Communities of Practice in the History of English

Author: Joanna Kopaczyk,Andreas H. Jucker

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027271208

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 291

View: 8735

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Languages change and they keep changing as a result of communicative interactions and practices in the context of communities of language users. The articles in this volume showcase a range of such communities and their practices as loci of language change in the history of English. The notion of communities of practice takes its starting point in the work of Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger and refers to groups of people defined both through their membership in a community and through their shared practices. Three types of communities are particularly highlighted: networks of letter writers; groups of scribes and printers; and other groups of professionals, in particular administrators and scientists. In these diverse contexts in England, Scotland, the United States and South Africa, language change is not seen as an abstract process but as a response to the communicative needs and practices of groups of people engaged in interaction.
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Current Trends in Historical Sociolinguistics

Author: Cinzia Russi

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 311048840X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 280

View: 2411

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Historical sociolinguistics has now established itself as a separate independent field of linguistic inquiry, and the impact of its theoretical and empirical advances are reflected in a thriving body of publications of various types. This volume adds to this flourishing array by presenting nine original studies by highly accomplished scholars holding a prominent reputation in the field. The overarching objective of the volume is to call attention to contemporary trends and innovative developments in the discipline and, more generally, to highlight current research on the relationship between sociolinguistics and historical linguistics, social motivations of language variation and change, and corpus-based studies. The overall interdisciplinary nature of the contributions, the variety of languages they examine and the range of themes they address are distinguishing features of the book, which also make it appealing to a wider readership. The general themes covered by the volume include how to define the historical and social dimensions in historical sociolinguistics research, historical second-language use and multilingualism, the role and relevance played by linguistic ideologies and attitudes in language choices, usage, policy (standardization and preservation), and language death. More specific topics addressed are the linguistic strategies employed to convey and defend religious ideology or to heighten the overall persuasiveness of the information provided. Controversial and/or under-researched issues are tackled, such as authorship and gender in the study of private documents, the regularization and standardization of English orthography, and the issue of speakers' awareness of the dissociation between spoken and written language. In addition, several contributions are methodologically linked by employing data from epistolary correspondence.
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Norms and Conventions in the History of English

Author: Birte Bös,Claudia Claridge

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027262462

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 215

View: 9007

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This volume explores changing norms and conventions in the English language, as displayed in a broad range of historical data from more than five centuries. The contributions discuss the interplay of sociocultural conditions, specific discourse traditions and structural aspects of language, paying special attention to the communities where norms and conventions are displayed and shaped in verbal interaction. The volume is enriched by systematic terminological clarifications, interdisciplinary approaches and the introduction of new methods like network analysis and advanced analytical tools and forms of visualisation into the diachronic investigation of historical texts.
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Communities of Practice and English as a Lingua Franca

A Study of Students in a Central European Context

Author: Karolina Kalocsai

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110295512

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 262

View: 835

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This is a timely book on one of the most widely debated issues in applied linguistics: what is the social and cultural significance of English as a lingua franca for the internationally mobile students of the 21st century in Central Europe? Through an in-depth analysis of social practices, the book develops an exciting, innovative multilingual approach to out-of-class language use and language learning that engages students in the co-construction of identities. Apart from scholars, the book will appeal to policy makers and educators who are concerned with the internationalization of universities in Central Europe.
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Merchants of Innovation

The Languages of Traders

Author: Esther-Miriam Wagner,Bettina Beinhoff,Ben Outhwaite

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 1501503545

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 283

View: 6557

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Traders around the world use particular spoken argots, to guard commercial secrets or to cement their identity as members of a certain group. The written registers of traders, too, in correspondence and other commercial texts show significant differences from the language used in official, legal or private writing. This volume suggests a clear cross-linguistic tendency that mercantile writing displays a greater degree of language mixing, code-switching and linguistic innovations, and, by setting precedents, promote language change. This interdisciplinary volume aims to place the traders' languages within a wider sociolinguistic context. Questions addressed include: What differences can be observed between mercantile registers and those of court or legal scribes? Do the traders' texts show the early emergence of features that take longer to permeate into the 'higher' varieties of the same language? Do they anticipate language change in the standard register or influence it by setting linguistic precedents? What sets traders' letters apart from private correspondence and other 'low' registers? The book will also examine bilingualism, semi-bilingualism, reasons for code-switching and the choice of particular languages over others in commercial correspondence.
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Communities of Practice

An Alaskan Native Model for Language Teaching and Learning

Author: Patrick E. Marlow,Sabine Siekmann

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816599866

Category: Education

Page: 160

View: 739

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Educators, scholars, and community activists recognize that immersion education is a key means to restoring Indigenous and other heritage languages. But language maintenance and revitalization involve many complex issues, foremost may be the lack of local professional development opportunities for potential language teachers. In Alaska, the Second Language Acquisition Teacher Education (SLATE) project was designed to enable Indigenous communities and schools to improve the quality of native-language and English-language instruction and assessment by focusing on the elimination of barriers that have historically hindered degree completion for Indigenous and rural teachers. The Guided Research Collaborative (GRC) model, was employed to support the development of communities of practice through near-peer mentoring and mutual scaffolding. Through this important new model, teachers of both the heritage language, in this case Central Yup’ik, and English were able to situate their professional development into a larger global context based on current notions of multilingualism. In Communities of Practice contributors show how the SLATE program was developed and implemented, providing an important model for improving second-language instruction and assessment. Through an in-depth analysis of the program, contributors show how this project can be successfully adapted in other communities via its commitment to local control in language programming and a model based on community-driven research. Communities of Practice demonstrates how an initial cohort of Yup’ik- and English-language teachers collaborated to negotiate and ultimately completed the SLATE program. In so doing, these educators enhanced the program and their own effectiveness as teachers through a greater understanding of language learning. It is these understandings that will ultimately allow heritage- and English-language teachers to work together to foster their students’ success in any language.
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Professional Communities and the Work of High School Teaching

Author: Milbrey W. McLaughlin,Joan E. Talbert

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226500706

Category: Education

Page: 217

View: 8982

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American high schools have never been under more pressure to reform: student populations are more diverse than ever, resources are limited, and teachers are expected to teach to high standards for all students. While many reformers look for change at the state or district level, the authors here argue that the most local contexts—schools, departments, and communities—matter the most to how well teachers perform in the classroom and how satisfied they are professionally. Their findings—based on one of the most extensive research projects ever done on secondary teaching—show that departmental cultures play a crucial role in classroom settings and expectations. In the same school, for example, social studies teachers described their students as "apathetic and unwilling to work," while English teachers described the same students as "bright, interesting, and energetic." With wide-ranging implications for educational practice and policy, this unprecedented look into teacher communities is essential reading for educators, administrators, and all those concerned with U. S. High Schools.
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Reflective Practice in Geography Teaching

Author: Ashley Kent

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 184787651X

Category: Education

Page: 320

View: 6597

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Highly Commended Geographical Association Award 2002 `Has been judged as likely to make a significant contribution to geography' This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary thought and practice in teaching geography. It is designed to support continuing professional development and reflective practice in geography education by: encouraging a critical understanding of the literature and concepts; stimulating teachers to continue with personal and professional development; and providing professionally relevant knowledge, understanding, skills and values. Drawn from a wide range of eminent geographers and experienced practitioners, the authors cover: progress in geography - changing viewpoints; the geography curriculum - development planning and issues; and research and geography teaching - why and how research matters. This book is essential reading and a valuable resource, for student and practising teachers of geography at secondary school level, as well as for those responsible for continuing professional development and subject leadership.
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