Darwin and International Relations

On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict

Author: Bradley A. Thayer

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813149703

Category: Political Science

Page: 444

View: 6436

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Pathbreaking and controversial, Darwin and International Relations offers the first comprehensive analysis of international affairs of state through the lens of evolutionary theory. Bradley A. Thayer provides a new method for investigating and explaining human and state behavior while generating insights into the origins of human and animal warfare, ethnic conflict, and the influence of disease on international relations. Using ethnological and statistical studies of warfare among tribal societies, Thayer argues that humans wage war for reasons predicted by evolutionary theory -- to gain and protect vital resources but also for the physically and emotionally stimulating effects of combat. Thayer demonstrates that an evolutionary understanding of disease will become a more important part of the study of international relations as new strains of diseases emerge and advances in genetics make biological warfare a more effective weapon for states and terrorists. He also explains the deep causes of ethnic conflict by illuminating how xenophobia and ethnocentrism evolved in humans. He notes that these behaviors once contributed to our ancestors' success in radically different environments, but they remain a part of us. Darwin and International Relations makes a major contribution to our understanding of human history and the future of international relations.
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Human Beings in International Relations

Author: Daniel Jacobi,Annette Freyberg-Inan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107116252

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 7540

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Asks how, why and to what ends humans appear in international relations theories and how this makes us interpret world politics.
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The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research

Author: Alex P. Schmid

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136810390

Category: Political Science

Page: 736

View: 2951

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This major new Handbook synthesises more than two decades of scholarly research, and provides a comprehensive overview of the field of terrorism studies. The content of the Handbook is based on the responses to a questionnaire by nearly 100 experts from more than 20 countries as well as the specific expertise and experience of the volume editor and the various contributors. Together, they guide the reader through the voluminous literature on terrorism, and propose a new consensus definition of terrorism, based on an extensive review of existing conceptualisations. The work also features a large collection of typologies and surveys a wide range of theories of terrorism. Additional chapters survey terrorist databases and provide a guide to available resources on terrorism in libraries and on the Internet. It also includes the most comprehensive World Directory of Extremist, Terrorist and other Organizations associated with Guerrilla Warfare, Political Violence, Protest and Organized- and Cyber-Crime. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research will be an essential work of reference for students and researchers of terrorism and political violence, security studies, criminology, political science and international relations, and of great interest to policymakers and professionals in the field of counter-terrorism.
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Sex and World Peace

Author: Valerie M. Hudson,Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill,Mary Caprioli,Chad F. Emmett

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520093

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

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Sex and World Peace unsettles a variety of assumptions in political and security discourse, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare micro-level gender violence and macro-level state peacefulness in global settings, supporting their findings with detailed analyses and color maps. Harnessing an immense amount of data, they call attention to discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, and they note the adverse effects on state security of abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable realities in family law, among other gendered aggressions. The authors find that the treatment of women informs human interaction at all levels of society. Their research challenges conventional definitions of security and democracy and shows that the treatment of gender, played out on the world stage, informs the true clash of civilizations. In terms of resolving these injustices, the authors examine top-down and bottom-up approaches to healing wounds of violence against women, as well as ways to rectify inequalities in family law and the lack of parity in decision-making councils. Emphasizing the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women, they mount a solid campaign against women's systemic insecurity, which effectively unravels the security of all.
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Wild Justice

The Moral Lives of Animals

Author: Marc Bekoff,Jessica Pierce

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226041662

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 5786

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Scientists have long counseled against interpreting animal behavior in terms of human emotions, warning that such anthropomorphizing limits our ability to understand animals as they really are. Yet what are we to make of a female gorilla in a German zoo who spent days mourning the death of her baby? Or a wild female elephant who cared for a younger one after she was injured by a rambunctious teenage male? Or a rat who refused to push a lever for food when he saw that doing so caused another rat to be shocked? Aren’t these clear signs that animals have recognizable emotions and moral intelligence? With Wild Justice Marc Bekoff and Jessica Pierce unequivocally answer yes. Marrying years of behavioral and cognitive research with compelling and moving anecdotes, Bekoff and Pierce reveal that animals exhibit a broad repertoire of moral behaviors, including fairness, empathy, trust, and reciprocity. Underlying these behaviors is a complex and nuanced range of emotions, backed by a high degree of intelligence and surprising behavioral flexibility. Animals, in short, are incredibly adept social beings, relying on rules of conduct to navigate intricate social networks that are essential to their survival. Ultimately, Bekoff and Pierce draw the astonishing conclusion that there is no moral gap between humans and other species: morality is an evolved trait that we unquestionably share with other social mammals. Sure to be controversial, Wild Justice offers not just cutting-edge science, but a provocative call to rethink our relationship with—and our responsibilities toward—our fellow animals.
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Hometown associations and ethnic unions in twentieth century Nigeria

a geographical and historical interpretation

Author: Charles Wilson Abbott,The University of Iowa

Publisher: ProQuest

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 674

View: 5298

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Hometown associations and ethnic unions arose in Nigeria after 1910. We know much about their history and activities, but we lack a description of what makes them significant, why they thrive in certain places, and why they endure. This study engages five closely related questions. First, how can we understand the full phenomenon of hometown associations and ethnic unions in their context? Second, how can we best divide the constellation of organizations into taxonomically and analytically useful categories? Third, why do these organizations endure? What do individuals get from participating? How do towns or ethnic groups benefit from having such organizations? Fourth, why are such groups almost wholly absent among people from the northern third of Nigeria? Fifth, how can we relate the groups to the large and growing literature on civil society? In order to answer these questions I review the literature, provide an interpretive history, and analyze recent trends in Nigerian associational life. I also incorporate field observations from Nigeria and the United States.
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Human Characteristics

Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Mind and Kind

Author: Henrik Høgh-Olesen,Jan Tønnesvang,Preben Bertelsen

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 435

View: 7554

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This volume features the contributions of 20 experts on the subject of human characteristics.
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