Convergent Evolution on Earth

Convergent Evolution on Earth

In this book, George McGhee analyzes patterns of convergent evolution on Earth and argues that these patterns offer lessons for the search for life elsewhere in the universe.

Author: George R McGhee Jr.

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262042734

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 985

An analysis of patterns of convergent evolution on Earth that suggests where we might look for similar convergent forms on other planets. Why does a sea lily look like a palm tree? And why is a sea lily called a “lily” when it is a marine animal and not a plant? Many marine animals bear a noticeable similarity in form to land-dwelling plants. And yet these marine animal forms evolved in the oceans first; land plants independently and convergently evolved similar forms much later in geologic time. In this book, George McGhee analyzes patterns of convergent evolution on Earth and argues that these patterns offer lessons for the search for life elsewhere in the universe. Our Earth is a water world; 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by water. The fossil record shows that multicellular life on dry land is a new phenomenon; for the vast majority of the earth's history—3,500 million years of its 4,560 million years of existence—complex life existed only in the oceans. Explaining that convergent biological evolution occurs because of limited evolutionary pathways, McGhee examines examples of convergent evolution in forms of feeding, immobility and mobility, defense, and organ systems. McGhee suggests that the patterns of convergent evolution that we see in our own water world indicate the potential for similar convergent forms in other water worlds. We should search for extraterrestrial life on water worlds, and for technological life on water worlds with continental landmasses.
Categories: Science

Convergent Evolution

Convergent Evolution

In this book, George McGhee describes the ubiquity of the phenomenon of convergent evolution and connects it directly to the concept of evolutionary constraint--the idea that the number of evolutionary pathways available to life are not ...

Author: George R. McGhee

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262016421

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 219

An analysis of convergent evolution from molecules to ecosystems, demonstrating the limited number of evolutionary pathways available to life. Charles Darwin famously concluded On the Origin of Species with a vision of "endless forms most beautiful" continually evolving. More than 150 years later many evolutionary biologists see not endless forms but the same, or very similar, forms evolving repeatedly in many independent species lineages. A porpoise's fishlike fins, for example, are not inherited from fish ancestors but are independently derived convergent traits. In this book, George McGhee describes the ubiquity of the phenomenon of convergent evolution and connects it directly to the concept of evolutionary constraint--the idea that the number of evolutionary pathways available to life are not endless, but quite limited. Convergent evolution occurs on all levels, from tiny organic molecules to entire ecosystems of species. McGhee demonstrates its ubiquity in animals, both herbivore and carnivore; in plants; in ecosystems; in molecules, including DNA, proteins, and enzymes; and even in minds, describing problem-solving behavior and group behavior as the products of convergence. For each species example, he provides an abbreviated list of the major nodes in its phylogenetic classification, allowing the reader to see the evolutionary relationship of a group of species that have independently evolved a similar trait by convergent evolution. McGhee analyzes the role of functional and developmental constraints in producing convergent evolution, and considers the scientific and philosophical implications of convergent evolution for the predictability of the evolutionary process.
Categories: Science

Convergent Evolution on Earth

Convergent Evolution on Earth

The Analysis of Convergent Evolution In this introductory chapter we have just
begun to examine the interesting examples of the convergent evolution of similar
forms of life in animals that live in the oceans and animals that live on land.

Author: George R. McGhee, Jr.

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262354189

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 548

An analysis of patterns of convergent evolution on Earth that suggests where we might look for similar convergent forms on other planets. Why does a sea lily look like a palm tree? And why is a sea lily called a “lily” when it is a marine animal and not a plant? Many marine animals bear a noticeable similarity in form to land-dwelling plants. And yet these marine animal forms evolved in the oceans first; land plants independently and convergently evolved similar forms much later in geologic time. In this book, George McGhee analyzes patterns of convergent evolution on Earth and argues that these patterns offer lessons for the search for life elsewhere in the universe. Our Earth is a water world; 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by water. The fossil record shows that multicellular life on dry land is a new phenomenon; for the vast majority of the earth's history—3,500 million years of its 4,560 million years of existence—complex life existed only in the oceans. Explaining that convergent biological evolution occurs because of limited evolutionary pathways, McGhee examines examples of convergent evolution in forms of feeding, immobility and mobility, defense, and organ systems. McGhee suggests that the patterns of convergent evolution that we see in our own water world indicate the potential for similar convergent forms in other water worlds. We should search for extraterrestrial life on water worlds, and for technological life on water worlds with continental landmasses.
Categories: Science

Contingency and Convergence

Contingency and Convergence

In this book, Russell Powell investigates whether we can use the patterns and processes of convergent evolution to make inferences about universal laws of life, on Earth and elsewhere.

Author: Russell Powell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262356602

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 962

Can we can use the patterns and processes of convergent evolution to make inferences about universal laws of life, on Earth and elsewhere? In this book, Russell Powell investigates whether we can use the patterns and processes of convergent evolution to make inferences about universal laws of life, on Earth and elsewhere. Weaving together disparate philosophical and empirical threads, Powell offers the first detailed analysis of the interplay between contingency and convergence in macroevolution, as it relates to both complex life in general and cognitively complex life in particular. If the evolution of mind is not a historical accident, the product of convergence rather than contingency, then, Powell asks, is mind likely to be an evolutionarily important feature of any living world? Stephen Jay Gould argued for the primacy of contingency in evolution. Gould's “radical contingency thesis” (RCT) has been challenged, but critics have largely failed to engage with its core claims and theoretical commitments. Powell fills this gap. He first examines convergent regularities at both temporal and phylogenetic depths, finding evidence that both vindicates and rebuffs Gould's argument for contingency. Powell follows this partial defense of the RCT with a substantive critique. Among the evolutionary outcomes that might defy the RCT, he argues, cognition is particularly important—not only for human-specific issues of the evolution of intelligence and consciousness but also for the large-scale ecological organization of macroscopic living worlds. Turning his attention to complex cognitive life, Powell considers what patterns of cognitive convergence tell us about the nature of mind, its evolution, and its place in the universe. If complex bodies are common in the universe, might complex minds be common as well?
Categories: Science

Origin and Evolution of Earth

Origin and Evolution of Earth

Adaptive radiation Aerobic Amino acid Anaerobic Autotroph Carbonaceous
chondrite Chromosome Competition Convergent evolution Divergent evolution
DNA Eukaryote Extinction Fermentation Gene Heterotroph Living fossil Mass ...

Author: Kent C. Condie

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: UCSD:31822025902446

Category: Science

Page: 498

View: 448

Examples are the nature of Earth's oldest rocks, the origin of continents, extraterrestrial impact and mass extinctions of organisms, rates of organic evolution, and recent developments on the origin of humans.
Categories: Science

Life s Solution

Life s Solution

Eyes, brains, tools, even culture: all are very much on the cards. So if these are all evolutionary inevitabilities, where are our counterparts across the galaxy?

Author: Simon Conway Morris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139440806

Category: Science

Page:

View: 703

The assassin's bullet misses, the Archduke's carriage moves forward, and a catastrophic war is avoided. So too with the history of life. Re-run the tape of life, as Stephen J. Gould claimed, and the outcome must be entirely different: an alien world, without humans and maybe not even intelligence. The history of life is littered with accidents: any twist or turn may lead to a completely different world. Now this view is being challenged. Simon Conway Morris explores the evidence demonstrating life's almost eerie ability to navigate to a single solution, repeatedly. Eyes, brains, tools, even culture: all are very much on the cards. So if these are all evolutionary inevitabilities, where are our counterparts across the galaxy? The tape of life can only run on a suitable planet, and it seems that such Earth-like planets may be much rarer than hoped. Inevitable humans, yes, but in a lonely Universe.
Categories: Science

The Basics of Evolution

The Basics of Evolution

This compelling text examines evolution, its definition, the scientific evidence that evolution has taken place, natural selection, Darwin's Origin of Species, genetics and evolution, population genetics, patterns in evolution and species ...

Author: Anne Wanjie

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group

ISBN: 9781477705629

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 96

View: 330

This compelling text examines evolution, its definition, the scientific evidence that evolution has taken place, natural selection, Darwin's Origin of Species, genetics and evolution, population genetics, patterns in evolution and species concepts, the story of life and geological time, and human evolution. The easy-to-follow narrative offers students additional biological information in sidebars, such as "Closeup" boxes that give details about main concepts, "Try This" boxes that provide safe experiments for readers to perform, "What Do You Think?" panels that challenge students' reading comprehension, "Applications" boxes that describe how biological knowledge improves daily life, "Red Herring" boxes that profile failed theories, "Hot Debate" panels that spotlight the disagreements and discussions that rage in the biological sciences, and "Genetic Perspective" boxes that summarize the latest genetic research. The text serves as a must-have resource on modern thinking about evolution and the history of evolutionary theories.
Categories: Juvenile Nonfiction

Convergent Evolution

Convergent Evolution

In this book, George McGhee describes the ubiquity of the phenomenon of convergent evolution and connects it directly to the concept of evolutionary constraint--the idea that the number of evolutionary pathways available to life are not ...

Author: GEORGE R MCGHEE. JR.

Publisher:

ISBN: 0262539098

Category:

Page: 336

View: 218

An analysis of convergent evolution from molecules to ecosystems, demonstrating the limited number of evolutionary pathways available to life. Charles Darwin famously concluded On the Origin of Species with a vision of "endless forms most beautiful" continually evolving. More than 150 years later many evolutionary biologists see not endless forms but the same, or very similar, forms evolving repeatedly in many independent species lineages. A porpoise's fishlike fins, for example, are not inherited from fish ancestors but are independently derived convergent traits. In this book, George McGhee describes the ubiquity of the phenomenon of convergent evolution and connects it directly to the concept of evolutionary constraint--the idea that the number of evolutionary pathways available to life are not endless, but quite limited. Convergent evolution occurs on all levels, from tiny organic molecules to entire ecosystems of species. McGhee demonstrates its ubiquity in animals, both herbivore and carnivore; in plants; in ecosystems; in molecules, including DNA, proteins, and enzymes; and even in minds, describing problem-solving behavior and group behavior as the products of convergence. For each species example, he provides an abbreviated list of the major nodes in its phylogenetic classification, allowing the reader to see the evolutionary relationship of a group of species that have independently evolved a similar trait by convergent evolution. McGhee analyzes the role of functional and developmental constraints in producing convergent evolution, and considers the scientific and philosophical implications of convergent evolution for the predictability of the evolutionary process.
Categories:

Convergent Evolution in Warm Deserts

Convergent Evolution in Warm Deserts

Those bases can be expressed as the primary controls of climate : circumstances
pertaining to the earth ' s size , shape , orbit , and rotation period . Solar energy ,
falling on the outer limits of the earth ' s atmosphere , represents the primary ...

Author: Gordon H. Orians

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015010186511

Category: Convergence (Biology)

Page: 333

View: 912

Categories: Convergence (Biology)

Evolution

Evolution

Describes the evolution of life on Earth, from the first life forms to complex organisms and the age of the dinosaurs, and explains how some modern animals evolved from prehistoric ancestors.

Author: Daniel Loxton

Publisher: Kids Can Press Ltd

ISBN: 9781554534302

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 56

View: 130

Describes the evolution of life on Earth, from the first life forms to complex organisms and the age of the dinosaurs, and explains how some modern animals evolved from prehistoric ancestors.
Categories: Juvenile Nonfiction

Hypsodonty in Mammals

Hypsodonty in Mammals

This book develops the idea further and looks at the myriad ways that soil can enter the diet. Madden then expands this analysis to examine the earth surface processes that mobilize sediment in the environment.

Author: Richard H. Madden

Publisher:

ISBN: 1316188728

Category: Hypsodonty

Page: 423

View: 158

The evolution of high-crowned teeth, hypsodonty, is a defining characteristic of many terrestrial herbivores. To date, the most prominent focus in the study of the teeth of grazing herbivores has been co-evolution with grasses and grasslands. This book develops the idea further and looks at the myriad ways that soil can enter the diet. Madden then expands this analysis to examine the earth surface processes that mobilize sediment in the environment. The text delivers a global perspective on tooth wear and soil erosion, with examples from the islands of New Zealand to the South American Andes, highlighting how similar geological processes worldwide result in convergent evolution. The final chapter includes a review of elodonty in the fossil record and its environmental consequences. Offering new insights into geomorphology and adaptive and evolutionary morphology, this text will be of value to any researcher interested in the evolution of tooth size and shape.
Categories: Hypsodonty

Convergent Evolution in Chile and California

Convergent Evolution in Chile and California

At the same time the results of each study contributed to a more synthetic view of
the degree of convergence between the Californian and ... in the world so widely
separated geographically and yet so similar in their physical environments.

Author: Harold A. Mooney

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822011779287

Category: Convergence (Biology)

Page: 224

View: 846

Categories: Convergence (Biology)

Improbable Destinies

Improbable Destinies

Improbable Destinies will change the way we think and talk about evolution.

Author: Jonathan B. Losos

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9780399184932

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 857

A major new book overturning our assumptions about how evolution works Earth’s natural history is full of fascinating instances of convergence: phenomena like eyes and wings and tree-climbing lizards that have evolved independently, multiple times. But evolutionary biologists also point out many examples of contingency, cases where the tiniest change—a random mutation or an ancient butterfly sneeze—caused evolution to take a completely different course. What role does each force really play in the constantly changing natural world? Are the plants and animals that exist today, and we humans ourselves, inevitabilities or evolutionary flukes? And what does that say about life on other planets? Jonathan Losos reveals what the latest breakthroughs in evolutionary biology can tell us about one of the greatest ongoing debates in science. He takes us around the globe to meet the researchers who are solving the deepest mysteries of life on Earth through their work in experimental evolutionary science. Losos himself is one of the leaders in this exciting new field, and he illustrates how experiments with guppies, fruit flies, bacteria, foxes, and field mice, along with his own work with anole lizards on Caribbean islands, are rewinding the tape of life to reveal just how rapid and predictable evolution can be. Improbable Destinies will change the way we think and talk about evolution. Losos's insights into natural selection and evolutionary change have far-reaching applications for protecting ecosystems, securing our food supply, and fighting off harmful viruses and bacteria. This compelling narrative offers a new understanding of ourselves and our role in the natural world and the cosmos.
Categories: Science

The Science of God

The Science of God

Argues that the Bible and science offer two perspectives on the same truth, exploring such topics as the development of the universe, the origin of life, and free will

Author: Gerald L. Schroeder

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9780684837369

Category: Religion

Page: 226

View: 205

Argues that the Bible and science offer two perspectives on the same truth, exploring such topics as the development of the universe, the origin of life, and free will
Categories: Religion

Historical Geology

Historical Geology

Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time Reed Wicander, James Stewart
Monroe ... While divergent evolution leads to ganisms that differ markedly from
their ancestors , convergent evolution and parallel evolution are processes
whereby ...

Author: Reed Wicander

Publisher: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

ISBN: STANFORD:36105028539489

Category: Science

Page: 580

View: 566

HISTORICAL GEOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF EARTH AND LIFE THROUGH TIME, THIRD EDITION, teaches students the basic principles of the physical and biological events of Earth's history, as well as how scientists apply these principles to unravel the history of Earth. Authors Wicander and Monroe present a balanced overview of both the geological and biological history of the Earth as a continuum of inter-related events. These events reflect the underlying principles and processes that have shaped our planet. The authors also explain the historical development of these basic principles and processes, and their importance in deciphering the history of Earth. Three major themes - time, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics - are woven throughout the book. These themes help readers link what may seem like unrelated material and are essential for understanding historical geology. Included with every new copy of this edition is In-TERRA-Active(tm) 2.0 CD-ROM.
Categories: Science

The Runes of Evolution

The Runes of Evolution

Indeed this book is a celebration of how our world is (and was) populated by a riot of forms, a coruscating tapestry of life.” The Runes of Evolution is the most definitive synthesis of evolutionary convergence to be published to date.

Author: Simon Conway Morris

Publisher: Templeton Press

ISBN: 1599474646

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 769

How did human beings acquire imaginations that can conjure up untrue possibilities? How did the Universe become self-aware? In The Runes of Evolution, Simon Conway Morris revitalizes the study of evolution from the perspective of convergence, providing us with compelling new evidence to support the mounting scientific view that the history of life is far more predictable than once thought. A leading evolutionary biologist at the University of Cambridge, Conway Morris came into international prominence for his work on the Cambrian explosion (especially fossils of the Burgess Shale) and evolutionary convergence, which is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. In The Runes of Evolution, he illustrates how the ubiquity of convergence hints at an underlying framework whereby many outcomes, not least brains and intelligence, are virtually guaranteed on any Earth-like planet. Conway Morris also emphasizes how much of the complexity of advanced biological systems is inherent in microbial forms. By casting a wider net, The Runes of Evolution explores many neglected evolutionary questions. Some are remarkably general. Why, for example, are convergences such as parasitism, carnivory, and nitrogen fixation in plants concentrated in particular taxonomic hot spots? Why do certain groups have a particular propensity to evolve toward particular states? Some questions lead to unexpected evolutionary insights: If bees sleep (as they do), do they dream? Why is that insect copulating with an orchid? Why have sponges evolved a system of fiber optics? What do mantis shrimps and submarines have in common? If dinosaurs had not gone extinct what would have happened next? Will a saber-toothed cat ever re-evolve? Cona Morris observes: “Even amongst the mammals, let alone the entire tree of life, humans represent one minute twig of a vast (and largely fossilized) arborescence. Every living species is a linear descendant of an immense string of now-vanished ancestors, but evolution itself is the very reverse of linear. Rather it is endlessly exploratory, probing the vast spaces of biological hyperspace. Indeed this book is a celebration of how our world is (and was) populated by a riot of forms, a coruscating tapestry of life.” The Runes of Evolution is the most definitive synthesis of evolutionary convergence to be published to date.
Categories: Science

Life on Earth

Life on Earth

Organisms thought to be related through evolution from a common ancestor
show many similar anatomical structures . ... This commonality is evidence that a .
evolution is occurring now b . convergent evolution has occurred c . evolution ...

Author: Teresa Audesirk

Publisher:

ISBN: OSU:32435055224141

Category: Biology

Page: 654

View: 783

The book has been carefully written to integrate the necessary biological facts into a broader conceptual framework that stresses unifying themes and the ways in which an understanding of biology can enrich and enlighten day-to-day living.
Categories: Biology

Extraterrestrials in the Catholic Imagination

Extraterrestrials in the Catholic Imagination

What are the implications for Catholic thought? This collection brings together leading scientists, philosophers, theologians, and science fiction authors in the Catholic tradition to examine these issues.

Author: Jennifer Rosato

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527566002

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 291

View: 585

What do scientists know about the possibility of life outside our solar system? How does Catholic science fiction imagine such worlds? What are the implications for Catholic thought? This collection brings together leading scientists, philosophers, theologians, and science fiction authors in the Catholic tradition to examine these issues. In the first section, Christian scientists detail the latest scientific findings regarding the possibility of life on exoplanets. The second part brings together leading Catholic science fiction authors who describe how “alien” life forms have been prevalent in the Catholic imagination from the Middle Ages right up to the present day. In the final section, Catholic philosophers and theologians examine the implications of discovering intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. Rather than worrying that the discovery of intelligent extraterrestrials might threaten the dignity of humans or their existence, the contributors here maintain that such creatures should be welcomed as fellow creatures of God and potential subjects of divine salvation.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit