The Credential Society

An Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification

Author: Randall Collins

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231549784

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8160

The Credential Society is a classic on the role of higher education in American society and an essential text for understanding the reproduction of inequality. Controversial at the time, Randall Collins’s claim that the expansion of American education has not increased social mobility, but rather created a cycle of credential inflation, has proven remarkably prescient. Collins shows how credential inflation stymies mass education’s promises of upward mobility. An unacknowledged spiral of the rising production of credentials and job requirements was brought about by the expansion of high school and then undergraduate education, with consequences including grade inflation, rising educational costs, and misleading job promises dangled by for-profit schools. Collins examines medicine, law, and engineering to show the ways in which credentialing closed these high-status professions to new arrivals. In an era marked by the devaluation of high school diplomas, outcry about the value of expensive undergraduate degrees, and the proliferation of new professional degrees like the MBA, The Credential Society has more than stood the test of time. In a new preface, Collins discusses recent developments, debunks claims that credentialization is driven by technological change, and points to alternative pathways for the future of education.
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Education, Work and Identity

Themes and Perspectives

Author: Michael Tomlinson

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441147977

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 6705

Education, Work and Identity explores changing patterns of education and work, the dynamic relationship between these two institutions, and the wider social and economic contexts shaping them. It locates this in processes of social and economic change, in particular the shift towards globalization and the post-industrial economy. The book examines how these changes have reshaped individuals' educational, transitional and labour market experiences. It also explores key themes and approaches in understanding the education and labour market interplay, and the way in which education and work institutions shape people's orientations and identities around work.
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Welfare, Ethnicity and Altruism

New Data and Evolutionary Theory

Author: Frank Salter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135772320

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 5792

Welfare, Ethnicity, and Altruism applies the controversial theory of 'Ethnic Nepotism', first formulated by Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Pierre van den Berghe, to the modern welfare state (both are authors in this volume). This theory states that ethnic groups resemble large families whose members are prone to cooperate due to 'kin altruism'. Recent empirical findings in economics and political science offer confirmatory evidence. The book presents two separate studies that compare welfare expenditures around the world, both indicating that the more ethnically mixed a population becomes, the greater is its resistance to redistributive policies. These results point to profound inconsistencies within ideologies of both left and right regarding ethnicity.
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Education and Gender Equality

Author: Julia Wrigley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135427232

Category: Education

Page: 288

View: 4245

First Published in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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Revisiting Institutionalism in Sociology

Putting the “Institution” Back in Institutional Analysis

Author: Seth Abrutyn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134463499

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 5983

There may not be a concept so central to sociology, yet so vaguely defined in its contemporary usages, than institution. In Revisiting Institutionalism in Sociology, Abrutyn takes an in-depth look at what institutions are by returning to some of the insights of classical theorists like Max Weber and Herbert Spencer, the functionalisms of Talcott Parsons and S.N. Eisenstadt, and the more recent evolutionary institutionalisms of Gerhard Lenski and Jonathan Turner. Returning to the idea that various levels of social reality shape societies, Abrutyn argues that institutions are macro-level structural and cultural spheres of action, exchange, and communication. They have emergent properties and dynamics that are not reducible to other levels of social reality. Rather than fall back on old functionalist solutions, Abrutyn offers an original and synthetic theory of institutions like religion or economy; the process by which they become autonomous, or distinct cultural spaces that shape the color and texture of action, exchange, and communication embedded within them; and how they gain or lose autonomy by theorizing about institutional entrepreneurship. Finally, Abrutyn lays bare the inner workings of institutions, including their ecology, the way structure and culture shape lower-levels of social reality, and how they develop unique patterns of stratification and inequality founded on their ecology, structure, and culture. Ultimately, Abrutyn offers a refreshing take on macrosociology that brings functionalist, conflict, and cultural sociologies together, while painting a new picture of how the seemingly invisible macro-world influences the choices humans make and the goals we set.
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Ethnicity and Social Divisions

Contemporary Research in Sociology

Author: Karin Halldén,Elias le Grand,Zenia Hellgren

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443809233

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 9823

The anthology “Ethnicity and Social Divisions: Contemporary Research in Sociology” is a collection of studies presented at the annual Aage Sørensen Memorial Conferences in 2006 and 2007. The volume reflects a number of important tendencies in contemporary social research: the increasing interest in questions that concern ethnicity and immigration on the one hand, the remaining centrality of social stratification and class analysis on the other hand, and the intersection between these fields. Eight young sociologists, all PhD Candidates at the universities of Harvard, Oxford or Stockholm at the time they wrote their contributions, participate in this volume. Representing a new generation of social scientists, they have conducted empirical research on social inequality related to class and ethnicity from different perspectives.
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Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

Author: D. C. Phillips

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483364755

Category: Education

Page: 952

View: 1312

Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.
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The Social Organization of Schools

New Conceptualizations of the Learning Process

Author: Maureen T. Hallinan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489904689

Category: Education

Page: 228

View: 8723

This volume addresses key issues in the sociology of education concerning how schools are organized for instruction and what processes link school organization and instruction to educa tional achievement. The content of the chapters represents a shift in focus from traditional and even recent themes in soci ology of education, including the study of school effects and of classroom processes, to a concern with the social organization of schools and its consequences for student outcomes. Rather than reviewing or evaluating existing research, the chapters present new and developing conceptualizations of the school ing process and provide theoretical models to guide future empirical work on schools. A unique feature of this book is its heavy emphasis on theory. Each chapter presents a theoretical model or argument concerning an issue of central importance in sociology of edu cation. The empirical analyses and simulations that are included are often more for illustrative purposes than for rigorous hypothesis testing, and some chapters have no data analysis at all. The major strength of the volume, therefore, lies in the new conceptualizations and reconceptualizations it provides of fundamental processes relating school organization to student learning. Theoretical work such as this is exactly what is needed in an area that has traditionally been, for the most part, empir ical and atheoretical. Another important feature of this volume is the various approaches it presents to the study of school organization.
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Schooling, Childhood, and Bureaucracy

Bureaucratizing the Child

Author: T. Waters

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137269723

Category: Social Science

Page: 255

View: 8692

In exploring the relationship between bureaucratic schooling and the individual child, Waters describes the persistence of educational inequality, child development, and the nature of bureaucracy. The conclusions point out how education bureaucracies frame both schooling and childhood as they relentlessly seek to create ever more perfect children.
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Contradictions of Control

School Structure and School Knowledge

Author: Linda M. McNeil

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135209286

Category: Education

Page: 234

View: 6246

McNeil traces the poor quality of high school instruction t the tensions between the social control purposes of schooling and the schools' educational goals.
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