi ve Organizasyon-A.B.D.
Synthesizes and correlates research on such aspects of organizational behaviour as organizational culture, leadership, motivation, change, conflict and decision making. Additionally, this edition discusses postmodern thought like pragmatism and critical theory as it relates to the subject.
capacity. Always encourage and empower people to share decisions about their
treatment and care. Whilst people have the right to make what others might
regard as an unwise decision, there are occasions when a person's refusal to
Author: Judy Brook
Publisher: Oxford Handbooks in Nursing
This Handbook provides easily accessible, contemporary, and evidence-based material, to act a reference or first point of enquiry for practitioners working in the diverse areas of primary and community care
Some people are able to quickly process the available information, assess the
associated risks, and make a decision. Others have a much harder time deciding
what the available options are and picking the best one. FLYING-FEBRUARY ...
... is twice The sacredness that Judge Douglas throws around this decision is a
removed from the people in his election ... some_25 or 30 years ago , deciding
that a national When the people of the United States , who are the sovereign
Several examples reveal somethings to consider before deciding if the moment is
ripe. ... The crucial question is: “How do I decide when to involve employees and
when do I make the decision without others participating?” There are no hard ...
It is a great ing to be able to decide off - hand what you to give it , either because
he feared to be abused by this or that will ... The mere the merits and advantages
of decision if decided people were faculty of keeping the mind fairly balanced ...
the administrator will need to determine which individuals or groups should help
make a decision in a particular area . ... While there is no formula for easily determining the most appropriate level of involvement by others , the
Author: Petra E. Snowden
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities, Social Sciences & World Languages
The text is designed to help prospective and experienced principals, administrators and supervisors increase their knowledge and skills through concepts, case-studies, and simulations. Two parts makeup this text. Part I presents important theoretical concepts and research findings that if adequately understood and appropriately applied can improve educators' problem solving and leadership effectiveness. Problems and issues illustrated in case studies and simulations are presented in Part II. Nevertheless, it is the problem dimension of human behaviour in school administration that should be studied, and it is here that preparation and in-service training programs need to be directed if prospective and experienced administrators and supervisors are to be equipped with the skills needed for the future as well as for the present.
While I am continually engaged , " he says , " in the business of my profession , in
pleading some causes , in hearing others , in settling some as arbitrator , and in deciding others as judge ; while I am under the necessity of paying a visit of ...
“While I am continually engaged,” he says, “in the business of my profession, in
pleading some causes, in hearing others, in settling some as arbitrator, and in deciding others as judge; while I am under the necessity of paying a visit of ...
( Well ... some decisions are more obvious than others ! ) Throughout the day you
are faced with lots of decisions to make . Here are some questions to ask yourself
that might make it easier to come to a decision : • How important is this decision ...
Author: Darlene Mannix
For special educators, counselors and other professionals, here is an exciting collection of 187 ready-to-use worksheets to help students in grades 6-12 build the social skills they need to interact effectively with others and learn how to apply these skills to various real-life settings, situations and problems.
Pollux, among other instances of appeal, speaks of that from the senate to the
assembly of the people. It is conjectured that this refers to cases which the former
were for various reasons disinclined to decide. Others, however, think that it ...
... in duty devolves upon the police of deciding people with the real attitude of
officialdom . the absence of all favourable ... bing people's minds , must , we think
, be Do bacilli of this form occur in cholera in every instance , the decision of a ...
rights , and we must practice what Indian thought calls “ ahimsa ” . nonviolence ,
or reverence for life.25 Still others claim that rocks and rills and templed hills
have rights , and ethics must extend to the entire world , nonanimate as well as ...
Author: Joyce Beebe Thompson
Publisher: University Press of Amer
This text reviews theoretical bases for bioethics including definitions of morals, ethics, metaethics, bioethics and the role of health care professionals. Theory includes discussion of philosphical ethical systems, such as utilitarianism, denotology and natural law, and moral theology and religion as source and reason for ethics. The natural law theory of moral development is described in terms of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, James Rest, Carol Gilligan and others. One way to understand this is to see people as moral beings. This includes nurses and other health care professionals who make bioethical decisions.