Debt Democracy and the Welfare State

Debt  Democracy and the Welfare State

Why is it that government debt in the developed world has risen to world war proportions in a time of peace?

Author: R. Hannesson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137532008

Category: Political Science

Page: 115

View: 409

Why is it that government debt in the developed world has risen to world war proportions in a time of peace? This can largely be attributed to governments maintaining welfare expenditures beyond what tax revenues allow. But will these governments refrain from doing what is necessary for economic growth for fear of losing their electorate?
Categories: Political Science

Debt Democracy and the Welfare State

Debt  Democracy and the Welfare State

Are Modern Democracies Living on Borrowed Time and Money? R. Hannesson. 8. Conclusion. Abstract: The welfare state is a nice thing to have, but we must be ...

Author: R. Hannesson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137532008

Category: Political Science

Page: 115

View: 837

Why is it that government debt in the developed world has risen to world war proportions in a time of peace? This can largely be attributed to governments maintaining welfare expenditures beyond what tax revenues allow. But will these governments refrain from doing what is necessary for economic growth for fear of losing their electorate?
Categories: Political Science

Globalization and the Future of the Welfare State

Globalization and the Future of the Welfare State

Democracy has swept the globe, and both rich and developing nations must compete in an increasingly integrated world economy. How are social welfare policies being affected by this wave of economic globalization?

Author: Miguel Glatzer

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press

ISBN: 9780822972693

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 625

In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the global political economy has undergone a profound transformation. Democracy has swept the globe, and both rich and developing nations must compete in an increasingly integrated world economy. How are social welfare policies being affected by this wave of economic globalization? Leading researchers explore the complex question in this new comparative study. Shifting their focus from the more commonly studied, established welfare states of northwestern Europe, the authors of Globalization and the Future of the Welfare State examine policy development in the middle-income countries of southern and eastern Europe, Latin America, Russia, and East Asia. Previous investigations into the effects of globalization on welfare states have generally come to one of two conclusions. The first is that a global economy undermines existing welfare states and obstructs new developments in social policy, as generous provisions place a burden on a nation's resources and its ability to compete in the international marketplace. In contrast, the second builds on the finding that economic openness is positively correlated with greater social spending, which suggests that globalization and welfare states can be mutually reinforcing. Here the authors find that globalization and the success of the welfare state are by no means as incompatible as the first view implies. The developing countries analyzed demonstrate that although there is great variability across countries and regions, domestic political processes and institutions play key roles in managing the disruptions wrought by globalization.
Categories: Political Science

When Welfare States Retrench

When Welfare States Retrench

This is consistent with the theoretical framework as unemployment spending is consistently less popular with the median voter than old age pension spending because unemployment benefits protect against labor market risks, whereas old age ...

Author: Mathias Tromborg

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:876615029

Category: Electronic Dissertations

Page: 43

View: 520

Welfare state spending cuts constitute one of the most economically efficient ways to achieve fiscal consolidation, but some policymakers prefer other methods of fiscal consolidation when government debt levels are high. In this paper I examine this phenomenon and hypothesize that the economic incentive to cut welfare spending when government debt levels are high can be undermined by the political incentive to stay in power. Specifically, I hypothesize that government debt and median voter preferences interact to shape welfare state outcomes; high levels of government debt lead to welfare retrenchment, but only if the median voter does not oppose cuts in welfare spending. Using data on government spending and median voter preferences from 18 OECD countries, I estimate a series of regressions, showing that government debt does lead to overall welfare spending cuts when the median voter does not oppose overall welfare retrenchment, and that government debt has a negative impact on unemployment spending, but not on old age pension spending. This is consistent with the theoretical framework as unemployment spending is consistently less popular with the median voter than old age pension spending because unemployment benefits protect against labor market risks, whereas old age pensions protect against life course risks.
Categories: Electronic Dissertations

The Good Society

The Good Society

Denmark and Switzerland are small and successful countries with exceptionally content populations.

Author: Henrik Christoffersen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642372384

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 327

View: 617

Denmark and Switzerland are small and successful countries with exceptionally content populations. However, they have very different political institutions and economic models. They have followed the general tendency in the West toward economic convergence, but both countries have managed to stay on top. They both have a strong liberal tradition, but otherwise their economic strategies are a welfare state model for Denmark and a safe haven model for Switzerland. The Danish welfare state is tax-based, while the expenditures for social welfare are insurance-based in Switzerland. The political institutions are a multiparty unicameral system in Denmark, and a permanent coalition system with many referenda and strong local government in Switzerland. Both approaches have managed to ensure smoothly working political power-sharing and economic systems that allocate resources in a fairly efficient way. To date, they have also managed to adapt the economies to changes in the external environment with a combination of stability and flexibility.
Categories: Business & Economics

Federalism and Social Policy

Federalism and Social Policy

In this carefully curated collection, Scott L. Greer, Heather Elliott, and the contributors explore the relationship between decentralization and the welfare state to determine whether or not decentralization has negative consequences for ...

Author: Scott L Greer

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472131174

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 286

Federalism and Social Policy focuses on the crucial question: Is a strong and egalitarian welfare state compatible with federalism? In this carefully curated collection, Scott L. Greer, Heather Elliott, and the contributors explore the relationship between decentralization and the welfare state to determine whether or not decentralization has negative consequences for welfare. The contributors examine a variety of federal countries, including Spain, Canada, and the United Kingdom, asking four key questions related to decentralization: (1) Are there regional welfare states (such as Scotland, Minnesota, etc.)? (2) How much variation is there in the structures of federal welfare states? (3) Is federalism bad for welfare? (4) Does austerity recentralize or decentralize welfare states? By focusing on money and policy instead of law and constitutional politics, the volume shows that federalism shapes regional governments and policies even when decentralization exists.
Categories: Political Science

Indebted Societies

Indebted Societies

By highlighting how credit markets interact with welfare states, the book helps explain why similar groups of people are more indebted in some countries than others.

Author: Andreas Wiedemann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108983716

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 800

In many rich democracies, access to financial markets is now a prerequisite for fully participating in labor and housing markets and pursuing educational opportunities. Indebted Societies introduces a new social policy theory of everyday borrowing to examine how the rise of credit as a private alternative to the welfare state creates a new kind of social and economic citizenship. Andreas Wiedemann provides a rich study of income volatility and rising household indebtedness across OECD countries. Weaker social policies and a flexible knowledge economy have increased costs for housing, education, and raising a family - forcing many people into debt. By highlighting how credit markets interact with welfare states, the book helps explain why similar groups of people are more indebted in some countries than others. Moreover, it addresses the fundamental question of whether individuals, states, or markets should be responsible for addressing socio-economic risks and providing social opportunities.
Categories: Political Science

Austerity

Austerity

For the last five years, Britain has been under the hammer of ‘Austerity’.

Author: Kerry-anne Mendoza

Publisher: New Internationalist

ISBN: 9781780262475

Category: Political Science

Page: 999

View: 801

For the last five years, Britain has been under the hammer of ‘Austerity’. In its name, wages have been frozen, benefits have been slashed and public spending squeezed. The pain of a financial crisis caused by bankers and speculators has been borne by ordinary people all over the country – and by the poor and disabled most of all.
Categories: Political Science

Challenges to the Welfare State

Challenges to the Welfare State

Also discusses the transition from communism to capitalism in eastern Europe. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Author: Henry Cavanna

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN: UOM:39015040145230

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

View: 113

Identifies the relative merits of welfare state systems in the US and Europe; examines and assesses cultural, economic, and political problems they face; and suggests policy to alleviate the problems. Queries whether the continued integration of Europe will result in all citizens being guaranteed only certain basic social rights, and being required to pay for health care, pension provision, and insurance. Concludes that the movement to reduce government debt will require either a big jump in taxes or a big drop in services. Also discusses the transition from communism to capitalism in eastern Europe. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Categories: Political Science

Life in Debt

Life in Debt

This dissertation is based on thirty-five months of fieldwork between 1999 to 2006 in Santiago, Chile.

Author: Clara Young Han

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:614293375

Category:

Page: 726

View: 353

This dissertation is based on thirty-five months of fieldwork between 1999 to 2006 in Santiago, Chile. Through ethnographic and historical work, I examine how successive democratic governments sought to technically and morally acknowledge the Pinochet regime's legacy of political violence and free market reforms through a discourse of "social debt": the moral and monetary debt owed to the poor, materialized in highly selective interventions on poverty, human rights, and mental health. Paradoxically, amidst this discourse of the "social debt", local networks of economic debt among the urban poor have emerged in concert with a growing credit industry as a response to Pinochet's dismantling of the welfare state and the rise of everyday economic insecurity. Situated in La Pincoya, a poor urban sector on the periphery of Santiago, I explore how economic indebtedness among the urban poor is now experienced as a potent resource for survival and social inclusion in the democratic era, and how economic debt has recast local forms of care and acknowledgment. In this context, I ethnographically track how the governments' measures to address the "social debt" were themselves appropriated into economic debt relations. Taken up as selective resources to offset the household and bodily manifestations of economic indebtedness, these government attempts at official repair and redress were experienced as an extension of a history of social damage and suffering, rather than as an acknowledgment of that suffering. In this dissertation, I ask: How has economic indebtedness configured the stakes of acknowledgement for the state and among the urban poor? What are the economic and moral groundworks that have experientially established the "absence" of the state, even as it attempts to reassert itself?
Categories:

Which Political Forces are Responsible for Retrenchment in Social Services in Social Democratic Welfare States

Which Political Forces are Responsible for Retrenchment in Social Services in Social Democratic Welfare States

Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Western Europe, grade: 1, University of Zurich, 30 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: A new impact to welfare ...

Author: Lucius Taeschler

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783638738439

Category:

Page: 72

View: 813

Research Paper from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Western Europe, grade: 1, University of Zurich, 30 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: A new impact to welfare state research was given by the crisis and the resulting, far-reaching changes during the past two decades. Not only the development and extension of the welfare state, but also the retrenchment became a topic of theorists and researchers. There exist a lot of explanations about the reasons of the crisis of the welfare state: globalization and the liberalization of the economy, heavily state-debts and the ageing society were some of the most dominant. In this paper, I'm not primary interested in the reasons of retrenchment. I'll focus on how they were realized. Which groups are interested in a smaller welfare state? How does retrenchment work on the political level? The paper discusses these questions on the basis of the situation in Sweden during the early 1990's. The analysis bases on an (rational choice orientated) historical institutionalism approach, stressing the effects of path dependency. The results show, that mainly market-liberal tended to favor retrenchment. But also the Social Democratic party was partly in favor for some reforms, having chosen a pragmatic strategy to defend the core of the Swedish welfare system. All in all, the economic crisis in the 90s changed the character of the Swedish welfare state. It lost a lot of its universalism, private sectors were introduced and "quasi-markets" established. Also the unemployment rate is still very high, compared with the ones before the crisis. Furthermore, the tendency of the welfare state seems to go into the direction of more costumer-choice - and thus more quasi-markets and private sectors.
Categories:

Essays on Welfare State Retrenchment

Essays on Welfare State Retrenchment

This dissertation is comprised of several essays on welfare state retrenchment in advanced industrial democracies since 1990.

Author: Christopher Krogslund

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:957713829

Category:

Page: 123

View: 656

This dissertation is comprised of several essays on welfare state retrenchment in advanced industrial democracies since 1990. The intent is to provide a strong empirical grounding for the theories of welfare state retrenchment using original data sets and state-of-the-art machine learning methods. It also goes beyond the causes of retrenchment to provide suggestive evidence for several effects of retrenchment on the economic behavior of individuals. Overall, the dissertation finds that retrenchment events are most likely to occur when highly-indebted, labor-docile countries experience public fiscal crises, exemplified by rising sovereign debt yields, which are preceded by a weakening of the governing power held by incumbent politicians. Political weakness creates electoral uncertainty which, in combination with economic frailty, sets off a rise in the premium states must pay to issue further debt. This creates significant fiscal pressure for retrenchment. Once retrenchment is carried out, evidence suggests that its effects impact the behavior and mindset of individual consumers, potentially decreasing their expenditures and optimism over their short-term economic future.
Categories:

Probable Justice

Probable Justice

The political genius of social insurance, Friedman shows, is that it allows for various accommodations of needs, risks, financing, and political aims—and thereby promotes security and fairness for citizens of liberal democracies.

Author: Rachel Z. Friedman

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226731094

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 879

Decades into its existence as a foundational aspect of modern political and economic life, the welfare state has become a political cudgel, used to assign blame for ballooning national debt and tout the need for personal responsibility. At the same time, it affects nearly every citizen and permeates daily life—in the form of pension, disability, and unemployment benefits, healthcare and parental leave policies, and more. At the core of that disjunction is the question of how we as a society decide who should get what benefits—and how much we are willing to pay to do so. Probable Justice​ traces a history of social insurance from the eighteenth century to today, from the earliest ideas of social accountability through the advanced welfare state of collective responsibility and risk. At the heart of Rachel Z. Friedman’s investigation is a study of how probability theory allows social insurance systems to flexibly measure risk and distribute coverage. The political genius of social insurance, Friedman shows, is that it allows for various accommodations of needs, risks, financing, and political aims—and thereby promotes security and fairness for citizens of liberal democracies.
Categories: Political Science

Deficits and Debt in Industrialized Democracies

Deficits and Debt in Industrialized Democracies

A necessary resource to understand a broader array of factors that shape fiscal outcomes in specific national contexts, this book will reinvigorate the study of fiscal performance.

Author: Eisaku Ide

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317575863

Category: Political Science

Page: 266

View: 160

Since the global financial crisis, government debt has soared globally by 40 percent and now exceeds an astonishing $100 trillion. Not all countries, though, have fared the same. Indeed, even prior to the financial crisis, the fiscal fates of countries have been diverging, despite predictions that pressures from economic globalization push countries toward more convergent fiscally conservative policies. Featuring the work of an international interdisciplinary team of scholars, this volume explains patterns of fiscal performance (persistent patterns of budget deficits and government debt) from the 1970s to the present across seven countries – France, Italy, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, and the United States. Employing a comparative case study approach, seldom employed in studies of fiscal performance, contributions illuminate the complex causal factors often overlooked by quantitative studies and advances our theoretical understanding of fiscal performance. Among other things, the cases highlight the role of taxpayer consent, tax structure, the welfare state, organization of interests, and labor and financial markets in shaping fiscal outcomes. A necessary resource to understand a broader array of factors that shape fiscal outcomes in specific national contexts, this book will reinvigorate the study of fiscal performance.
Categories: Political Science

The Sympathetic State

The Sympathetic State

Drawing on a variety of materials, including newspapers, legal briefs, political speeches, the art and literature of the time, and letters from thousands of ordinary Americans, Dauber shows that while this long history of government ...

Author: Michele Landis Dauber

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226923482

Category: History

Page: 353

View: 655

Drawing on a variety of materials, including newspapers, legal briefs, political speeches, the art and literature of the time, and letters from thousands of ordinary Americans, Dauber shows that while this long history of government disaster relief has faded from our memory today, it was extremely well known to advocates for an expanded role for the national government in the 1930s, including the Social Security Act. Making this connection required framing the Great Depression as a disaster afflicting citizens though no fault of their own. Dauber argues that the disaster paradigm, though successful in defending the New Deal, would ultimately come back to haunt advocates for social welfare. By not making a more radical case for relief, proponents of the New Deal helped create the weak, uniquely American welfare state we have today - one torn between the desire to come to the aid of those suffering and the deeply rooted suspicion that those in need are responsible for their own deprivation.
Categories: History

The Political Economy of European Welfare Capitalism

The Political Economy of European Welfare Capitalism

In this state-of-the-art work, Colin Hay and Daniel Wincott reassess welfare provision across the whole of Europe – East, West and Central – and at the national and EU level.

Author: Colin Hay

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781137020710

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 863

In this state-of-the-art work, Colin Hay and Daniel Wincott reassess welfare provision across the whole of Europe – East, West and Central – and at the national and EU level. The book challenges much conventional wisdom about the welfare state, including the widely accepted notion of a 'golden age' of welfare, the idea of a challenge posed by globalization, and the notion of the welfare state as a burden on competitiveness and a drain on economic performance. The authors put forward an alternative analysis of European welfare capitalism which highlights the importance of European economic integration, domestic political dynamics and demographic change in determining welfare trajectories. They conclude with a compelling account of the challenges to which European welfare states must respond if they are to survive in the new era of public austerity.
Categories: Political Science

Democracy and the Welfare State

Democracy and the Welfare State

Tasked with the work of social reproduction, women also struggle to sustain family contact despite the odds. Along the way, they incur debt to pay for the ...

Author: Alice Kessler-Harris

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231542654

Category: Political Science

Page: 403

View: 660

After World War II, states on both sides of the Atlantic enacted comprehensive social benefits to protect working people and constrain capitalism. A widely shared consensus specifically linked social welfare to democratic citizenship, upholding greater equality as the glue that held nations together. Though the "two Wests," Europe and the United States, differ in crucial respects, they share a common history of social rights, democratic participation, and welfare capitalism. But in a new age of global inequality, welfare-state retrenchment, and economic austerity, can capitalism and democracy still coexist? In this book, leading historians and social scientists rethink the history of social democracy and the welfare state in the United States and Europe in light of the global transformations of the economic order. Separately and together, they ask how changes in the distribution of wealth reshape the meaning of citizenship in a post-welfare-state era. They explore how the harsh effects of austerity and inequality influence democratic participation. In individual essays as well as interviews with Ira Katznelson and Frances Fox Piven, contributors from both sides of the Atlantic explore the fortunes of the welfare state. They discuss distinct national and international settings, speaking to both local particularities and transnational and transatlantic exchanges. Covering a range of topics—the lives of migrant workers, gender and the family in the design of welfare policies, the fate of the European Union, and the prospects of social movements—Democracy and the Welfare State is essential reading on what remains of twentieth-century social democracy amid the onslaught of neoliberalism and right-wing populism and where this legacy may yet lead us.
Categories: Political Science

Politics of Eugenics

Politics of Eugenics

This book analyzes whether the "new debate on genetics" owes a debt to eugenic practices by welfare democracies of 1930s and 1940s.

Author: Alberto Spektorowski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135008857

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 463

This book analyzes whether the "new debate on genetics" owes a debt to eugenic practices by welfare democracies of 1930s and 1940s. More specifically, the question is whether precisely the same "eugenic rationale" used in the 1930s is philosophical akin to a new rationality unfolding in some Western European welfare societies that find themselves trapped in the modern dilemma of choosing between increasing immigration and population growth that leads to economic prosperity on the one hand, or halting immigration, protecting national identity, and suffering economic stagnation on the other. By analyzing, policies of integration and assisted reproduction technology (ART) in Northern European nation states such as Sweden, Finland, Denmark as well as in Israel, we find a historical continuity between "old eugenics" and current reproductive and family planning subsides and integration policies. By focusing on the concept of welfare productionism, we trace a continuing rationale between the eugenic policies of the past and current investments of ART. These programs, are rationalized as universal programs for the whole of the population. However, in this book the authors suggest that they served the goal of reproducing a productivist, national middle class which are enticed to reproduce. This work will be of great interest to students and scholars of racism, extremism, European politics, population politics, and the social impact of science and technology.
Categories: Political Science

Changing Institutions in the European Union

Changing Institutions in the European Union

This book makes a valuable, analytical contribution to recent debates on the ongoing institutional changes occurring within the European Union.

Author: Giuseppe Eusepi

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781845420581

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 177

This book makes a valuable, analytical contribution to recent debates on the ongoing institutional changes occurring within the European Union. It provides a comprehensive and diverse insight into a variety of areas, including in-depth studies of fiscal, monetary and voting issues, to help elucidate the current period of transitional change. The authors argue that a fiscal constitution is essential to help solve the deficits and debts that member countries face due to welfare state financing. Moreover, they believe that the successful implementation of a fiscal constitution is the key to a more coherent institutional setting for Europe as a whole. Although monetary institutions within the EU have already secured a degree of constitutional solution in the form of the euro, they warn that its stabilising power should not be overestimated: the European Central Bank has yet to experience financial crises like those faced by the Federal Reserve Bank. The authors move on to propose a new parliamentary design for Europe and assess the advantages for the elite of a small country to join the EU, compared to the population at large. This volume comprehensively explores the rapidly changing institutional configuration of the EU, employing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. It will be required reading for scholars of public choice, and those with an interest in political economy and EU integration. It is also an excellent sourcebook on European institutions and would provide useful complementary reading in a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Categories: Business & Economics