Community Ecology

Author: R.J. Putman,Rory Putman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412545009

Category: Science

Page: 178

View: 5839

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"Chapter 1 establishes the context of such a search for pattern, presenting essential definitions and exploring early work on community structure and organization. The various biotic and abiotic factors which may influence communities and their dynamics are reviewed in Chapter 2, while the way in which the interrelationships between organisms are structured within the community in food webs or in the partitioning of available resources are considered in separate chapters on food webs, niche relationships and species guilds. Later chapters explore the factors determining the assembly of communities, species composition and pattern of relative abundance and the relative roles of deterministic and stochastic processes in determining community structure. The concluding section explores the implications of observed patterns of structure and organization for stability. The mathematical analyses which are an essential component of this topic are included only where essential for understanding and are presented in special box features. Each mathematical section has been carefully structured and fully explained in biological terms. Community Ecology presents a refreshingly readable course text for advanced undergraduates in ecology."--BOOK JACKET.
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Community Ecology

Analytical Methods Using R and Excel

Author: Mark Gardener

Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1907807632

Category: Science

Page: 425

View: 3025

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Interactions between species are of fundamental importance to all living systems and the framework we have for studying these interactions is community ecology. This is important to our understanding of the planets biological diversity and how species interactions relate to the functioning of ecosystems at all scales. Species do not live in isolation and the study of community ecology is of practical application in a wide range of conservation issues. The study of ecological community data involves many methods of analysis. In this book you will learn many of the mainstays of community analysis including: diversity, similarity and cluster analysis, ordination and multivariate analyses. This book is for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers seeking a step-by-step methodology for analysing plant and animal communities using R and Excel. Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet is virtually ubiquitous and familiar to most computer users. It is a robust program that makes an excellent storage and manipulation system for many kinds of data, including community data. The R program is a powerful and flexible analytical system able to conduct a huge variety of analytical methods, which means that the user only has to learn one program to address many research questions. Its other advantage is that it is open source and therefore completely free. Novel analytical methods are being added constantly to the already comprehensive suite of tools available in R. Mark Gardener is both an ecologist and an analyst. He has worked in a range of ecosystems around the world and has been involved in research across a spectrum of community types. His knowledge of R is largely self-taught and this gives him insight into the needs of students learning to use R for complicated analyses.
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Community Ecology

Author: Peter J. Morin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444341944

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 9193

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All life on earth occurs in natural assemblages called communities. Community ecology is the study of patterns and processes involving these collections of two or more species. Communities are typically studied using a diversity of techniques, including observations of natural history, statistical descriptions of natural patterns, laboratory and field experiments, and mathematical modelling. Community patterns arise from a complex assortment of processes including competition, predation, mutualism, indirect effects, habitat selection, which result in the most complex biological entities on earth – including iconic systems such as rain forests and coral reefs. This book introduces the reader to a balanced coverage of concepts and theories central to community ecology, using examples drawn from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems, and focusing on animal, plant, and microbial species. The historical development of key concepts is described using descriptions of classic studies, while examples of exciting new developments in recent studies are used to point toward future advances in our understanding of community organization. Throughout, there is an emphasis on the crucial interplay between observations, experiments, and mathematical models. This second updated edition is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and established scientists who seek a broad overview of community ecology. The book has developed from a course in community ecology that has been taught by the author since 1983. Figures and tables can be downloaded for free from www.wiley.com/go/morin/communityecology
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Community Ecology

Author: Gary George Mittelbach

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN: 9780878935093

Category: Nature

Page: 400

View: 4917

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This is a much-needed up-to-date text on community ecology, covering both the earlier and later paradigms of community ecology with deep expertise.
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Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology

Author: Hugh G. Gauch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521282406

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 556

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A full description of computer-based methods of analysis used to define and solve ecological problems. Multivariate techniques permit summary of complex sets of data and allow investigation of many problems which cannot be tackled experimentally because of practical restraints.
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Community Ecology of Neotropical Kingfishers

Author: James Vanderbeek Remsen

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520096738

Category: Nature

Page: 116

View: 9602

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To determine the mechanisms for species-spacing in a group of closely related bird species--namely, five species of Neotropical Kingfishers--the author studied their feeding behavior and diet at three sites, two in Bolivia and one in Colombia. He found that changes in number of coexisting species were correlated with changes in abundance and size distribution of their prey, surface-dwelling fishes.
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Population and Community Ecology for Insect Management and Conservation

Author: J. Baumgartner

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789054109303

Category: Science

Page: 12

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One of the themes of the 20th International Congress of Entomology held in Florence in August 1996 was ecology and population dynamics, with papers presented on single species dynamics, population interactions, and community ecology. This text contains a selection of the papers that were presented, and gives and late-1990s picture of the developing area. It should be of interest to biometricians and general population ecolgists, as well as entomologists.
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Microbiome Community Ecology

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Muhammad Saleem

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319116657

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 4361

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This book reviews the mechanisms, patterns, and processes that regulate prokaryotic diversity through different habitats in the context of evolutionary and ecological hypotheses, principles, and theories. Despite the tremendous role of prokaryotic diversity in the function of the global ecosystem, it remains understudied in comparison to the rest of biological diversity. In this book, the authors argue that understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence, functioning relationships (e.g. nutrient cycling and host fitness), and trophic and non-trophic interactions are helpful in addressing the future challenges in basic and applied research in microbial ecology. The authors also examine the ecological and evolutionary responses of prokaryotes to global change and biodiversity loss. Ecological Diversity of the Microbiome in the Context of Ecology Theory and Climate Change aims to bring prokaryotes into the focus of ecological and evolutionary research, especially in the context of global change.
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Evolutionary Community Ecology

Author: Mark A. McPeek

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400888212

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 7887

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Evolutionary Community Ecology develops a unified framework for understanding the structure of ecological communities and the dynamics of natural selection that shape the evolution of the species inhabiting them. All species engage in interactions with many other species, and these interactions regulate their abundance, define their trajectories of natural selection, and shape their movement decisions. Mark McPeek synthesizes the ecological and evolutionary dynamics generated by species interactions that structure local biological communities and regional metacommunities. McPeek explores the ecological performance characteristics needed for invasibility and coexistence of species in complex networks of species interactions. This species interaction framework is then extended to examine the ecological dynamics of natural selection that drive coevolution of interacting species in these complex interaction networks. The models of natural selection resulting from species interactions are used to evaluate the ecological conditions that foster diversification at multiple trophic levels. Analyses show that diversification depends on the ecological context in which species interactions occur and the types of traits that define the mechanisms of those species interactions. Lastly, looking at the mechanisms of speciation that affect species richness and diversity at various spatial scales and the consequences of past climate change over the Quaternary period, McPeek considers how metacommunity structure is shaped at regional and biogeographic scales. Integrating evolutionary theory into the study of community ecology, Evolutionary Community Ecology provides a new framework for predicting how communities are organized and how they may change over time.
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Tropical Forest Community Ecology

Author: Walter Carson,Stefan Schnitzer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444356267

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 6885

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Historically, tropical ecology has been a science often content with descriptive and demographic approaches, which is understandable given the difficulty of studying these ecosystems and the need for basic demographic information. Nonetheless, over the last several years, tropical ecologists have begun to test more sophisticated ecological theory and are now beginning to address a broad array of questions that are of particular importance to tropical systems, and ecology in general. Why are there are so many species in tropical forests and what mechanisms are responsible for the maintenance of that vast species diversity? What factors control species coexistence? Are there common patterns of species abundance and distribution across broad geographic scales? What is the role of trophic interactions in these complex ecosystems? How can these fragile ecosystems be conserved? Containing contributions from some of the world’s leading tropical ecologists, Tropical Forest Community Ecology provides a summary of the key issues in the discipline of tropical ecology: Includes contributions from some of the world’s leading tropical ecologists Covers patterns of species distribution, the maintenance of species diversity, the community ecology of tropical animals, forest regeneration and conservation of tropical ecosystems
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