Conditionals and Prediction

Conditionals and Prediction

This book offers a new and in-depth analysis of English conditional sentences. In a wide-ranging discussion, Dancygier classifies conditional constructions according to time-reference and modality.

Author: Barbara Dancygier

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139425501

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 214

View: 140

This book offers a new and in-depth analysis of English conditional sentences. In a wide-ranging discussion, Dancygier classifies conditional constructions according to time-reference and modality. She shows how the basic meaning parameters of conditionality correlate to formal parameters of the linguistic constructions which are used to express them. Dancygier suggests that the function of prediction is central to the definition of conditionality, and that conditional sentences display certain formal features which correlate to aspects of interpretation. Although the analysis is based primarily on English, it provides a theoretical framework that can be extended cross-linguistically to a broad range of grammatical phenomena. It will be essential reading for scholars and students concerned with the role of conditionals in English and many other languages.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

On Conditionals Again

On Conditionals Again

the protasis does not make a prediction because the speaker “has no
welljustified assumptions about the weather tomorrow”; but the assumption in the
protasis “is used, along with other relevant assumptions, in arriving at the
prediction in the ...

Author: Angeliki Athanasiadou

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027275981

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 418

View: 399

The volume brings together a selection of papers from a symposium on Conditionality held in the University of Duisburg on 25-26 March 1994. Ten years after the Stanford symposium, the Proceedings of which were edited by Traugott et al. (1986), the area of conditionality is revisited in a synthesis of issues and aspects with insights drawn from the wider framework of general processes of conceptualisation. One major question is therefore what conceptual categories fall under conditionality or how far the notion of conditionality can be extended. The volume represents the up-to-date research on most aspects of conditionality some of which include the relationship between conditionality, hypotheticality and counterfactuality, polarity, historical perspectives, concessives, the acquisition of conditionals.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Cause Condition Concession Contrast

Cause   Condition   Concession   Contrast

Dancygier (1993, 1998) has argued that causal meanings enter the interpretation
of content conditionals via conditionals' primary function, prediction.7 Prediction
in conditionals is a type of reasoning which consists in setting up a hypothetical ...

Author: Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110219043

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 481

View: 647

The future of English linguistics as envisaged by the editors of Topics in English Linguistics lies in empirical studies which integrate work in English linguistics into general and theoretical linguistics on the one hand, and comparative linguistics on the other. The TiEL series features volumes that present interesting new data and analyses, and above all fresh approaches that contribute to the overall aim of the series, which is to further outstanding research in English linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society

promise - conditionals and promise - categorical statements are most similar to
those given to causal - conditionals in the many - disabler cases , at least for the
MP ... ( merely ) predictive relationships that may impact beliefrevision decisions
?

Author: Cognitive Science Society (U.S.). Conference

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0805829415

Category: Psychology

Page: 1109

View: 658

This volume features the complete text of the material presented at the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Papers have been loosely grouped by topic and an author index is provided in the back. As in previous years, the symposium included an interesting mixture of papers on many topics from researchers with diverse backgrounds and different goals, presenting a multifaceted view of cognitive science. In hopes of facilitating searches of this work, an electronic index on the Internet's World Wide Web is provided. Titles, authors, and summaries of all the papers published here have been placed in an online database which may be freely searched by anyone. You can reach the web site at: www-csli.stanford.edu/cogsci97.
Categories: Psychology

Conditionals

Conditionals

( See also the discussion of “ pure future ” , “ prediction ' and ' predictability ' in
section 5.1.10 . ) 5.1.2 . ' Full situation ' versus ' predicated situation ' When
referring to a situation we must distinguish between the ' full situation ' and the ...

Author: Renaat Declerck

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110171449

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 536

View: 584

This book is an extremely detailed and comprehensive examination of conditional sentences in English, using many examples from actual language-use. The syntax and semantics of conditionals (including tense and mood options) and the functions of conditionals in discourse are examined in depth, producing an all-round linguistic view of the subject which contains a wealth of original observations and analyses. Not only linguists specializing in grammar but also those interested in pragmatics and the philosophy of language will find this book a rewarding and illuminating source.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Thinking and Reasoning

Thinking and Reasoning

That prediction was tested and confirmed by Byrne and Tasso (1999; see also
Thompson & Byrne, 2002): modus tollens was made 80% of the time with
subjunctive conditionals, compared with 40% with indicatives. Exactly the same
figures ...

Author: Ken Manktelow

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781136295232

Category: Psychology

Page: 328

View: 710

The area of psychological research reviewed in this book is one that is not only increasing in popularity in college curricula, but is also making an ever larger impact on the world outside the classroom. Drawing upon research originally cited in Ken Manktelow’s highly successful publication Reasoning and Thinking, this completely rewritten textbook reflects on the revolutionary changes that have occurred in the field in recent years, stemming from the huge expansion in research output, as well as new methods and explanations, and the appearance of numerous books on the subject aimed at the popular market. The main areas covered are probability judgment, deductive and inductive reasoning, decision making, hypothetical thinking and rationality. In each case, the material is almost entirely new, with topics such as the new paradigm in reasoning research, causal reasoning and counterfactual thinking appearing for the first time. The book also presents an extended treatment of decision making research, and contains a chapter on individual and cultural influences on thinking. Thinking and Reasoning provides a detailed, integrated and approachable treatment of this area of cognitive psychology, and is ideal reading for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students; indeed, for anyone interested in how we draw conclusions and make choices.
Categories: Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cutrer, L. Michelle. 1994. Time and
tense in narratives and in everyday language. PhD dissertation, University of
California at San Diego. Dancygier, Barbara. 1998. Conditionals and prediction.

Author: Dirk Geeraerts

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199890026

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1368

View: 248

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics presents a comprehensive overview of the main theoretical concepts and descriptive/theoretical models of Cognitive Linguistics, and covers its various subfields, theoretical as well as applied. The first twenty chapters give readers the opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the fundamental analytic concepts and descriptive models of Cognitive Linguistics and their background. The book starts with a set of chapters discussing different conceptual phenomena that are recognized as key concepts in Cognitive Linguistics: prototypicality, metaphor, metonymy, embodiment, perspectivization, mental spaces, etc. A second set of chapters deals with Cognitive Grammar, Construction Grammar, and Word Grammar, which, each in their own way, bring together the basic concepts into a particular theory of grammar and a specific model for the description of grammatical phenomena. Special attention is given to the interrelation between Cognitive and Construction Grammar. A third set of chapters compares Cognitive Linguistics with other forms of linguistic research (functional linguistics, autonomous linguistics, and the history of linguistics), thus giving a readers a better grip on the position of Cognitive Linguistics within the landscape of linguistics at large. The remaining chapters apply these basic notions to various more specific linguistic domains, illustrating how Cognitive Linguistics deals with the traditional linguistic subdomains (phonology, morphology, lexicon, syntax, text and discourse), and demonstrating how it handles linguistic variation and change. Finally they consider its importance in the domain of Applied Linguistics, and look at interdisciplinary links with research fields such as philosophy and psychology. With a well-known cast of contributors from around the world, this reference work will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in (cognitive) linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Mental Spaces in Grammar

Mental Spaces in Grammar

OO.373) 2.1 Conditionals and mental-space set-ups Grammars and textbooks
seem unanimous in starting their ... in the minds of grammarians: the conditional
predictive function is an important one in human cognition and communication.

Author: Barbara Dancygier

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113944610X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 660

Conditional constructions have long fascinated linguists, grammarians and philosophers. In this pioneering new study, Barbara Dancygier and Eve Sweetser offer a new descriptive framework for the study of conditionality, broadening the range of richly described conditional constructions. They explore theoretical issues such as the mental-space-building processes underlying conditional thinking and the form-meaning relationship involved in expressing conditionality. Using a broad range of attested English conditional constructions, the book examines inter-constructional relationships. Within the framework of Mental Spaces Theory, shared parameters of meaning are shown to be relevant to conditional constructions generally, as well as related temporal and causal constructions. This significant contribution to the field will be welcomed by a wide range of researchers in theoretical and cognitive linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

English for the Natives

English for the Natives

At its core, this construction conveys an 'if X then Y' predictive certainty. However,
we also use it to give ... Type 2: this moves the conditional from prediction to
speculation, because these constructions refer to theoretical realities. It's one of
the ...

Author: Harry Ritchie

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9781848548381

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

View: 841

'My first English lesson was grammar with the terrifying Mrs Petrie. She spent the entire time marching up and down the classroom, thwacking various items of school furniture with a ruler while she banged on about the ING part of the verb. I sat there, vibrating with fear, desperately trying to figure out what on earth she could mean. Irregular Negative Gerund? Intransitive Nominative Genitive? It was only years later, when I was teaching English to foreign students, that I realised that English grammar wasn't obscure and wilfully difficult but a fascinating subject which I was already brilliant at - and this book will prove that you are too.' Forget the little you think you know about English grammar and start afresh with this highly entertaining and accessible guide. English for the Natives outlines the rules and structures of our language as they are taught to foreign students - and have never before been explained to us. Harry Ritchie also examines the grammar of dialects as well as standard English and shows how non-standard forms are just as valid. With examples from a wide variety of sources, from Ali G to John Betjeman, Margaret Thatcher to Match of the Day, this essential book reveals some surprising truths about our language and teaches you all the things you didn't know you knew about grammar.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Discourse Grammar and Ideology

Discourse  Grammar and Ideology

Conditionals and Prediction: Time, Knowledge and Causation in Conditional
Constructions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Deegan, C. (2002).
Introduction: The legitimising effect of social and environment disclosures – A
theoretical ...

Author: Christopher Hart

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781441104854

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 304

Researchers in critical discourse analysis (CDA) have often pointed to grammar as a locus of ideology in discourse. This book illustrates the role that grammars as models of language (and image) can play in revealing ideological properties of texts and discourse in social and political contexts. The book takes the reader through three distinct grammatical frameworks – functional grammar, multimodal grammar and cognitive grammar. Using examples taken from a range of discourses relating to globalisation, including discourses of immigration, war, corporate practice and political protests, the book demonstrates the individual utility and the interconnectedness of these models inside CDA. A key argument advanced is that the cognitive processes necessarily involved in making sense of language are based in visual experience. This position offers new ways of understanding the ideological effects of grammatical choices in texts and suggests a reassessment of the relationship between linguistic and multimodal grammars in CDA. The book will appeal to students and researchers interested in CDA and the relationship between discourse, cognition and social action.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Derivations in Minimalism

Derivations in Minimalism

... and powers 86 CHRISTINA Y. BETHIN: Slavic prosody: language change and
phonological theory 87 BARBARA D AN CY GIER: Conditionals and prediction
88 CLAIRE LEFEB VRE: Creole genesis and the acquisition of grammar: the
case ...

Author: Samuel David Epstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521811804

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 217

View: 751

A pathbreaking new perspective on derivation, the series of operations by which sentences are formed.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Rules for Reasoning

Rules for Reasoning

It has been argued that the concepts of necessity and sufficiency are useful for
prediction (Bindra et al., 1980). If p is known to be a sufficient condition for q, then
q can be predicted to occur whenever p occurs. Similarly, if p is known to be ...

Author: Richard E. Nisbett

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781134775538

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 509

This book examines two questions: Do people make use of abstract rules such as logical and statistical rules when making inferences in everyday life? Can such abstract rules be changed by training? Contrary to the spirit of reductionist theories from behaviorism to connectionism, there is ample evidence that people do make use of abstract rules of inference -- including rules of logic, statistics, causal deduction, and cost-benefit analysis. Such rules, moreover, are easily alterable by instruction as it occurs in classrooms and in brief laboratory training sessions. The fact that purely formal training can alter them and that those taught in one content domain can "escape" to a quite different domain for which they are also highly applicable shows that the rules are highly abstract. The major implication for cognitive science is that people are capable of operating with abstract rules even for concrete, mundane tasks; therefore, any realistic model of human inferential capacity must reflect this fact. The major implication for education is that people can be far more broadly influenced by training than is generally supposed. At high levels of formality and abstraction, relatively brief training can alter the nature of problem-solving for an infinite number of content domains.
Categories: Psychology

Mind

Mind

Secondly , he may be mistaken in supposing that he has correctly specified the
condition which needs to be satisfied for his prediction to be true . He may , that is
, be correct in predicting that England will win , but incorrect in making this ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3711769

Category:

Page:

View: 509

Categories:

The Logic of Conditionals

The Logic of Conditionals

Let us assume the truth - conditional soundness of the inference , hence that on
any occasions in which the predictions it will either rain or snow tomorrow ' and ' it
will not snow tomorrow ' proved correct ( because it either rained or snowed ...

Author: E.W. Adams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 902770631X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 155

View: 385

Of the four chapters in this book, the first two discuss (albeit in consider ably modified form) matters previously discussed in my papers 'On the Logic of Conditionals' [1] and 'Probability and the Logic of Conditionals' [2], while the last two present essentially new material. Chapter I is relatively informal and roughly parallels the first of the above papers in discussing the basic ideas of a probabilistic approach to the logic of the indicative conditional, according to which these constructions do not have truth values, but they do have probabilities (equal to conditional probabilities), and the appropriate criterion of soundness for inferences involving them is that it should not be possible for all premises of the inference to be probable while the conclusion is improbable. Applying this criterion is shown to have radically different consequences from the orthodox 'material conditional' theory, not only in application to the standard 'fallacies' of the material conditional, but to many forms (e. g. , Contraposition) which have hitherto been regarded as above suspi cion. Many more applications are considered in Chapter I, as well as certain related theoretical matters. The chief of these, which is the most important new topic treated in Chapter I (i. e.
Categories: Philosophy

Conditionals

Conditionals

Primarily , I would like to suggest , the fact that the first is accepted as true while
many cases of it remain to be determined , the further , unexamined cases being
predicted to conform with it . The second sentence , on the contrary , is accepted
 ...

Author: Frank Jackson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: UOM:39015022028172

Category: Conditionals (Logic).

Page: 238

View: 521

This collection of readings introduces the reader to the most interesting current work on conditionals. Particular attention is paid to possible worlds semantics for conditionals; the role of conditional probability in helping us to understand conditionals; implicature and the materialconditional; and subjective versus indicative conditionals.The volume brings together important papers by Frank Jackson, V. H. Dudman, Dorothy Edgington, Nelson Goodman, H. P. Grice, David Lewis, and Robert Stalnaker.Oxford Readings in Philosophy is a series designed to bring together important recent writings in major areas of philosophical inquiry, selected from a variety of sources, mostly periodicals, which may not be conveniently available to the university student or the general reader. The editor ofeach volume contributes an introductory essay on the items chosen and on the questions with which they deal. A selective bibliography is appended as a guide to further reading.
Categories: Conditionals (Logic).

Studies in Philosophy

Studies in Philosophy

On this analysis A has prevented two predictions - Mr. and Mrs. B's - of his
behavior by altering the circumstances covered by the implicit antecedent of Mr.
and Mrs. B's ... And on the conditional interpretation this can void a seeming
prediction .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3614796

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 998

Categories: Philosophy

Applications of Inductive Logic

Applications of Inductive Logic

The conditional prediction is actually stronger than the material conditional ,
because it is easy to show that , on pain of ... However , and this is the interesting
point , if we consider any n - ary conjunction of material conditionals , where it is ...

Author: L. Jonathan and Hesse Cohen, Mary

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: UOM:39015000528300

Category: Induction (Logic)

Page: 432

View: 664

Categories: Induction (Logic)

English Conditional Sentences Past Present Future Real Unreal Conditionals

English Conditional Sentences  Past  Present  Future  Real  Unreal Conditionals

You can falsify any astrological prediction if you are determined to prove that
wrong. Charitable trusts may get income tax exemption only if they spend money
on charitable purposes and not for making profits. Customer should not suffer any
 ...

Author: Manik Joshi

Publisher: Manik Joshi

ISBN:

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 57

View: 874

Conditional sentences– conditional in English grammar | English conditional sentence- formation, structure, pattern | real and unreal conditional sentences | if clause | present conditionals- (i) present real conditional sentences (ii) present unreal conditional sentences | past conditionals- (i) past real conditional sentences (ii) past unreal conditional sentences | future conditionals- (i) future real conditional sentences, (ii) future unreal conditional sentences | continuous forms of conditional sentences, mixed conditional sentences | use of were to, 'special force' - conditional sentences, conditional- wish, miscellaneous usage- as though, as if, even if, only if, unless, happen, provided that, otherwise, or else | more than 500 conditional sentences | get fluent with conditional sentences | complete guide for English conditional sentences Sample This: Present Real Conditional Sentences The Present Real Conditional Is Used To Talk About What You Normally Do In Real-Life Situations. STRUCTURE [First Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…, Second Part – Simple Present] OR [First Part – Simple Present, Second Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…] Whether Use “If” OR “When”? "If" implies - things don’t happen regularly. “When” implies - things happen regularly. If you eat too much fast food, it makes you overweight. Or [It makes you overweight if you eat too much fast food.] If you put salt on salad, they taste nicer. Or [They taste nicer if you put salt on salad.] When I have a free time, I often sit in the library. [Regularly] Or [I often sit in the library when I have a free time.] MORE EXAMPLES: [First Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…, Second Part – Simple Present] If I move to school, I never take my mobile. If you want to be a super achiever, first recognize your own capabilities. If it melts, it raises the sea level. If something bad happens anywhere, it is natural to be sad. If you heat water, it boils. If office closes early, we definitely go to library. If you need help, call me. If I don’t come on time, you are supposed to leave the office. If you feel sleepy, just go to bed. If that isn’t absolute verification, I don’t know what is. If the contractors fail to achieve the target within the specified period, they are liable to pay damages. If you don't get the first good, be content with the second good. [Note: Use of Imperative Sentence] If you are working for something with convictions, you are satisfied. If proper punishment is not awarded to the accused, the faith of the society is shaken in the legal system of the country. [Note: Use of passive voice – is + awarded, and is + shaken] If uranium is bombarded with neutron, it absorbs some. If a Swedish govt. is interested in such a deal at all, Sweden can negotiate for itself a better deal. If a person is abused repeatedly then that person has the right to object and right to argue also. If my statement has pained someone then I regret it. If they have done something wrong that doesn’t mean I have also done something wrong. If the refugee cannot afford to pay, she may be refused access to the hospital or have her refugee card confiscated. [First Part – Simple Present, Second Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…] I have come to bother you if you don’t mind. We don’t even know if any person by that name exists. Their wages are cut if they do not report for duty on time. You learn a language better if you visit the country where it is spoken. Agency works under pressure if one goes by what ex-Director says. I apologize if at all the article hurt anyone. Power companies can hike the tariffs if the cost of imported coal rises. Hang me if I am guilty. I meet him if I go there. Butter dissolves if you leave it in sun. Plants die if you don’t water them. Milk goes off if you don’t keep it in a cool place. Ask the officer if you have any problem. I don’t mind if you sit in my cabin. Customers get upset if they are being overcharged. I have no problem if her name is disclosed. They promised to slash power rates if they are elected. Existing laws can be deterrent if time-based trial is conducted. Do you mind if I turn on the radio for a while. A death row convict cannot be executed if he is not physically and mentally fit. A student may not be motivated to work hard if promotion is guaranteed. Many of the deaths can be avoided if bikers wear the helmet. I go by taxi when the bus is late.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistics

Linguistics

It has been noted before that in special conditionals the event predicted in the
apodosis is contingent upon the truth of the statement / prediction in the protasis ,
so there is nothing revolutionary in the analysis expounded here ; but the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSC:32106019084554

Category: Linguistics

Page:

View: 923

Categories: Linguistics

American Philosophical Quarterly

American Philosophical Quarterly

AN EPISTEMIC APPROACH TO CONDITIONALS 207 i's thesis changes ons and
the de changes i ed in a both in accepted en respect The giver - Were ... The
conditional prediction is , however , still the same as the one made in ( a ) and ( b
) .

Author: Nicholas Rescher

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3918982

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 193

Categories: Philosophy