Crime Terror Alliances and the State

Crime Terror Alliances and the State

This new book by Lyubov Mincheva and Ted Gurr examines the political economy of transborder violence on the European Periphery that poses grave threats to domestic and international security in Europe and elsewhere.

Author: Lyubov Grigorova Mincheva

Publisher:

ISBN: 0415657784

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 944

This book examines the trans-border connections between militant and criminal networks and the relationship between these and the states in which they operate. "Unholy alliances" is a term used to describe hybrid trans-border militant and criminal networks that pose serious threats to security in Europe and elsewhere. Identity networks provide the basis for militant organizations using violent strategies – insurgency and terrorism – for political objectives. To gain funds and weapons militant networks may establish criminal enterprises, or align with existing trans-border criminal and financial networks. This book extends the concept of unholy alliances to include the trans-state criminal syndicates that arise in failed and dysfunctional states, exemplified by Serbia and Bulgaria during their post-Communist transitions. To deal with this complex and unconventional subject, the authors develop a theoretical framework that looks at four kinds of factors conditioning the interaction between the political and the criminal: trans-state identity networks, armed conflict, the balance of market opportunities and constraints, and the role of unstable and corrupt states. The volume also examines actors at two levels of analysis: the structure and activities of militant (and/or criminal) networks, and the policies of state actors that shape and reshape the interaction of opportunities and constraints. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism, insurgency, transnational crime, war and conflict studies, and IR in general.
Categories: Political Science

Crime Terror Alliances and the State

Crime Terror Alliances and the State

This book examines the trans-border connections between militant and criminal networks and the relationship between these and the states in which they operate.

Author: Lyubov Grigorova Mincheva

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135132101

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 311

This book examines the trans-border connections between militant and criminal networks and the relationship between these and the states in which they operate. "Unholy alliances" is a term used to describe hybrid trans-border militant and criminal networks that pose serious threats to security in Europe and elsewhere. Identity networks provide the basis for militant organizations using violent strategies – insurgency and terrorism – for political objectives. To gain funds and weapons militant networks may establish criminal enterprises, or align with existing trans-border criminal and financial networks. This book extends the concept of unholy alliances to include the trans-state criminal syndicates that arise in failed and dysfunctional states, exemplified by Serbia and Bulgaria during their post-Communist transitions. To deal with this complex and unconventional subject, the authors develop a theoretical framework that looks at four kinds of factors conditioning the interaction between the political and the criminal: trans-state identity networks, armed conflict, the balance of market opportunities and constraints, and the role of unstable and corrupt states. The volume also examines actors at two levels of analysis: the structure and activities of militant (and/or criminal) networks, and the policies of state actors that shape and reshape the interaction of opportunities and constraints. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism, insurgency, transnational crime, war and conflict studies, and IR in general.
Categories: Political Science

Criminals and Terrorists in Partnership

Criminals and Terrorists in Partnership

This book was originally published as a special issue of Global Crime.

Author: Helena Carrapico

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317389828

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 450

The nexus between terrorism and organised crime consists of a strategic alliance between two non-state actors who are able to exploit illegal markets, threaten the security of individuals, and influence policy-making on a global level. Recent Europol reports have pointed towards the importance of studying the links between organised crime and terrorist groups, and have underlined that the nature and extent of these connections have seldom been addressed from an academic perspective. Considering the danger that both organised crime and terrorism currently pose to the world, the collusion between these two phenomena is of urgent contemporary interest. Basing itself on geographical case-studies, this book contributes to the existing literature in three ways: by enriching the empirical knowledge on the nature of the crime-terror nexus and its evolution; by exploring the impact of the nexus within different economic, political and societal contexts; and by expanding on its theoretical conceptualization. This book was originally published as a special issue of Global Crime.
Categories: Social Science

The Terrorist Criminal Nexus

The Terrorist Criminal Nexus

This book was excerpted in the February/March 2013 issue of The Counter Terrorist.

Author: Jennifer L. Hesterman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466557611

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 351

View: 930

Postmodern global terrorist groups engage sovereign nations asymmetrically with prolonged, sustained campaigns driven by ideology. Increasingly, transnational criminal organizations operate with sophistication previously only found in multinational corporations. Unfortunately, both of these entities can now effectively hide and morph, keeping law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the dark and on the run. Perhaps more disturbing is the fact that al Qaeda, Hezbollah, FARC, drug cartels, and increasingly violent gangs—as well as domestic groups such as the Sovereign Citizens—are now joining forces. Despite differing ideologies, they are threatening us in new and provocative ways. The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus: An Alliance of International Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups frames this complex issue using current research and real-world examples of how these entities are sharing knowledge, training, tactics, and—in increasing frequency—joining forces. Providing policy makers, security strategists, law enforcement and intelligence agents, and students with new evidence of this growing threat, this volume: Examines current and future threats from international and domestic criminal and terror groups Identifies specific instances in which these groups are working together or in parallel to achieve their goals Discusses the "lifeblood" of modern organizations—the money trail Describes how nefarious groups leverage both traditional funding methods and e-commerce to raise, store, move, and launder money Explores the social networking phenomenon and reveals how it is the perfect clandestine platform for spying, communicating, recruiting, and spreading propaganda Investigates emergent tactics such as the use of human shields, and the targeting of first responders, schools, hospitals, and churches This text reveals the often disregarded, misunderstood, or downplayed nexus threat to the United States. Proving definitively that such liaisons exist despite differing ideologies, the book provides a thought-provoking new look at the complexity and phenomena of the terrorist-criminal nexus. This book was excerpted in the February/March 2013 issue of The Counter Terrorist.
Categories: Business & Economics

Crime terror Alliances and the State

Crime terror Alliances and the State

However, the illicit markets appear to have weak powers to foster unholy alliances with revolutionaries and terrorists. With the spectrum of illegal ...

Author: Lyubov Grigorova Mincheva

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415506489

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 302

This new book by Lyubov Mincheva and Ted Gurr examines the political economy of transborder violence on the European Periphery that poses grave threats to domestic and international security in Europe and elsewhere. The units of analysis are unholy alliances, i.e. hybrid transborder militant and criminal networks, which have been active in the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. The concept of Unholy Alliances is extended to also include the trans-state criminal syndicates that arise in failed and dysfunctional states, or operate within the global illicit economy. It also addresses the question of what reigns supreme in securing the militants' long term success: money; or social endowment, including strong identity networks
Categories: Political Science

Transnational Organized Crime Terrorism and Criminalized States in Latin America

Transnational Organized Crime  Terrorism  and Criminalized States in Latin America

The emergence of new hybrid (state and nonstate) transnational criminal/terrorist franchises in Latin America operating under broad state protection now pose a tier-one security threat for the United States.

Author: Douglas Farah

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:30000145975151

Category: National security

Page: 83

View: 683

The emergence of new hybrid (state and nonstate) transnational criminal/terrorist franchises in Latin America operating under broad state protection now pose a tier-one security threat for the United States. Similar hybrid franchise models are developing in other parts of the world, making understanding the new dynamics an important factor in a broader national security context. This threat goes well beyond the traditional nonstate theory of constraints activity such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking into the potential for trafficking related to weapons of mass destruction by designated terrorist organizations and their sponsors. These activities are carried out with the support of regional and extra regional states actors whose leadership is deeply enmeshed in criminal activity, which yields billions of dollars in illicit revenues every year. These same leaders have a publicly articulated, common doctrine of asymmetrical warfare against the United States and its allies that explicitly endorses as legitimate the use of weapons of mass destruction. The central binding element in this alliance is a hatred for the West, particularly the United States, and deep anti-Semitism, based on a shared view that the 1979 Iranian Revolution was a transformative historical event. For Islamists, it is evidence of divine favor; and for Bolivarians, a model of a successful asymmetrical strategy to defeat the "Empire." The primary architect of this theology/ideology that merges radical Islam and radical, anti-Western populism and revolutionary zeal is the convicted terrorist Ilich Sánchez Ramirez, better known as "Carlos the Jackal," whom Chávez has called a true visionary.
Categories: National security

Transnational Organized Crime Terrorism and Criminalized States in Latin America an Emerging Tier One National Security Priority Drug Trafficking FARC Hugo Chavez Transnistria FMLN Liberia

Transnational Organized Crime  Terrorism  and Criminalized States in Latin America   an Emerging Tier One National Security Priority  Drug Trafficking  FARC  Hugo Chavez  Transnistria  FMLN  Liberia

That view also adopts a military doctrine of asymmetric warfare that embraces the use of weapons of mass destruction.

Author: U. S. Military

Publisher:

ISBN: 1521328323

Category:

Page: 75

View: 901

In July 2011, President Obama unveiled his Transnational Organized Crime Strategy, the first comprehensive national policy effort to articulate and combat illicit economies that, cumulatively, have grown to more than $1 trillion. Although quite serious, this ever-increasing problem garnered relatively little attention. The security challenges and the geostrategic environment left few resources to monitor, much less combat, transnational organized crime (TOC) organizations. Across the globe, TOC groups continued to grow in power, influence, and resources, as President Obama's strategy indicates. The George W. Bush administration's initial focus on the problem during its last few years in office, ultimately led to the Obama strategy.Over the past decade, the International Assessment and Strategy Center (IASC) has maintained a focus on TOC issues and the growing ties between traditional criminal structures and various terrorist organizations. Extensive IASC field research documented the following developments: (1) the changing nature of TOC organizations in Latin America and West Africa; (2) the growing hybrid nature of criminal and terrorist groups; (3) the alliances with regional and extra-regional state and nonstate actors; and, (4) the growing involvement of the self-proclaimed Bolivarian states of Latin America whose governments sanctioned criminal activities as part of coherent, multistate instruments of statecraft.This monograph synthesizes research on such criminalized states in Latin America. It documents how, through the growing alliance with Iran and other external actors, these governments have developed a clearly articulated view hostile to the United States. That view also adopts a military doctrine of asymmetric warfare that embraces the use of weapons of mass destruction. The associated doctrine is further underpinned by a small group of intellectuals who articulate a need for radical Shi'a Islam and the armed, revolutionary Left to unite in order to defeat the United States -- a message that has been welcomed by Bolivarian states.Taken together, the emergence of criminalized, strongly anti-American governments in the Western Hemisphere, in alliance with Iran and other states who sponsor terrorist organizations and consider the United States to be the Great Satan, now represent a tier-one threat to the security of the U.S. Homeland. This monograph offers a template for examining similar developments in other parts of the world, as well as recommendations on how to begin to confront the emerging threat. The first step in the long process of dealing with a multifaceted set of enemies with unlimited resources is to understand the nature of that threat.Subjects covered include: MRTA, Mapuches, ETA, Bolivarian- Iranian Ties, Carlos the Jackal, drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering, FARC, Hugo Chavez, WMD, FMLN, Bolivarian revolution, Transnistria, Charles Taylor, Liberia.
Categories:

Rethinking the Crime terror Continuum in the 21st Century Post 9 11 to the Present

Rethinking the Crime terror Continuum in the 21st Century   Post 9 11 to the Present

The rise of terrorism and transnational organised crime (TOC) post-9/11, two previously separate phenomena, are now both a plague of the 21st century.

Author: Kateryna Ryabchiy

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1101185342

Category:

Page:

View: 266

The rise of terrorism and transnational organised crime (TOC) post-9/11, two previously separate phenomena, are now both a plague of the 21st century. The emergence of unconventional forms of terrorist organisations such as the Islamic State (IS) indicates new features in the crime-terror nexus. This requires rethinking of the conventional crime-terror convergence frameworks; including the crime-terror continuum (CTC) model, which is used to explain and categorise the relationships between organised crime (OC) and terrorism. The original 2003-2004 CTC model suggests that the relationship between crime and terrorism is not static but has evolved into a continuum. The CTC tracks down how the organisational dynamics and operational nature of both terrorism and OC changes over time. A single group can slide up and down between OC and terrorism, depending on the operational environment. Contemporary terrorism practices suggest that post-9/11 terrorist organisations have undergone significant transformations, and that the boundaries between organised crime and terrorism have become blurred. This brings into question the explanatory power and applicability of the conventional convergence trends, which are depicted in the 2003-2014 versions of the CTC model, to the reality of the transformation of terrorist organisations post-9/11. The conventional convergence trends revolve around a̲2́ƠË−realitiesa̲2́Ơ4́Ø of relationships between OC and terrorism in the form of alliances, appropriation of tactics, integration, hybridisation, and transformation from terrorist to criminal entities or vice versa. The current realities raise several questions about the applicability of the CTC model, as an explanatory tool. Terrorist organisations can originate as criminal organisations, using ideological motives as a recruiting poster for criminal activities. This points to gaps in the relationship of contemporary terrorism and OC, which are found in the crime-terror nexus and its discourse. These gaps pave the way for rethinking and critical evaluation of the explanatory power of the CTC model in the post-9/11 period and lay the basis for the development of an alternative framework as a foundation for further research. This study aims to critically rethink the explanatory power and revisit the applicability of the CTC to changes in the relationship between crime and terrorism post-9/11. This study employs a systematic literature overview design followed by critical evaluation. It isolates key works on the crime-terror nexus and convergence phenomenon, and assesses their limitations, so as to better understand and tackle terrorism in the post-9/11 period.
Categories:

Why Terrorist Groups Form International Alliances

Why Terrorist Groups Form International Alliances

Tricia Bacon examines partnerships formed by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Al-Qaida, and Egyptian jihadist groups, among others, in a series of case studies and offers insights useful to counterterrorism efforts to ...

Author: Tricia Bacon

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812250169

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 138

Tricia Bacon examines partnerships formed by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Al-Qaida, and Egyptian jihadist groups, among others, in a series of case studies and offers insights useful to counterterrorism efforts to disrupt these relationships.
Categories: Political Science

Intersections of Crime and Terror

Intersections of Crime and Terror

These dynamics, in turn, inform a deeper understanding of the security threat posted by terrorists and criminal networks and how to respond more effectively. This book was published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.

Author: James J.F. Forest

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317980209

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 239

During the last ten years an increasing number of government and media reports, scholarly books and journal articles, and other publications have focused our attention on the expanded range of interactions between international organized crime and terrorist networks. A majority of these interactions have been in the form of temporary organizational alliances (or customer-supplier relationships) surrounding a specific type of transaction or resource exchange, like document fraud or smuggling humans, drugs or weapons across a particular border. The environment in which terrorists and criminals operate is also a central theme of this literature. These research trends suggest the salience of this book which addresses how organized criminal and terrorist networks collaborate, share knowledge and learn from each other in ways that expand their operational capabilities. The book contains broad conceptual pieces, historical analyses, and case studies that highlight different facets of the intersection between crime and terrorism. These chapters collectively help us to identify and appreciate a variety of dynamics at the individual, organizational, and contextual levels. These dynamics, in turn, inform a deeper understanding of the security threat posted by terrorists and criminal networks and how to respond more effectively. This book was published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.
Categories: History

Transnational Organized Crime Terrorism and Criminalized States in Latin America

Transnational Organized Crime  Terrorism  and Criminalized States in Latin America

The emergence of new hybrid (state and nonstate) transnational criminal/terrorist franchises in Latin America operating under broad state protection now pose a tier-one security threat for the United States.

Author: Douglas Farah

Publisher:

ISBN: 1584875399

Category: National security

Page: 83

View: 295

The emergence of new hybrid (state and nonstate) transnational criminal/terrorist franchises in Latin America operating under broad state protection now pose a tier-one security threat for the United States. Similar hybrid franchise models are developing in other parts of the world, making understanding the new dynamics an important factor in a broader national security context. This threat goes well beyond the traditional nonstate theory of constraints activity such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking into the potential for trafficking related to weapons of mass destruction by designated terrorist organizations and their sponsors. These activities are carried out with the support of regional and extra regional states actors whose leadership is deeply enmeshed in criminal activity, which yields billions of dollars in illicit revenues every year. These same leaders have a publicly articulated, common doctrine of asymmetrical warfare against the United States and its allies that explicitly endorses as legitimate the use of weapons of mass destruction. The central binding element in this alliance is a hatred for the West, particularly the United States, and deep anti-Semitism, based on a shared view that the 1979 Iranian Revolution was a transformative historical event. For Islamists, it is evidence of divine favor; and for Bolivarians, a model of a successful asymmetrical strategy to defeat the "Empire." The primary architect of this theology/ideology that merges radical Islam and radical, anti-Western populism and revolutionary zeal is the convicted terrorist Ilich Sánchez Ramirez, better known as "Carlos the Jackal," whom Chávez has called a true visionary.
Categories: National security

Political Rebellion

Political Rebellion

The concluding essays bring theory and evidence to bear on the past and future of political violence in Africa. This book will be of much interest to student of rebellion, political violence, conflict studies, security studies and IR.

Author: Ted Robert Gurr

Publisher:

ISBN: 0415732816

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 466

"This volume comprises key essays by Ted Robert Gurr on the causes and consequences of organized political protest and rebellion, its outcomes and strategies for conflict management. From the Castro-inspired revolutionary movements of Latin America in the 1960s to Yugoslavia's dissolution in ethnonational wars of the 1990s, and the popular revolts of the Arab Spring, millions of people have risked their lives by participating in protests and rebellions. Based on half a century of theorizing and social science research, this book brings together Gurr's extensive knowledge and addresses the key questions surrounding this subject: What grievances, hopes and hatreds motivated the protesters and rebels? What did they gain that might have offset myriad deathsand devastation? How effective are protest movements as alternatives to rebellions and terrorism? What public and international responses lead away from violence and toward reforms? The essays in the volume are updated and are organized around the evolving themes of the author's research, including theoretical arguments, interpretations and references to the evidence developed in his empirical research and case studies. The concluding essays bring theory and evidence to bear on the past and future of political violence in Africa. This book will be of much interest to student of rebellion, political violence, conflict studies, security studies and IR"--Provided by publisher.
Categories: Political Science

Dark Commerce

Dark Commerce

Mincheva and Gurr, Crime- Terror Alliances and the State, 95–96; Shelley, Dirty Entanglements, 1–4; Matthew Levitt, Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism ...

Author: Louise I. Shelley

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691209760

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 376

View: 616

A comprehensive look at the world of illicit trade In the past three decades, technology has changed the fundamentals of trade, in legitimate and illegal economies. The most advanced forms of illicit trade have broken with all historical precedents and operate as if on steroids, tied to computers and social media. Dark Commerce examines how new technology, communications, and globalization fuel the exponential growth of dangerous forms of illegal trade—the markets for narcotics and child pornography, the escalation of sex trafficking, and the sale of endangered species. The illicit economy exacerbates many of the world’s destabilizing phenomena: the perpetuation of conflicts, the proliferation of arms and weapons of mass destruction, and environmental degradation and extinction. Dark Commerce demonstrates that the dark market is a business the global community cannot afford to ignore.
Categories: Business & Economics

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Modern War

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Modern War

Crime-Terror Alliances and the State: Ethnonationalist and Islamist Challenges to Regional Security. Abingdon: Routledge. REFERENCES Andreas, P. and ...

Author: Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482247664

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 914

A collection of original works covering all aspects of insurgency and counterinsurgency through a multinational lens, Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Modern War addresses the need to look beyond the United States and other prominent counterinsurgency actors in the contemporary world. It also reassesses some of the latent and burgeoning insurgent organizations and networks around the globe and suggests alternative approaches to understanding insurgency, counterinsurgency, and conventional and asymmetric warfare as they relate to insurgency and counterinsurgency. This book makes significant contributions to international and interdisciplinary discussions regarding the seminal features of insurgency and counterinsurgency in modern warfare. It also relates topics with terrorism in the post-9/11 era, including the historical roots of insurgency, radicalism in Europe, and regional radical groups like al-Qaeda and Lashkar-e-Taiba. It emphasizes how issues around insurgency, counterinsurgency, and terrorism permeate or evolve into particular forms of warfare, military operations, and related governmental activities. Using a diversified lens of analysis, the chapters illustrate key elements that spawn insurgency such as insurgents’ beliefs, motivations, aims, leadership characteristics, recruitment methods, operations planning, and responses to state and non-state efforts to contain insurgency. The book also examines how certain terrorist and insurgent operations can remain in the shadows and become secret wars beneath the growing surface threats they pose to the societies in which they breed activity. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Modern War takes a unique look at a subject that has become widely studied and written about in reaction to modern terrorism and insurgency. It analyzes conditions under which insurgency and counterinsurgency occur from nuanced perspectives that have not previously received full consideration.
Categories: History

Threat Posed by the Convergence of Organized Crime Drug Trafficking and Terrorism

Threat Posed by the Convergence of Organized Crime  Drug Trafficking  and Terrorism

Witnesses: Frank Cilluffo, senior policy analyst and deputy dir., Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS); Donnie R. Marshall, Administrator, Drug Enforcement Admin. (DEA); Steven C. McCraw, Inspector-Deputy Assistant Dir.

Author: Bill McCollum

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 0756720826

Category:

Page: 66

View: 520

Witnesses: Frank Cilluffo, senior policy analyst and deputy dir., Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS); Donnie R. Marshall, Administrator, Drug Enforcement Admin. (DEA); Steven C. McCraw, Inspector-Deputy Assistant Dir., Information, Analysis, and Assessments Branch, Investigative Div., FBI; Ralf Mutschke, assist. dir., Sub-Directorate for Crimes Against Persons and Property, INTERPOL General Secretariat, Lyon, France; Raphael Perl, Specialist in International Affairs, Congressional Research (CRS), The Library of Congress; and Michael A. Sheehan, Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for Counterterrorism, U.S. Dept. of State.
Categories:

Borderland Battles

Borderland Battles

In Borderland Battles, Annette Idler examines the micro-dynamics among violent non-state groups and finds striking patterns: borderland spaces consistently intensify the security impacts of how these groups compete for territorial control, ...

Author: Annette Idler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190849160

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 919

The post-cold war era has seen an unmistakable trend toward the proliferation of violent non-state groups-variously labeled terrorists, rebels, paramilitaries, gangs, and criminals-near borders in unstable regions especially. In Borderland Battles, Annette Idler examines the micro-dynamics among violent non-state groups and finds striking patterns: borderland spaces consistently intensify the security impacts of how these groups compete for territorial control, cooperate in illicit cross-border activities, and replace the state in exerting governance functions. Drawing on extensive fieldwork with more than 600 interviews in and on the shared borderlands of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, where conflict is ripe and crime thriving, Idler reveals how dynamic interactions among violent non-state groups produce a complex security landscape with ramifications for order and governance, both locally and beyond. A deep examination of how violent non-state groups actually operate with and against one another on the ground, Borderland Battles will be essential reading for anyone involved in reducing organized crime and armed conflict-some of our era's most pressing and seemingly intractable problems.
Categories: Political Science

Terrorism 2013 2015

Terrorism  2013 2015

Ph.D. diss., Department of Political Science, Florida State University, 2012. Mincheva, Lyubov Grigorov, and Ted Robert Gurr. Crime-Terror Alliances and the ...

Author: Edward Mickolus

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476625898

Category: History

Page: 572

View: 264

This second comprehensive chronology of international terrorist attacks covers three eventful years during which the Islamic State supplanted al-Qaeda as the most active, well-financed and well-armed terrorist group worldwide. Domestic and international incidents around the globe are covered, outlining several trends and exploding a number of media myths. The author examines the enigmas of contemporary terrorist behavior and offers indicators and predictions to watch for in the coming years.
Categories: History

Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime electronic Resource

Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime  electronic Resource

The Strategy will achieve this end-state by pursuing five key policy objectives: 1. Protect Americans and our partners from the harm, violence, and exploitation of transnational criminal networks. 2.

Author: Executive Office of the President of the United States

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 1481166360

Category:

Page: 28

View: 255

The Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime applies all elements of national power to protect citizens and U.S. national security interests from the convergence of 21st century transnational criminal threats. This Strategy is organized around a single unifying principle: to build, balance, and integrate the tools of American power to combat transnational organized crime and related threats to national security-and to urge our foreign partners to do the same. The end-state we seek is to reduce transnational organized crime (TOC) from a national security threat to a manageable public safety problem in the United States and in strategic regions around the world. The Strategy will achieve this end-state by pursuing five key policy objectives: 1. Protect Americans and our partners from the harm, violence, and exploitation of transnational criminal networks. 2. Help partner countries strengthen governance and transparency, break the corruptive power of transnational criminal networks, and sever state-crime alliances. 3. Break the economic power of transnational criminal networks and protect strategic markets and the U.S. financial system from TOC penetration and abuse. 4. Defeat transnational criminal networks that pose the greatest threat to national security by targeting their infrastructures, depriving them of their enabling means, and preventing the criminal facilitation of terrorist activities. 5. Build international consensus, multilateral cooperation, and public-private partnerships to defeat transnational organized crime. The Strategy also introduces new and innovative capabilities and tools, which will be accomplished by prioritizing within the resources available to affected departments and agencies. A new Executive Order will establish a sanctions program to block the property of and prohibit transactions with significant transnational criminal networks that threaten national security, foreign policy, or economic interests. A proposed legislative package will enhance the authorities available to investigate, interdict, and prosecute the activities of top transnational criminal networks. A new Presidential Proclamation under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) will deny entry to transnational criminal aliens and others who have been targeted for financial sanctions. A new rewards program will replicate the success of narcotics rewards programs in obtaining information that leads to the arrest and conviction of the leaders of transnational criminal organizations that pose the greatest threats to national security. An interagency Threat Mitigation Working Group will identify those TOC networks that present a sufficiently high national security risk and will ensure the coordination of all elements of national power to combat them.
Categories:

Prosecuting War Crimes

Prosecuting War Crimes

Lessons and legacies of the International Criminal Tribunal for the ... Ashok Swain Crime-Terror Alliances and the State Ethnonationalist and Islamist ...

Author: James Gow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134610846

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 615

This volume examines the legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which was created under Chapter VII of the UN Charter as a mechanism explicitly aimed at the restoration and maintenance of international peace and security. As the ICTY has now entered its twentieth year, this volume reflects on the record and practices of the Tribunal. Since it was established, it has had enormous impact on the procedural, jurisprudential and institutional development of international criminal law, as well as the international criminal justice project. This will be its international legacy, but its legacy in the region where the crimes under its jurisdiction took place is less clear; research has shown that reactions to the ICTY have been mixed among the communities most affected by its work. Bringing together a range of key thinkers in the field, Prosecuting War Crimes explores these findings and discusses why many feel that the ICTY has failed to fully engage with people’s experiences and meet their expectations. This book will be of much interest to students of war crimes, international criminal law, Central and East European politics, human rights, and peace and conflict studies.
Categories: Law

Conflict Crime and the State in Postcommunist Eurasia

Conflict  Crime  and the State in Postcommunist Eurasia

Conflict, Crime, and the State in Postcommunist Eurasia explores the relationship between ideologically motivated insurgents, profit-motivated crime, and state institutions in eight conflict zones.

Author: Svante Cornell

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812208986

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 395

In the years after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its zone of influence, few insurgent groups had the resources necessary to confront regular armies. At the same time, state-sponsored financial support for insurgencies dramatically decreased. The pressing need to raise funds for war and the weakness of law enforcement in conflict zones create fertile conditions for organized crime; indeed, there is a mounting body of evidence correlating armed conflict and illicit economy, though the nature of this link and its impact on regional politics has not been well understood. Conflict, Crime, and the State in Postcommunist Eurasia explores the relationship between ideologically motivated insurgents, profit-motivated crime, and state institutions in eight conflict zones. Through detailed case studies, the contributors demonstrate how the operations and incentives of insurgents may emerge and shift over time: for some armed groups, crime can become an end in itself beyond a financial means, but not all armed groups equally adapt to illicit commerce. They also show how the criminalization of state institutions is a lingering concerns even after armed conflicts end. Conflict, Crime, and the State in Postcommunist Eurasia places the case studies along a continuum of political and criminal behavior, examining the factors that motivate insurgents to seek out criminal alliance, how this connection affects the dynamics of conflict, and what risks remain during postconflict transition. These findings will provide a better understanding of the types of challenges likely to confront peacekeeping and statebuilding endeavors in other parts of the world. Contributors: Jana Arsovska, Svante Cornell, Johan Engvall, Michael Jonsson, Alexandru Molcean, Niklas Nilsson, Murad Batal al-Shishani, Natalie Verständig.
Categories: Political Science