Computer Modelling of Social Processes

Computer Modelling of Social Processes

There is every reason to believe that it will prove equally if not more useful for understanding complex social processes . ... Garson , G.D. ( 1994 ) Social science computer simulation : its history , design , and future .

Author: Wim B. G. Liebrand Andrzej Nowak Rainer Hegselmann

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446224899

Category: Social sciences

Page: 208

View: 356

This book introduces and the new computer-based research methods for studying and modeling complex social phenomena. It is the first coherent collection that surveys the impact that computer-based methods have had on the social and behavioural sciences and illustrates the potential for future research. The methods are presented in an accessible manner and do not assume any background in computer science. The authors introduce each chapter and explain how computers can help to study social processes and each method is described in relation to a substantive issue to show how it can contribute to our understanding of complex problems. The themes covered include computer simulation, neural and social networks and the visualization of complex network data.
Categories: Social sciences

Dynamics and indeterminism in Developmental and Social Processes

Dynamics and indeterminism in Developmental and Social Processes

The essential advance is that computational modelling of iterative growth processes enables mathematical, formal modelsto be tested. This isascientific advance over the verbal models of present-daydevelopmental psychology.

Author: Alan Fogel

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317779865

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 474

One of the most profound insights of the dynamic systems perspective is that new structures resulting from the developmental process do not need to be planned in advance, nor is it necessary to have these structures represented in genetic or neurological templates prior to their emergence. Rather, new structures can emerge as components of the individual and the environment self-organize; that is, as they mutually constrain each other's actions, new patterns and structures may arise. This theoretical possibility brings into developmental theory the important concept of indeterminism--the possibility that developmental outcomes may not be predictable in any simple linear causal way from their antecedents. This is the first book to take a critical and serious look at the role of indeterminism in psychological and behavioral development. * What is the source of this indeterminism? * What is its role in developmental change? * Is it merely the result of incomplete observational data or error in measurement? It reviews the concepts of indeterminism and determinism in their historical, philosophical, and theoretical perspectives--particularly in relation to dynamic systems thinking--and applies these general ideas to systems of nonverbal communication. Stressing the indeterminacy inherent to symbols and meaning making in social systems, several chapters address the issue of indeterminism from metaphorical, modeling, and narrative perspectives. Others discuss those indeterministic processes within the individual related to emotional, social, and cognitive development.
Categories: Psychology

Computer Simulations in Science and Technology Studies

Computer Simulations in Science and Technology Studies

This book explores this important and much debated question in an innovative way, by using computer simulations.

Author: Petra Ahrweiler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642582707

Category: Computers

Page: 245

View: 715

What is it about the structure and organisation of science and technology that has led to the spectacularly successful growth of knowledge during this century? This book explores this important and much debated question in an innovative way, by using computer simulations. The computer simulation of societies and social processes is a methodology which is rapidly becoming recognised for its potential in the social sciences. This book applies the tools of simulation systematically to a specific domain: science and technology studies. The book shows how computer simulation can be applied both to questions in the history and philosophy of science and to issues of concern to sociologists of science and technology. Chapters in the book demonstrate the use of simulation for clarifying the notion of creativity and for understanding the logical processes employed by eminent scientists to make their discoveries. The book begins with three introductory chapters. The first introduces simulation for the social sciences, surveying current work and explaining the advantages and pitfalls of this new methodology. The second and third chapters review recent work on theoretical aspects of social simulation, introducing fundamental concepts such as self organisation and complexity and relating these to the simulation of scientific discovery.
Categories: Computers

Simulating Societal Change

Simulating Societal Change

Counterfactual Modelling for Social and Policy Inquiry Peter Davis, Roy Lay-Yee ... Not only did computer simulation promise to represent social processes and phenomena realistically and dynamically, but there were also practical ...

Author: Peter Davis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030047863

Category: Social Science

Page: 245

View: 334

This book presents a method for creating a working model of society, using data systems and simulation techniques, that can be used for testing propositions of scientific and policy nature. The model is based on the example of New Zealand, but will be applicable to other countries. It is expected that collaborators in other countries can emulate this example with their data systems for teaching and policy purposes, producing a cross-national "collaboratory". This enterprise will evolve with, and to a degree independently of, the book itself, with a supporting website as well as teaching and scientific initiatives. Readers of this text will, for the first time, have a simulation-based working model of society that can be interrogated for policy and substantive purposes. This book will appeal to researchers and professionals from various disciplines working within the social sciences, particularly on matters of demography and public policy.
Categories: Social Science

The Invisible Hand in Economics

The Invisible Hand in Economics

How Economists Explain Unintended Social Consequences N. Emrah Aydinonat ... Liebrand, W. B. G., Nowak, A. and Hegselmann, R. (eds) (1998) Computer Modelling of Social Processes, London: SAGE Publications. Lind, D. (1989).

Author: N. Emrah Aydinonat

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415569545

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 254

View: 961

This is a book about one of the most controversial concepts in economics the invisible hand. The author explores the unintended social consequences implied by the invisible hand and discusses the mechanisms that bring about these consequences. The book questions, examines and explicates the strengths and weaknesses of invisible hand explanations concerning the emergence of institutions and macro-social structures, from a methodological and philosophical perspective. Aydinonat analyses paradigmatic examples of invisible-hand explanations, such as Carl Menger's `Origin of Money' and Thomas Schelling's famous chequerboard model of residential segregation in relation to contemporary models of emergence of money and segregation.Based on this analysis, he provides a fresh look at the philosophical literature on models and explanation and develops a philosophical framework for interpreting invisible hand type of explanations in economics and elsewhere. Finally, the author applies this framework to recent game theoretic models of institutions and outlines the way in which they should be evaluated. Covering areas such as history, philosophy of economics and game theory this book will appeal to philosophers of social science and historians of economic thought, as well as to practising economists.
Categories: Business & Economics

The Complexity of Social Norms

The Complexity of Social Norms

Computer modelling of social processes. London: Sage Publications. Lorscheid, I. & Troitzsch, K. G. (2009). How do agents learn to behave normatively? Machine learning concepts for norm learning in the Emil project.

Author: Maria Xenitidou

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319053080

Category: Social Science

Page: 205

View: 879

This book explores the view that normative behaviour is part of a complex of social mechanisms, processes and narratives that are constantly shifting. From this perspective, norms are not a kind of self-contained social object or fact, but rather an interplay of many things that we label as norms when we ‘take a snapshot’ of them at a particular instant. Further, this book pursues the hypothesis that considering the dynamic aspects of these phenomena sheds new light on them. The sort of issues that this perspective opens to exploration include: Of what is this complex we call a "social norm" composed of? How do new social norms emerge and what kind of circumstances might facilitate such an appearance? How context-specific are the norms and patterns of normative behaviour that arise? How do the cognitive and the social aspects of norms interact over time? How do expectations, beliefs and individual rationality interact with social norm complexes to effect behaviour? How does our social embeddedness relate to social constraint upon behaviour? How might the socio-cognitive complexes that we call norms be usefully researched?
Categories: Social Science

Agent Based Computational Sociology

Agent Based Computational Sociology

Liebrand, W.B.F. (1998) Computer modelling and the analysis of complex human behavior: retrospect and prospect, in Computer Modeling of Social Processes (eds W.B.F. Liebrand, A. Nowak, and R. Hegselmann), UCL Press, London, pp. 1–14.

Author: Flaminio Squazzoni

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470711743

Category: Computers

Page: 238

View: 990

Most of the intriguing social phenomena of our time, such as international terrorism, social inequality, and urban ethnic segregation, are consequences of complex forms of agent interaction that are difficult to observe methodically and experimentally. This book looks at a new research stream that makes use of advanced computer simulation modelling techniques to spotlight agent interaction that allows us to explain the emergence of social patterns. It presents a method to pursue analytical sociology investigations that look at relevant social mechanisms in various empirical situations, such as markets, urban cities, and organisations. This book: Provides a comprehensive introduction to epistemological, theoretical and methodological features of agent–based modelling in sociology through various discussions and examples. Presents the pros and cons of using agent–based models in sociology. Explores agent–based models in combining quantitative and qualitative aspects, and micro– and macro levels of analysis. Looks at how to pose an agent–based research question, identifying the model building blocks, and how to validate simulation results. Features examples of agent–based models that look at crucial sociology issues. Supported by an accompanying website featuring data sets and code for the models included in the book. Agent–Based Computational Sociology is written in a common sociological language and features examples of models that look at all the traditional explanatory challenges of sociology. Researchers and graduate students involved in the field of agent–based modelling and computer simulation in areas such as social sciences, cognitive sciences and computer sciences will benefit from this book.
Categories: Computers

Artificial Societies

Artificial Societies

The Computer Simulation Of Social Life Nigel Gilbert, Rosaria Conte ... Once the process of modelling has been accomplished, the model achieves a substantial degree of autonomy. It is an entity in the world and, as much as any other ...

Author: Nigel Gilbert University of Surrey; Rosaria Conte National Research Council of Italy.,

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135367312

Category: Social Science

Page: 316

View: 328

An exploration of the implications of developments in artificial intelligence for social scientific research, which builds on the theoretical and methodological insights provided by "Simulating societies".; This book is intended for worldwide library market for social science subjects such as sociology, political science, geography, archaeology/anthropology, and significant appeal within computer science, particularly artificial intelligence. Also personal reference for researchers.
Categories: Social Science

At the Crossroads Lessons and Challenges in Computational Social Science

At the Crossroads  Lessons and Challenges in Computational Social Science

Šalamon T. Design of Agent-Based Models: Developing Computer Simulations for a Better Understanding of Social Processes. Repin: Bruckner Publishing (2011). Epstein JM. Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational ...

Author: Javier Borge-Holthoefer

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889450213

Category: Electronic book

Page: 98

View: 533

The interest of physicists in economic and social questions is not new: for over four decades, we have witnessed the emergence of what is called nowadays “sociophysics” and “econophysics”, vigorous and challenging areas within the wider “Interdisciplinary Physics”. With tools borrowed from Statistical Physics and Complexity, this new area of study have already made important contributions, which in turn have fostered the development of novel theoretical foundations in Social Science and Economics, via mathematical approaches, agent-based modelling and numerical simulations. From these foundations, Computational Social Science has grown to incorporate as well the empirical component --aided by the recent data deluge from the Web 2.0 and 3.0--, closing in this way the experiment-theory cycle in the best tradition of Physics.
Categories: Electronic book

Computational Social Psychology

Computational Social Psychology

In Nowak and colleagues' (2000) computational model, mental process is driven in part by a press for integration, so that independent thoughts come to acquire common higher-order meaning (e.g., evaluation) as they co-occur in thinking.

Author: Robin R. Vallacher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351701686

Category: Psychology

Page: 382

View: 998

Computational Social Psychology showcases a new approach to social psychology that enables theorists and researchers to specify social psychological processes in terms of formal rules that can be implemented and tested using the power of high speed computing technology and sophisticated software. This approach allows for previously infeasible investigations of the multi-dimensional nature of human experience as it unfolds in accordance with different temporal patterns on different timescales. In effect, the computational approach represents a rediscovery of the themes and ambitions that launched the field over a century ago. The book brings together social psychologists with varying topical interests who are taking the lead in this redirection of the field. Many present formal models that are implemented in computer simulations to test basic assumptions and investigate the emergence of higher-order properties; others develop models to fit the real-time evolution of people’s inner states, overt behavior, and social interactions. Collectively, the contributions illustrate how the methods and tools of the computational approach can investigate, and transform, the diverse landscape of social psychology.
Categories: Psychology

Dynamics of Joint Action Social Coordination and Multi Agent Activity

Dynamics of Joint Action  Social Coordination and Multi Agent Activity

Sci. 2,96–100. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770953 Hebb, D.O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior. New York, NY: Wiley. Hegselmann, R. (1998). “Modeling social dynamics by cellular automata,” in Computer Modelling of Social Processes, ...

Author: Michael J. Richardson

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889454204

Category:

Page:

View: 240

Categories:

Computational Intelligence in Archaeology

Computational Intelligence in Archaeology

MAGICAL computer simulation of mesolithic foraging. In T. A. Kohler, and G. J. Gumerman (Eds.), Dynamics in human and primate societies: Agent-based modelling of social and spatial processes (pp. 107-143). Santa Fe Institute Studies in ...

Author: Barcelo, Juan A.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781599044910

Category: Computers

Page: 436

View: 832

Provides analytical theories offered by innovative artificial intelligence computing methods in the archaeological domain.
Categories: Computers

Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms

Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms

D. Helbing, Quantitative Sociodynamics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. W.B.G. Liebrand, A. Nowak and R. Hegselmann (Eds.), Computer Modelling of Social Processes, Sage, 1998. D.W. Pearson, "Detection of Pair Interactions in Group ...

Author: Vera Kurkova

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783709162309

Category: Computers

Page: 506

View: 236

The first ICANNGA conference, devoted to biologically inspired computational paradigms, Neural Net works and Genetic Algorithms, was held in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1993. The meeting attracted researchers from all over Europe and further afield, who decided that this particular blend of topics should form a theme for a series of biennial conferences. The second meeting, held in Ales, France, in 1995, carried on the tradition set in Innsbruck of a relaxed and stimulating environment for the. exchange of ideas. The series has continued in Norwich, UK, in 1997, and Portoroz, Slovenia, in 1999. The Institute of Computer Science, Czech Academy of Sciences, is pleased to host the fifth conference in Prague. We have chosen the Liechtenstein palace under the Prague Castle as the conference site to enhance the traditionally good atmosphere of the meeting. There is an inspirational genius loci of the historical center of the city, where four hundred years ago a fruitful combination of theoretical and empirical method, through the collaboration of Johannes Kepler and Tycho de Brahe, led to the discovery of the laws of planetary orbits.
Categories: Computers

Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms

Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms

Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from a Philosophy of Science Point of View, Dordrecht, Boston (Kluwer) 1996 Liebrand WBG, Nowak A and Hegselmann R (eds) Computer Modelling of Social Processes Sage 1998 Weidlich W and ...

Author: David W. Pearson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783709106464

Category: Computers

Page: 266

View: 420

The 2003 edition of ICANNGA marks a milestone in this conference series, because it is the tenth year of its existence. The series began in 1993 with the inaugural conference at Innsbruck in Austria. At that first conference, the organisers decided to organise a similar scientific meeting every two years. As a result, conferences were organised at Ales in France (1995), Norwich in England (1997), Portoroz in Slovenia (1999) and Prague in the Czech Republic (2001). It is a great honour that the conference is taking place in France for the second time. Each edition of ICANNGA has been special and had its own character. Not only that, participants have been able to sample the life and local culture in five different European coun tries. Originally limited to neural networks and genetic algorithms the conference has broadened its outlook over the past ten years and now includes papers on soft computing and artificial intelligence in general. This is one of the reasons why the reader will find papers on fuzzy logic and various other topics not directly related to neural networks or genetic algorithms included in these proceedings. We have, however, kept the same name, "International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms". All of the papers were sorted into one of six principal categories: neural network theory, neural network applications, genetic algorithm and evolutionary computation theory, genetic algorithm and evolutionary computation applications, fuzzy and soft computing theory, fuzzy and soft computing applications.
Categories: Computers

Stochastic Modelling of Social Processes

Stochastic Modelling of Social Processes

In the social sciences rates are used to describe career patterns and job mobility (Tuma, 1976, Tuma and Robins, 1980, ... As a consequence, a number of computer programs were developed, for instance RATE (Tuma, 198O), LONGIT (Coleman, ...

Author: Andreas Diekmann

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9781483266565

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 210

Stochastic Modelling of Social Processes provides information pertinent to the development in the field of stochastic modeling and its applications in the social sciences. This book demonstrates that stochastic models can fulfill the goals of explanation and prediction. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of stochastic models that fulfill normative, predictive, and structural–analytic roles with the aid of the theory of probability. This text then examines the study of labor market structures using analysis of job and career mobility, which is one of the approaches taken by sociologists in research on the labor market. Other chapters consider the characteristic trends and patterns from data on divorces. This book discusses as well the two approaches of stochastic modeling of social processes, namely competing risk models and semi-Markov processes. The final chapter deals with the practical application of regression models of survival data. This book is a valuable resource for social scientists and statisticians.
Categories: Social Science

Computer Assisted Text Analysis

Computer Assisted Text Analysis

Gothenburg Eben Weitzman, University of Massachusetts at Boston Recent volumes include: Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research Nigel G. Fielding and Raymond M Lee Computer Modelling of Social Processes edited by Wim B. G. Liebrand.

Author: Roel Popping

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781446275757

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 968

Providing an up-to-date picture of the main methods for the quantitative analysis of text, this book begins by overviewing the background and the conceptual foundations of the field. The author then covers the traditional thematic approaches of text analysis, followed by an explanation of newer developments in semantic and network text analysis methodologies. Finally, he examines the relationship between content analysis and other kinds of text analysis - from qualitative research, linguistic analysis and information retrieval. Computer-assisted Text Analysis focuses on the methodological and practical issues of coding and handling data, including sampling, reliability and validity issues, and includes a useful appendix of computer programs for text analysis.
Categories: Social Science

The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures

The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures

Motivation losses in small groups: A social dilemma analysis. Journal of Personality and ... Factors that hinder diversity of opinions in social groups. Unpublished manuscript. ... Computer modelling of social processes. London: Sage.

Author: Wilhelmina Wosinska

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781135705978

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 572

This book provides a diverse collection of studies reporting the effects of social influence processes in multiple cultures at both the universal and culture-specific levels. The book is characterized by three distinct features. First, the social influence process is considered as a ubiquitous and pervasive feature of human interaction. Second, the book represents a multicultural approach which includes both cross-cultural and culture-focused examinations. Third, the book emphasizes practical implications of the research presented. This volume incorporates theory and research stemming from three different approaches to social influence: social influence principles across cultures, social influence and social change across cultures, and culture and moral perspective in the social influence process. Because each of these three parts encompasses a considerable variety of research methodologies, social contexts, and cultures, each is proceeded by an integrative commentary authored by one of the book editors. These essays provide syntheses of the topics and themes within the corresponding sections and within the book as a whole. They also offer critical commentaries on both theoretical and methodological issues, raise suggestions for future research, and focus on practical applications. This book is intended for both scholars interested in cross- and multicultural research into the mechanisms of the social influence process and for the professional whose mission is to make planned changes in a society. Knowledge about the influence process, especially regarding how it works in different cultures and within several cultural groups, facilitates this goal. The practical implications ending each chapter serve as encouraging instructions for such applications.
Categories: Psychology

Tri service Conference on Selection Research

Tri service Conference on Selection Research

Gordon Pasks has built a model of a simulated " concept formation , " illustrating the growth of nerve networks in an ... is the increasing interest in computer simulation as a research technique for the study of social processes .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UIUC:30112068990800

Category: Employee selection

Page: 273

View: 702

Categories: Employee selection

Computer Applications in the Social Sciences

Computer Applications in the Social Sciences

Simulation is hard to justify unless the social process under investigation possesses a high level of complexity . The application of a computer simulation model is not warranted unless the phenomenon dynamically changes over time ...

Author: Edward E. Brent

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 0877226660

Category: Social Science

Page: 471

View: 383

Presenting an introduction to computing and advice on computer applications, this book examines hardware and software with respect to the needs of the social scientist. It offers a framework for the use of computers, with focus on the 'work station', the center of which is a personal computer connected to networks by a telephone-based modem.
Categories: Social Science

Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning IDEAL 2004

Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning   IDEAL 2004

Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 5 (2002) http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/JASSS/5/1/7.html 3. Liebrand, W.B.G.: Nowak A and Hegselmann R (eds) Computer Modelling of Social Processes, Sage (1998) 4.

Author: Zhen Rong Yang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540286516

Category: Computers

Page: 854

View: 795

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning, IDEAL 2004, held in Exeter, UK, in August 2004. The 124 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 272 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on bioinformatics, data mining and knowledge engineering, learning algorithms and systems, financial engineering, and agent technologies.
Categories: Computers