Complexity

A Guided Tour

Author: Melanie Mitchell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199741021

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 7852

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What enables individually simple insects like ants to act with such precision and purpose as a group? How do trillions of neurons produce something as extraordinarily complex as consciousness? In this remarkably clear and companionable book, leading complex systems scientist Melanie Mitchell provides an intimate tour of the sciences of complexity, a broad set of efforts that seek to explain how large-scale complex, organized, and adaptive behavior can emerge from simple interactions among myriad individuals. Based on her work at the Santa Fe Institute and drawing on its interdisciplinary strategies, Mitchell brings clarity to the workings of complexity across a broad range of biological, technological, and social phenomena, seeking out the general principles or laws that apply to all of them. Richly illustrated, Complexity: A Guided Tour--winner of the 2010 Phi Beta Kappa Book Award in Science--offers a wide-ranging overview of the ideas underlying complex systems science, the current research at the forefront of this field, and the prospects for its contribution to solving some of the most important scientific questions of our time.
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Artificial Intelligence

A Guide for Thinking Humans

Author: Melanie Mitchell

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0241404843

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 8187

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No recent scientific enterprise has been so alluring, terrifying, and filled with extravagant promise and frustrating setbacks as artificial intelligence. How intelligent are the best of today's AI programs? To what extent can we entrust them with decisions that affect our lives? How human-like do we expect them to become, and how soon do we need to worry about them surpassing us in most, if not all, human endeavours? From leading AI researcher and award-winning author Melanie Mitchell comes a knowledgeable and captivating account of modern-day artificial intelligence. Flavoured with personal stories and a twist of humor, Artificial Intelligence illuminates the workings of machines that mimic human learning, perception, language, creativity and common sense. Weaving together advances in AI with cognitive science and philosophy, Mitchell probes the extent to which today's 'smart' machines can actually think or understand, and whether AI requires such elusive human qualities in order to be reliable, trustworthy and beneficial. Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans provides readers with an accessible, entertaining, and clear-eyed view of the AI landscape, what the field has actually accomplished, how much further it has to go, and what it means for all of our futures.
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Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Author: John H. Holland

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191639540

Category: Mathematics

Page: 152

View: 3170

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The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples — Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' — with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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Shakespeare and Complexity Theory

Author: Claire Hansen

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315265524

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 8837

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In this new monograph, Claire Hansen demonstrates how Shakespeare can be understood as a complex system, and how complexity theory can provide compelling and original readings of Shakespeare's plays. The book utilises complexity theory to illuminate early modern theatrical practice, Shakespeare pedagogy, and the phenomenon of the Shakespeare 'myth'. The monograph re-evaluates Shakespeare, his plays, early modern theatre, and modern classrooms as complex systems, illustrating how the lens of complexity offers an enlightening new perspective on diverse areas of Shakespeare scholarship. The book's interdisciplinary approach enriches our understanding of Shakespeare and lays the foundation for complexity theory in Shakespeare studies and the humanities more broadly.
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Complexity and Sustainability

Author: Jennifer Wells

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415695775

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 350

View: 7224

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Complex dynamic system studies have been studied explicitly in the natural sciences, and most only implicitly throughout other fields. Yet much great social theory and philosophy is in fact based in complexity, and important concepts like postmodernism, risk, and collapse all stem from complexity. Six key terms are explored: nonlinearity, feedbacks, thresholds, hierarchies, emergence and self-organization, and dozens of related principles are discussed, with a focus on uncertainty, risk, vulnerability, learning, strategy, resilience, collapse and sustainability. The book surveys the role of these complexity principles in the natural sciences, social theory, transdisciplinary discourse, philosophy, and ethics, and shows how this complexity framework is a valuable lens for approaching the spectre of climate change and life in the Anthropocene.
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The Complexity Paradox

The More Answers We Find, the More Questions We Have

Author: Kenneth Mossman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199330360

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 411

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Living systems exhibit a fundamental contradiction: they are highly stable and reliable, yet they have the capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This paradoxical behavior arises from the complexity of life--a high degree of order and cooperation that emerges from relatively simple interactions among cellular components. The Complexity Paradox proposes inventive, interdisciplinary approaches to maintaining health and managing and preventing disease by considering the totality of human biology, from the cellular level on up to entire populations of individuals. From the perspective of complexity, which acknowledges that there are limits to what we can know, Kenneth L. Mossman opens the door to understanding essential life processes in new and extraordinary ways. By tying together evolution, functional dynamics, and investigations into how the body processes energy and uses genetic information, Mossman's analysis expresses a unified theory of biology that fills a critical niche for future research in biology, medicine, and public health.
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MasterClass in Geography Education

Transforming Teaching and Learning

Author: Graham Butt

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472535731

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 2398

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MasterClass in Geography Education provides a comprehensive exploration of the major themes in geography education research and pedagogy, drawing on international research. The editor draws together a variety of professional, academic and practitioner perspectives to support professional development of geography teachers. The book incorporates discussion of the place of subject knowledge in geography, the role and function of research in geography education and the relationship between research and practice. Topics covered include: - research and professional practice - constructing geographical knowledge - ethical considerations - carrying out research projects MasterClass in Geography Education will be essential reading for all studying the teaching and learning of geography on PGCE and Education MEd/MA courses.
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A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond

Author: Mark Levene,George Loizou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852330088

Category: Computers

Page: 625

View: 4867

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Addressing important extensions of the relational database model, including deductive, temporal, and object-oriented databases, this book provides an overview of database modeling with the Entity-Relationship (ER) model and the relational model. The book focuses on the primary achievements in relational database theory, including query languages, integrity constraints, database design, computable queries, and concurrency control. This reference will shed light on the ideas underlying relational database systems and the problems that confront database designers and researchers.
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