Combinatorics: Ancient & Modern

Author: Robin Wilson,John J. Watkins

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191630632

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

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Who first presented Pascal's triangle? (It was not Pascal.) Who first presented Hamiltonian graphs? (It was not Hamilton.) Who first presented Steiner triple systems? (It was not Steiner.) The history of mathematics is a well-studied and vibrant area of research, with books and scholarly articles published on various aspects of the subject. Yet, the history of combinatorics seems to have been largely overlooked. This book goes some way to redress this and serves two main purposes: 1) it constitutes the first book-length survey of the history of combinatorics; and 2) it assembles, for the first time in a single source, researches on the history of combinatorics that would otherwise be inaccessible to the general reader. Individual chapters have been contributed by sixteen experts. The book opens with an introduction by Donald E. Knuth to two thousand years of combinatorics. This is followed by seven chapters on early combinatorics, leading from Indian and Chinese writings on permutations to late-Renaissance publications on the arithmetical triangle. The next seven chapters trace the subsequent story, from Euler's contributions to such wide-ranging topics as partitions, polyhedra, and latin squares to the 20th century advances in combinatorial set theory, enumeration, and graph theory. The book concludes with some combinatorial reflections by the distinguished combinatorialist, Peter J. Cameron. This book is not expected to be read from cover to cover, although it can be. Rather, it aims to serve as a valuable resource to a variety of audiences. Combinatorialists with little or no knowledge about the development of their subject will find the historical treatment stimulating. A historian of mathematics will view its assorted surveys as an encouragement for further research in combinatorics. The more general reader will discover an introduction to a fascinating and too little known subject that continues to stimulate and inspire the work of scholars today.
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Discrete Encounters

Author: Craig Bauer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429682883

Category: Mathematics

Page: 718

View: 3711

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Eschewing the standard dry and static writing style of traditional textbooks, Discrete Explorations provides a refreshing approach to discrete mathematics. The author combines traditional course topics with popular culture, applications, and various historical examples. This book focuses on the historical development of the subject and provides details on the people behind mathematics and their motivations, which will deepen readers’ appreciation of mathematics. With its unique style, the book covers many of the same topics found in other texts but done in an alternative, entertaining style that better captures readers’ attention. Defining discrete mathematics, the author also covers many different topics. These include combinatorics, fractals, permutations, difference equations, graph theory, trees and financial mathematics. Not only will readers gain a greater impression of mathematics, but they’ll be encouraged to further explore the subject. Highlights: Features fascinating historical references to motivate readers Text includes numerous pop culture references throughout to provide a more engaging reading experience Its unique topic structure presents a fresh approach The text’s narrative style reads more like a popular book instead of a dry textbook Covers many topics from combinatorics, as well as discrete mathematics
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Unsolved!

The History and Mystery of the World's Greatest Ciphers from Ancient Egypt to Online Secret Societies

Author: Craig P. Bauer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884799

Category: Computers

Page: 624

View: 902

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Watch Craig Bauer discuss the Zodiac Killer’s cipher on HISTORY’s new miniseries The Hunt for the Zodiac Killer In 1953, a man was found dead from cyanide poisoning near the Philadelphia airport with a picture of a Nazi aircraft in his wallet. Taped to his abdomen was an enciphered message. In 1912, a book dealer named Wilfrid Voynich came into possession of an illuminated cipher manuscript once belonging to Emperor Rudolf II, who was obsessed with alchemy and the occult. Wartime codebreakers tried—and failed—to unlock the book's secrets, and it remains an enigma to this day. In this lively and entertaining book, Craig Bauer examines these and other vexing ciphers yet to be cracked. Some may reveal the identity of a spy or serial killer, provide the location of buried treasure, or expose a secret society—while others may be elaborate hoaxes. Unsolved! begins by explaining the basics of cryptology, and then explores the history behind an array of unsolved ciphers. It looks at ancient ciphers, ciphers created by artists and composers, ciphers left by killers and victims, Cold War ciphers, and many others. Some are infamous, like the ciphers in the Zodiac letters, while others were created purely as intellectual challenges by figures such as Nobel Prize–winning physicist Richard P. Feynman. Bauer lays out the evidence surrounding each cipher, describes the efforts of geniuses and eccentrics—in some cases both—to decipher it, and invites readers to try their hand at puzzles that have stymied so many others. Unsolved! takes readers from the ancient world to the digital age, providing an amazing tour of many of history's greatest unsolved ciphers.
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Topics in Chromatic Graph Theory

Author: Lowell W. Beineke,Robin J. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316239853

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 1365

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Chromatic graph theory is a thriving area that uses various ideas of 'colouring' (of vertices, edges, and so on) to explore aspects of graph theory. It has links with other areas of mathematics, including topology, algebra and geometry, and is increasingly used in such areas as computer networks, where colouring algorithms form an important feature. While other books cover portions of the material, no other title has such a wide scope as this one, in which acknowledged international experts in the field provide a broad survey of the subject. All fifteen chapters have been carefully edited, with uniform notation and terminology applied throughout. Bjarne Toft (Odense, Denmark), widely recognized for his substantial contributions to the area, acted as academic consultant. The book serves as a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students in graph theory and combinatorics and as a useful introduction to the topic for mathematicians in related fields.
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Number Theory

A Historical Approach

Author: John J. Watkins

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400848741

Category: Mathematics

Page: 592

View: 3572

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The natural numbers have been studied for thousands of years, yet most undergraduate textbooks present number theory as a long list of theorems with little mention of how these results were discovered or why they are important. This book emphasizes the historical development of number theory, describing methods, theorems, and proofs in the contexts in which they originated, and providing an accessible introduction to one of the most fascinating subjects in mathematics. Written in an informal style by an award-winning teacher, Number Theory covers prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, and a host of other essential topics in number theory, while also telling the stories of the great mathematicians behind these developments, including Euclid, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Sophie Germain. This one-of-a-kind introductory textbook features an extensive set of problems that enable students to actively reinforce and extend their understanding of the material, as well as fully worked solutions for many of these problems. It also includes helpful hints for when students are unsure of how to get started on a given problem. Uses a unique historical approach to teaching number theory Features numerous problems, helpful hints, and fully worked solutions Discusses fun topics like Pythagorean tuning in music, Sudoku puzzles, and arithmetic progressions of primes Includes an introduction to Sage, an easy-to-learn yet powerful open-source mathematics software package Ideal for undergraduate mathematics majors as well as non-math majors Digital solutions manual (available only to professors)
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Mathematical Thought From Ancient to Modern Times

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199840427

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 8163

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This comprehensive history traces the development of mathematical ideas and the careers of the men responsible for them. Volume 1 looks at the disciplines origins in Babylon and Egypt, the creation of geometry and trigonometry by the Greeks, and the role of mathematics in the medieval and early modern periods. Volume 2 focuses on calculus, the rise of analysis in the 19th century, and the number theories of Dedekind and Dirichlet. The concluding volume covers the revival of projective geometry, the emergence of abstract algebra, the beginnings of topology, and the influence of Godel on recent mathematical study.
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The Turing Guide

Author: Jack Copeland,Jonathan Bowen,Mark Sprevak,Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198747829

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 435

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Alan Turing has long proved a subject of fascination, but following the centenary of his birth in 2012, the code-breaker, computer pioneer, mathematician (and much more) has become even more celebrated with much media coverage, and several meetings, conferences and books raising public awareness of Turing's life and work. This volume will bring together contributions from some of the leading experts on Alan Turing to create a comprehensive guide to Turing that will serve as a useful resource for researchers in the area as well as the increasingly interested general reader. The book will cover aspects of Turing's life and the wide range of his intellectual activities, including mathematics, code-breaking, computer science, logic, artificial intelligence and mathematical biology, as well as his subsequent influence.
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Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition

Author: W.D. Wallis

Publisher: Chapman and Hall/CRC

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 311

View: 9288

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Combinatorial theory is one of the fastest growing areas of modern mathematics. Focusing on a major part of this subject, Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition provides a solid foundation in the classical areas of design theory as well as in more contemporary designs based on applications in a variety of fields. After an overview of basic concepts, the text introduces balanced designs and finite geometries. The author then delves into balanced incomplete block designs, covering difference methods, residual and derived designs, and resolvability. Following a chapter on the existence theorem of Bruck, Ryser, and Chowla, the book discusses Latin squares, one-factorizations, triple systems, Hadamard matrices, and Room squares. It concludes with a number of statistical applications of designs. Reflecting recent results in design theory and outlining several applications, this new edition of a standard text presents a comprehensive look at the combinatorial theory of experimental design. Suitable for a one-semester course or for self-study, it will prepare readers for further exploration in the field. To access supplemental materials for this volume, visit the author’s website at http://www.math.siu.edu/Wallis/designs
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