Cryocoolers 8

Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475798881

Category: Science

Page: 961

View: 1202

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The last few years have witnessed a substantial maturing of long life Stirling-cycle cryocoolers built upon the heritage of the flexure-bearing cryocoolers from Oxford University, and have seen the emergence of mature pulse tube cryocoolers competing head-to-head with the Stirling cryocoolers. Hydrogen sorption cryocoolers, Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers with rare earth regenerators, and helium Joule-Thomson cryocoolers have also made tremendous progress in opening up applications in the 4 K to 10 K temperature range. Tactical Stirling cryocoolers, now commonplace in the defense industry, are finding application in a number of cost constrained commercial applications and space missions, and are achieving ever longer lives as they move to linear-drive, clearance-seal compressors. Building on this expanding availability of commercially viable cryocoolers, numerous new applications are being enabled; many of these involve infrared imaging systems, and high temperature superconductors in the medical and communications fields. The vibration sensitivity of many of the infrared and medical imaging applications has led to the recognition that cryocooler-generated vibration and EMI is a critical performance parameter for these applications. In response, advanced closed-loop active vibration control systems have been developed and are being delivered to their first users. Application experiments, designed to explore, troubleshoot and resolve product integration issues, are occurring on an ever widening front, particularly in the fields of infrared imaging and spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and high-temperature superconductor applications. An important lesson is that integrating cryogenic systems requires care and thoughtfulness in a broad range of engineering and scientific disciplines.
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Cryocoolers 9

Author: Ronald G.Jr. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461558697

Category: Science

Page: 967

View: 707

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Proceedings of the 9th International Conference held in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire, June 25-27, 1996
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Cryocoolers 10

Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 030647090X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 876

View: 3579

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Cryocoolers 10 is the premier archival publication of the latest advances and performance of small cryogenic refrigerators designed to provide localized cooling for military, space, semi-conductor, medical, computing, and high-temperature superconductor cryogenic applications in the 2-200 K temperature range. Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, Cryocoolers 10 reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.
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Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference

Author: T. Haruyama,T. Mitsui,K. Yamafuji

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080539751

Category: Science

Page: 766

View: 7825

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This book contains the proceedings of the 16th ICEC/ICMC Conference, held in Kitakyushu, Japan, on 20th-24th May 1996. The Proceedings are presented in three volumes containing a total of 476 papers from 1484 authors. The proceedings covers the main areas of: Large Scale Refrigeration. Cryocoolers. Cryogenic Engineering. Space Cryogenics. Application of Superconductivity. Oxide Superconductors. Metallic Superconductors. Metallic Materials. Non Metallic Materials. In addition there are seven Plenary Lectures covering such diverse topics as commercialization of high-Tc superconductors, the continuing development of the Maglev system in Japan, and the Large Hadron Collider project. The Proceedings comprise an excellent and up-to-date summary of research and development in the fields of Cryogenics and Superconductivity.
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Cryocoolers ...

A Publication of the International Cryocooler Conference

Author: Ronald G. Ross

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 7925

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Cryocoolers 11

Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306471124

Category: Science

Page: 825

View: 1139

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Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, this valuable collection reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.
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Cryocoolers 12

Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306479192

Category: Science

Page: 825

View: 8480

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The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. One class of pulse tubes that has reached maturity is referred to as “Stirling type” because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide cooling in the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate at frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. The other type of pulse tube cooler making great advances is the so-called “Gifford-McMahon type. ” Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. Nearly a third of this proceedings covers these new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tubes is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials and Gifford-McMahon coolers. These technologies continue to make great progress in opening up the 2 - 4 K market. Also in the commercial sector, continued interest is being shown in the development of long-life, low-cost cryocoolers for the emerging high temperature superconductor electronics market, particularly the cellular telephone base-station market. At higher temperature levels, closed-cycle J-T or throttle-cycle refrigerators are taking advantage of mixed refrigerant gases to achieve low-cost cryocooler systems in the 65 to 80 K temperature range.
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Cryocoolers 13

Author: Ronald G. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387275339

Category: Science

Page: 726

View: 5945

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The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. New this year are papers de scribing the development of very large pulse tube cryocoolers to provide up to 1500 watts of cooling for industrial applications such as cooling the superconducting magnets of Mag-lev trains, coolmg superconducting cables for the power mdustry, and liquefymg natural gas. Pulse tube coolers can be driven by several competing compressor technologies. One class of pulse tube coolers is referred to as "Stirling type" because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide coolmg m the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate ^t frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. A second type of pulse tube cooler is the so-called "Gifford-McMahon type. " Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation (~1 Hz) to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. The third type of pulse tube cooler is driven by a thermoacoustic oscillator, a heat engine that functions well in remote environments where electricity is not readily available. All three types are described, and in total, nearly half of this proceedings covers new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tube and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials.
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