Comparative Income Taxation

A Structural Analysis

Author: Hugh J. Ault,Brian J. Arnold

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 904113204X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 560

View: 8892

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The purpose of this book is to compare different solutions adopted by nine industrialized countries to common problems of income tax design. As in other legal domains, comparative study of income taxation can provide fresh perspectives from which to examine a particular national system. Increasing economic globalization also makes understanding foreign tax systems relevant to a growing set of transnational business transactions. Comparative study is, however, notoriously difficult. Full understanding of a foreign tax system may require mastery not only of a foreign language, but also of foreign business and legal cultures. It would be the work of a lifetime for a single individual to achieve that level of understanding of the nine income taxes compared in this volume. Suppose, however, that an international group of tax law professors, each expert in his own national system, were asked to describe how that system resolved specific problems of income tax design with respect to individuals, business organizations, and international transactions. Suppose further that the leaders of the group wove the resulting answers into a single continuous exposition, which was then reviewed and critiqued by a wider group of tax teachers. The resulting text would provide a convenient and comprehensive introduction to foreign approaches to income taxation for teachers, students, policy-makers and practitioners. That is the path followed by Hugh Ault and Brian Arnold and their collaborators in the development of this fascinating book. Henceforth, a reader interested in how other developed countries resolve such structural issues as the taxation of fringe benefits, the effect of unrealized appreciation at death, the classification of business entities, expatriation to avoid taxes, and so on, can turn to this volume for an initial answer. This book should greatly facilitate comparative analysis in teaching and writing about taxation in the US and elsewhere.
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Comparative Income Taxation

A Structural Analysis

Author: Brian J. Arnold,Hugh J. Ault,Graeme Cooper

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9403510900

Category: Law

Page: 784

View: 8732

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Comparative Income Taxation A Structural Analysis Fourth Edition Hugh J. Ault, Brian J. Arnold & Graeme S. Cooper In complex national income tax systems, structural and design variations from one country to another present major obstacles to the kind of comparative understanding that economic globalization requires. Hence the great significance of this outstanding book, highly acclaimed through three previous editions and now thoroughly updated to encompass the latest changes and trends. In it, leading authorities from eleven of the world’s most important national taxation systems each contribute their particular expertise to a study of specific crucial problems of tax design. In addition to the nine countries covered in previous editions—Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States—China and India have now been added to provide the perspective of developing countries. Individually authored country descriptions outline the climate and institutional framework in which each of the eleven national taxation systems’ substantive rules operate. All the country descriptions are analyzed in accordance with a common format to facilitate comparisons of the ways in which the countries’ tax systems are similar and in which they differ. They form the background to an expertly informed comparative analysis focusing on three major areas: basic income taxation, taxation of business organizations and international taxation. Most of the rules especially important for international business and investment are dealt with here, including (among many others) rules on the following: classification of business entities; taxation of corporations and their shareholders; corporate organization and restructuring; taxation of partnerships; residence and source taxation; controlled foreign company rules; restrictions on the deduction of interest; courts dealing with tax matters; and effect of tax treaties. Several new topics—including the classification of employees and independent contractors, the taxation of pensions, patent box regimes, the taxation of indirect transfers and the tax challenges of the digital economy—have been added. Especially timely are discussions of changes stemming from the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project. The introduction has also been expanded to include a new section on European Union (EU) law as it affects the tax laws of EU Member States. This new edition of a classic source of information and analysis for students, professors, researchers, tax practitioners and tax policy officials on the different ways that countries design their income tax systems will be widely welcomed by the international tax community.
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Figuring Out the Tax

Congress, Treasury, and the Design of the Early Modern Income Tax

Author: Lawrence Zelenak

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108383807

Category: Law

Page: 318

View: 1957

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Figuring Out the Tax recounts the forgotten early development of the federal income tax in the US, resulting from the interplay between Congress and the Treasury Department in the decades following the enactment of the tax in 1913. It covers a wide range of topics including the income tax treatments of marriage, capital losses, charitable contributions and homeownership, as well as the rise, demise and resurrection of income tax withholding. Lawrence Zelenak deftly illustrates how the income tax achieved its current form through a range of stories which are new to tax history scholarship and involve some remarkable personalities and surprising plot twists. Although of particular interest to tax academics and professionals, this book will also serve as a useful introduction to the development of income tax for undergraduate students and law students.
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Non-discrimination in Tax Treaty Law and World Trade Law

The Impact of Formal, Substantive and Subjective Approaches

Author: Kasper Dziurdź

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9403509120

Category: Law

Page: 672

View: 8493

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Non-discrimination is a central obligation under both tax treaty and trade law. However, in seeking to strike a balance between national and international interests, its application differs in the two areas of practice. This deeply researched and authoritative work, which explains the policy issues and how non-discrimination analysis works, provides a comprehensive review of non-discrimination rules in WTO and tax treaty law, combining a critical commentary on case law with proposals for an innovative concept for solving cases of discrimination in tax treaty law. Among the practical issues affecting non-discrimination examined in detail are the following: implications that can be drawn from the concepts of non-discrimination under WTO law and Article 24 of the OECD Model; direct and indirect discrimination and analysis of comparability in WTO law and tax treaty law; the MFN and NT rules under the GATT and GATS; the meaning of ‘likeness’ and ‘less favourable treatment’; claiming non-discriminatory tax treatment before tax administrations and courts under a tax treaty; justification of measures against harmful tax competition, low taxation and hybrid mismatch arrangements; thin capitalisation rules, progressive tax rates, foreign losses, group taxation and relief from juridical and economic double taxation under Article 24 of the OECD Model; and integrating a justification defence into any stage of a non-discrimination analysis. The author establishes to what extent formal, substantive and subjective approaches may be applied in a non-discrimination analysis, providing the reasons for the approaches taken. A two-step comparability procedure is applied to selected cases of potential tax discrimination, demonstrating how policy arguments can be addressed under Article 24 of the OECD Model. Drawing on over a half-century of case law in both areas of practice, this comprehensive study of the non-discrimination rules under WTO law and international tax law will be invaluable in systematically solving cases of tax discrimination under Article 24 of the OECD Model and putting forward arguments at any stage of a WTO analysis. Policymakers will benefit from the author’s clear explanation of how national law should comply with international obligations. Also, taxpayers’ advisers will proceed confidently in claims of tax treaty discrimination, and academics will discover an incomparable overview and analysis of anti-discrimination rules in international trade law and double taxation conventions.
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Value Added Tax

A Comparative Approach

Author: Alan Schenk,Oliver Oldman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458264

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 4128

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This book integrates legal, economic, and administrative materials about value added tax. Its principal purpose is to provide comprehensive teaching tools - laws, cases, analytical exercises, and questions drawn from the experience of countries and organizations from all areas of the world. It also serves as a resource for tax practitioners and government officials that must grapple with issues under their VAT or their prospective VAT. The comparative presentation of this volume offers an analysis of policy issues relating to tax structure and tax base as well as insights into how cases arising out of VAT disputes have been resolved. The authors have expanded the coverage to include new VAT related developments in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. A chapter on financial services has been added as well as an analysis of significant new cases.
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