Rare Earth Chemistry

Rare Earth Chemistry

Data 1999, 28, 1511; c) J. Rumble, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2018; d) S.-B. Cheng, A. W. Castleman Jr, Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 12414; e) Z. Felfli, A. Z. Msezane, D. Sokolovski, Phys. Rev.

Author: Rainer Pöttgen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110654929

Category: Science

Page: 669

View: 523

This work introduces into the chemistry, materials science and technology of Rare Earth Elements. The chapters by experienced lecturers describe comprehensively the recent studies of their characteristics, properties and applications in functional materials. Due to the broad range of covered topics as hydrogen storage materials, LEDs or permanent magnets this work gives an up-to-date presentation of this fascinating research.
Categories: Science

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 96th Edition

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics  96th Edition

... .999 χ2.99 = 60[1 − 0.00370+2.326(0.06086)]3 = 88.4 is the 99th percentile for 60 degrees of freedom. 2 F(χ 2 )= ∫ χ 0 1 2n/2(n2)x n−2/2 e−x/2 dx n ∖ F .005 .010 .025 .050 .100 .250 .500 .750 .900 .950 .975 .990 .995 1 .0000393 ...

Author: William M. Haynes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482260977

Category: Science

Page: 2677

View: 889

Proudly serving the scientific community for over a century, this 96th edition of the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is an update of a classic reference, mirroring the growth and direction of science. This venerable work continues to be the most accessed and respected scientific reference in the world. An authoritative resource consisting of tables of data and current international recommendations on nomenclature, symbols, and units, its usefulness spans not only the physical sciences but also related areas of biology, geology, and environmental science. The 96th edition of the Handbook includes 18 new or updated tables along with other updates and expansions. A new series highlighting the achievements of some of the major historical figures in chemistry and physics was initiated with the 94th edition. This series is continued with this edition, which is focused on Lord Kelvin, Michael Faraday, John Dalton, and Robert Boyle. This series, which provides biographical information, a list of major achievements, and notable quotations attributed to each of the renowned chemists and physicists, will be continued in succeeding editions. Each edition will feature two chemists and two physicists. The 96th edition now includes a complimentary eBook with purchase of the print version. This reference puts physical property data and mathematical formulas used in labs and classrooms every day within easy reach. New Tables: Section 1: Basic Constants, Units, and Conversion Factors Descriptive Terms for Solubility Section 8: Analytical Chemistry Stationary Phases for Porous Layer Open Tubular Columns Coolants for Cryotrapping Instability of HPLC Solvents Chlorine-Bromine Combination Isotope Intensities Section 16: Health and Safety Information Materials Compatible with and Resistant to 72 Percent Perchloric Acid Relative Dose Ranges from Ionizing Radiation Updated and Expanded Tables Section 6: Fluid Properties Sublimation Pressure of Solids Vapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures Below 300 K Section 7: Biochemistry Structure and Functions of Some Common Drugs Section 9: Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy Bond Dissociation Energies Section 11: Nuclear and Particle Physics Summary Tables of Particle Properties Table of the Isotopes Section 14: Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics Major World Earthquakes Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1958-2014 Global Temperature Trend, 1880-2014 Section 15: Practical Laboratory Data Dependence of Boiling Point on Pressure Section 16: Health and Safety Information Threshold Limits for Airborne Contaminants
Categories: Science

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 94th Edition

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics  94th Edition

... 0.00370 + 2.326(0.06086)]3 = 88.415 the 99th percentile for 60 degrees of freedom. Z 2 Х 1 п—2 2 :x 2 F(X )_/0 mx / e / dx n\F .005 .010 ‚025 ‚050 .100 .250 .500 .750 .900 .950 .975 .990 .995 1 .0000393 .000157 .000982 .00393 ‚0158 ...

Author: William M. Haynes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466571150

Category: Science

Page: 2668

View: 252

Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, this 94th edition is an update of a classic reference, mirroring the growth and direction of science for a century. The Handbook continues to be the most accessed and respected scientific reference in the science, technical, and medical communities. An authoritative resource consisting of tables of data, its usefulness spans every discipline. Originally a 116-page pocket-sized book, known as the Rubber Handbook, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics comprises 2,600 pages of critically evaluated data. An essential resource for scientists around the world, the Handbook is now available in print, eBook, and online formats. New tables: Section 7: Biochemistry Properties of Fatty Acid Methyl and Ethyl Esters Related to Biofuels Section 8: Analytical Chemistry Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices Detectors for Liquid Chromatography Organic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic Ions Section 12: Properties of Solids Properties of Selected Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures Significantly updated and expanded tables: Section 3: Physical Constants of Organic Compounds Expansion of Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Organic Compounds Section 5: Thermochemistry, Electrochemistry, and Solution Chemistry Update of Electrochemical Series Section 6: Fluid Properties Expansion of Thermophysical Properties of Selected Fluids at Saturation Major expansion and update of Viscosity of Liquid Metals Section 7: Biochemistry Update of Properties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl Esters Section 8: Analytical Chemistry Major expansion of Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry Section 9: Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy Update of Bond Dissociation Energies Section 11: Nuclear and Particle Physics Update of Summary Tables of Particle Properties Section 14: Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics Update of Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1958-2012 Update of Global Temperature Trend, 1880-2012 Major update of Speed of Sound in Various Media Section 15: Practical Laboratory Data Update of Laboratory Solvents and Other Liquid Reagents Major update of Density of Solvents as a Function of Temperature Major update of Dependence of Boiling Point on Pressure Section 16: Health and Safety Information Major update of Threshold Limits for Airborne Contaminants Appendix A: Major update of Mathematical Tables Appendix B: Update of Sources of Physical and Chemical Data
Categories: Science

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

... normal deviate (the Value of x for which : the desired percentile). x 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576 3.090 .90 .95 .975 .99 .995 .999 )(_299 : 60[1 — 0.00370 + 2.326(0.06086)]3 : 88.4 is the 99th percentile for 60 degrees of freedom.

Author: William M. Haynes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439880500

Category: Science

Page: 2664

View: 458

Mirroring the growth and direction of science for a century, the Handbook, now in its 93rd edition, continues to be the most accessed and respected scientific reference in the world. An authoritative resource consisting tables of data, its usefulness spans every discipline. This edition includes 17 new tables in the Analytical Chemistry section, a major update of the CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants and updates to many other tables. The book puts physical formulas and mathematical tables used in labs every day within easy reach. The 93rd edition is the first edition to be available as an eBook.
Categories: Science

SME Mining Reference Handbook 2nd Edition

SME Mining Reference Handbook  2nd Edition

Rumble, J.R., ed. 2018. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Sytchev, V.V., Vasserman, A.A., Kozlov, A.D., et al. 1987. Thermodynamic Properties of Air. New York: Hemisphere.

Author: Heather N. Dougherty

Publisher: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

ISBN: 9780873354356

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 656

View: 968

The go-to resource for professionals in the mining industry. The SME Mining Reference Handbook was the first concise reference published in the mining field and it quickly became the industry standard. It sits on almost every mining engineer’s desk or bookshelf with worn pages, tabs to find most used equations, and personal notes. It has been the unequaled single reference and the first source of information for countless engineers. This second edition of the SME Mining Reference Handbook builds on that success. With an enhanced presentation, new and updated information is represented in a concise, well-organized guide of important data for everyday use by engineers and other professionals engaged in mining, exploration, mineral processing, and environmental compliance and reclamation. With its exhaustive trove of charts, graphs, tables, equations, and guidelines, the handbook is the essential technical reference for mobile mining professionals. With its exhaustive trove of charts, graphs, tables, equations, and guidelines, the handbook is the essential technical reference for mobile mining professionals.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

CVD growth of SiC for high power and high frequency applications

CVD growth of SiC for high power and high frequency applications

Kimoto, T., Material science and device physics in SiC technology for high-voltage power devices. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2015.54(4). John, R.R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th Edition (Internet Version 2018).

Author: Robin Karhu

Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press

ISBN: 9789176851494

Category:

Page: 40

View: 424

Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that has attracted a lot of interest for electronic applications due to its high thermal conductivity, high saturation electron drift velocity and high critical electric field strength. In recent years commercial SiC devices have started to make their way into high and medium voltage applications. Despite the advancements in SiC growth over the years, several issues remain. One of these issues is that the bulk grown SiC wafers are not suitable for electronic applications due to the high background doping and high density of basal plane dislocations (BPD). Due to these problems SiC for electronic devices must be grown by homoepitaxy. The epitaxial growth is performed in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. In this work, growth has been performed in a horizontal hot-wall CVD (HWCVD) reactor. In these reactors it is possible to produce high-quality SiC epitaxial layers within a wide range of doping, both n- and p-type. SiC is a well-known example of polytypism, where the different polytypes exist as different stacking sequences of the Si-C bilayers. Polytypism makes polytype stability a problem during growth of SiC. To maintain polytype stability during homoepitaxy of the hexagonal polytypes the substrates are usually cut so that the angle between the surface normal and the c-axis is a few degrees, typically 4 or 8°. The off-cut creates a high density of micro-steps at the surface. These steps allow for the replication of the substrates polytype into the growing epitaxial layer, the growth will take place in a step-flow manner. However, there are some drawbacks with step-flow growth. One is that BPDs can replicate from the substrate into the epitaxial layer. Another problem is that 4H-SiC is often used as a substrate for growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The epitaxial growth of GaN has been developed on on-axis substrates (surface normal coincides with c-axis), so epitaxial 4H-SiC layers grown on off-axis substrates cannot be used as substrates for GaN epitaxial growth. In efforts to solve the problems with off-axis homoepitaxy of 4H-SiC, on-axis homoepitaxy has been developed. In this work, further development of wafer-scale on-axis homoepitaxy has been made. This development has been made on a Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates. The advances include highly resistive epilayers grown on on-axis substrates. In this thesis the ability to control the surface morphology of epitaxial layers grown on on-axis homoepitaxy is demonstrated. This work also includes growth of isotopically enriched 4H-SiC on on-axis substrates, this has been done to increase the thermal conductivity of the grown epitaxial layers. In (paper 1) on-axis homoepitaxy of 4H-SiC has been developed on 100 mm diameter substrates. This paper also contains comparisons between different precursors. In (paper 2) we have further developed on-axis homoepitaxy on 100 mm diameter wafers, by doping the epitaxial layers with vanadium. The vanadium doping of the epitaxial layers makes the layers highly resistive and thus suitable to use as a substrate for III-nitride growth. In (paper 3) we developed a method to control the surface morphology and reduce the as-grown surface roughness in samples grown on on-axis substrates. In (paper 4) we have increased the thermal conductivity of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers by growing the layers using isotopically enriched precursors. In (paper 5) we have investigated the role chlorine have in homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC. In (paper 6) we have investigated the charge carrier lifetime in as-grown samples and traced variations in lifetime to structural defects in the substrate. In (paper 7) we have investigated the formation mechanism of a morphological defect in homoepitaxial grown 4H-SiC.
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CRC Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis

CRC Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis

Bruno, T.J. and Svoronos, P.D.N., in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th ed., J. Rumble., ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2018. Separation Methods Gas Chromatography (GC) A separation method in which the sample or solute is ...

Author: Thomas J. Bruno

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351613149

Category: Science

Page: 900

View: 625

Researchers in chemistry, chemical engineering, pharmaceutical science, forensics, and environmental science make routine use of chemical analysis, but the information these researchers need is often scattered in different sources and difficult to access. The CRC Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis: Data-Driven Methods and Interpretation, Fourth Edition is a one-stop reference that presents updated data in a handy format specifically designed for use when reaching a decision point in designing an analysis or interpreting results. This new edition offers expanded coverage of calibration and uncertainty, and continues to include the critical information scientists rely on to perform accurate analysis. Enhancements to the Fourth Edition: Compiles a huge array of useful and important data into a single, convenient source Explanatory text provides context for data and guidelines on applications Coalesces information from several different fields Provides information on the most useful "wet" chemistry methods as well as instrumental techniques, with an expanded discussion of laboratory safety Contains information of historical importance necessary to interpret the literature and understand current methodology. Unmatched in its coverage of the range of information scientists need in the lab, this resource will be referred to again and again by practitioners who need quick, easy access to the data that forms the basis for experimentation and analysis.
Categories: Science

Handbook of Conducting Polymers Fourth Edition 2 Volume Set

Handbook of Conducting Polymers  Fourth Edition   2 Volume Set

Soc. 136:10996 (2014). N. G. Connelly and W. E. Geiger, Chem. Rev. 96: 877 (1996). P. Vanýsek, “Electrochemical Series”, in J. R. Rumble (Ed.), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th ed., CRC Press ...

Author: John R. Reynolds

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351660235

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1488

View: 985

In the last 10 years there have been major advances in fundamental understanding and applications and a vast portfolio of new polymer structures with unique and tailored properties was developed. Work moved from a chemical repeat unit structure to one more based on structural control, new polymerization methodologies, properties, processing, and applications. The 4th Edition takes this into account and will be completely rewritten and reorganized, focusing on spin coating, spray coating, blade/slot die coating, layer-by-layer assembly, and fiber spinning methods; property characterizations of redox, interfacial, electrical, and optical phenomena; and commercial applications.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Petroleum Refining

Petroleum Refining

Technology, Economics, and Markets, Sixth Edition Mark J. Kaiser, Arno de Klerk, James H. Gary, Glenn E. Handwerk ... CRC handbook of chemistry and physics, 99th Ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. Schobert, H.H. 2002.

Author: Mark J. Kaiser

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466563025

Category: Science

Page: 690

View: 360

For four decades, Petroleum Refining has guided thousands of readers toward a reliable understanding of the field, and through the years has become the standard text in many schools and universities around the world offering petroleum refining classes, for self-study, training, and as a reference for industry professionals. The sixth edition of this perennial bestseller continues in the tradition set by Jim Gary as the most modern and authoritative guide in the field. Updated and expanded to reflect new technologies, methods, and topics, the book includes new discussion on the business and economics of refining, cost estimation and complexity, crude origins and properties, fuel specifications, and updates on technology, process units, and catalysts. The first half of the book is written for a general audience to introduce the primary economic and market characteristics of the industry and to describe the inputs and outputs of refining. Most of this material is new to this edition and can be read independently or in parallel with the rest of the text. In the second half of the book, a technical review of the main process units of a refinery is provided, beginning with distillation and covering each of the primary conversion and treatment processes. Much of this material was reorganized, updated, and rewritten with greater emphasis on reaction chemistry and the role of catalysis in applications. Petroleum Refining: Technology, Economics, and Markets is a book written for users, the practitioners of refining, and all those who want to learn more about the field.
Categories: Science

Practical Handbook of Marine Science

Practical Handbook of Marine Science

J., Chemical Oceanography, 4th ed., CrC Press, Boca raton, fL, 2013, 261. ... 1988 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1989 Source: rumble, J. r., ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 99th ed., CrC Press, Boca raton, fL, 2018, 14–31.

Author: Michael J. Kennish

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351654104

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 955

The heavily-revised Practical Handbook of Marine Science, Fourth Edition continues its tradition as a state-of-the-art reference that updates the field of marine science to meet the interdisciplinary research needs of physical oceanographers, marine biologists, marine chemists, and marine geologists. This edition adds an entirely new section devoted to Climate Change and Climate Change Effects. It also adds new sections on Estuaries, Beaches, Barrier Islands, Shellfish, Macroalgae, Food Chains, Food Webs, Trophic Dynamics, System Productivity, Physical-Chemical-Biological Alteration, and Coastal Resource Management. The Handbook assembles an extensive international collection of marine science data throughout, with approximately 1,000 tables and illustrations. It provides comprehensive coverage of anthropogenic impacts in estuarine and marine ecosystems from local, regional, and global perspectives. Maintaining its user-friendly, multi-sectional format, this comprehensive resource will also be of value to undergraduate and graduate students, research scientists, administrators, and other professionals who deal with the management of marine resources. Now published in full color, the new edition offers extensive illustrative and tabular reference material covering all the major disciplines related to the sea.
Categories: Science