Archaeology of Ancient Australia

Author: Peter Hiscock

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134304404

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 4153


This book is an introduction to the archaeology of Australia from prehistoric times to the eighteenth century AD. It is the only up-to-date textbook on the subject and is designed for undergraduate courses, based on the author's considerable experience of teaching at the Australian National University. Lucidly written, it shows the diversity and colourfulness of the history of humanity in the southern continent. The Archaeology of Ancient Australia demonstrates with an array of illustrations and clear descriptions of key archaeological evidence from Australia a thorough evaluation of Australian prehistory. Readers are shown how this human past can be reconstructed from archaeological evidence, supplemented by information from genetics, environmental sciences, anthropology, and history. The result is a challenging view about how varied human life in the ancient past has been.

Lithic Materials and Paleolithic Societies

Author: Brian Adams,Brooke Blades

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444311969

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 7764


Lithic Materials and Paleolithic Societies provides a detailed examination of the Paleolithic procurement and utilization of the most durable material in the worldwide archaeological record. The volume addresses sites ranging in age from some of the earliest hominin occupations in eastern and southern Africa to late Pleistocene and post-Pleistocene occupations in North American and Australia. The Early Paleolithic in India and the Near East, the Middle Paleolithic in Europe, and the Late Paleolithic in Europe and eastern Asia are also considered. The authors include established researchers who provide important synthetic statements updated with new information. Recent data are reported, often by younger scholars who are becoming respected members of the international research community. The authors represent research traditions from nine countries and therefore provide insight into the scholarly present as well as the Paleolithic past. Attempts are frequently made to relate lithic procurement and utilization to the organization of societies and even broader concerns of hominin behaviour. The volume re-evaluates existing interpretations in some instances by updating previous work of the authors and offers provocative new interpretations that at times call into question some basic assumptions of the Paleolithic. This book will be invaluable reading for advanced students and researchers in the fields of palaeolithic archaeology, geoarchaeology, and anthropology.

Geology and Archaeology

Submerged Landscapes of the Continental Shelf

Author: J. Harff,G. Bailey ,F. Lüth

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 1862396914

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 7199


Sea-level change has influenced human population globally since prehistoric times. Even in early phases of cultural development human populations were faced with marine regression and transgression as a result of changing climate and corresponding glacio-isostatic adjustment. Global marine regression during the last glaciation changed the palaeogeography of the continental shelf, converting former marine environments to attractive terrestrial habitats for prehistoric humans. These areas of the shelf were used as hunting and gathering areas, as migration routes between continents, and most probably witnessed the earliest developments in seafaring and marine exploitation, until the postglacial transgression re-submerged these palaeo-landscapes. Based on modern marine research technologies and the integration of large databases, proxy data are increasingly available for the reconstruction of Quaternary submerged landscapes. Also, prehistoric archaeological remains from the recent sea bottom are shedding new light on human prehistoric development driven by rapidly changing climate and environment. This publication contributes to the exchange of ideas and new results in this young and challenging field of underwater palaeoenvironmental investigation.

Altered Ecologies

Fire, Climate and Human Influence on Terrestrial Landscapes

Author: Simon Haberle,Janelle Stevenson,Matthew Prebble

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921666811

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 2089


Like a star chart this volume orientates the reader to the key issues and debates in Pacific and Australasian biogeography, palaeoecology and human ecology. A feature of this collection is the diversity of approaches ranging from interpretation of the biogeographic significance of plant and animal distributional patterns, pollen analysis from peats and lake sediments to discern Quaternary climate change, explanation of the patterns of faunal extinction events, the interplay of fire on landscape evolution, and models of the environmental consequences of human settlement patterns. The diversity of approaches, geographic scope and academic rigor are a fitting tribute to the enormous contributions of Geoff Hope. As made apparent in this volume, Hope pioneered multidisciplinary understanding of the history and impacts of human cultures in the Australia- Pacific region, arguably the globe's premier model systems for understanding the consequences of humans colonization on ecological systems. The distinguished scholars who have contributed to this volume also demonstrate Hope's enduring contribution as an inspirational research leader, collaborator and mentor. Terra Australis leave no doubt that history matters, not only for land management, but more importantly, in alerting settler and indigenous societies alike to their past ecological impacts and future environmental trajectories.

The Natural History of Sydney

Author: Daniel Lunney,Pat Hutchings,Dieter Hochuli

Publisher: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales

ISBN: 0980327237

Category: Nature

Page: 451

View: 3703


On 3 November 2007, the Royal Zoological Society of NSW held its annual forum, with the topic being The natural history of Sydney. It has remained as the title of this book. The program contained the following introduction as the theme of the forum and it has remained as the theme for this book: “Sydney has a unique natural history, providing a home for iconic animals and plants while remaining a global city. It captured the imagination of prominent naturalists and inspired visits and collecting trips to the infant colony of New South Wales in the late 1790s and early to late 1800s. From these collections flowed great descriptive works detailing the new and unusual animals and plants of the antipodes. Gould, Owen, Huxley, Peron, Banks and many others recounted new and evocative flora and fauna. Many collecting trips for the great museums and institutions in Europe began in Sydney. Sydney still continues to engage naturalists and those grappling with the current drama of climate change and conservation. The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, founded in Sydney in 1879, is a product of the grand 19th century tradition of natural history, with a particular emphasis on animal life. Sydney is also home to some of Australia’s oldest and finest institutions, such as the Australian Museum, the University of Sydney and the Royal Botanic Gardens. Throughout Sydney, there are places where the natural habitat has not been supplanted by urban growth, and the interest in Sydney’s endemic flora and fauna remains strong. This forum draws on a magnificent interdisciplinary vision while continuing to employ all the modern tools in the investigation and communication of Sydney’s natural history. It reflects a resurgence in local history and pursues the natural history of our harbour-side city in a modern framework.” The day of the forum was a captivating display of the diversity of the fauna of Sydney, both native and introduced, and its varied habitats, and of the diverse ways of appreciating natural history, including the history of natural history. Also on display was the depth of scholarship lying behind each of the presentations. The subject clearly has a profound hold on many professional biologists, historians and those keen to conserve their local area, but if the day is any guide, there are vastly more people living in or visiting Sydney who have more than a passing interest in this topic. The subject matter ranged from the history of institutions engaged in natural history, through animal groups as diverse as reptiles and cicadas, to ideas on how to see Sydney as a natural setting. Other papers dealt with the use by Aboriginal peopleof the native biota in terms of fishing and being displayed in rock paintings, before the arrival of the colonists. There is little doubt that this theme could run to 10 volumes, not just this one, but the diversity of ideas, skills and organisms displayed in this one book will serve as a guide to what lies beyond these pages. A considerable effort was made by each author to present their material as both interesting and accurate. The material is built on lifetimes of sustained effort to study, record and communicate findings and ideas. It is also built on the lifetime work of our predecessors, who laboured to find and record the natural history of Sydney. We are indebted to their efforts. This book records not only the outcome of a successful day of presentations, but more importantly the lifelong scholarship of those authors in each of the specialist fields. Not only have the authors been absorbed by documenting the biodiversity, they have included studies, or intelligent speculation, on the factors which have impacted on this diversity since Cook sailed along the NSW coast in 1770. The Macquarie Dictionary, e.g. the revised third edition, defines ‘natural history’ as ‘the science or study dealing with all objects in nature’, and ‘the aggregate of knowledge connected with such knowledge’. This makes natural history of wide interest to the entire community of Sydney, both residents and visitors. However, we have specialised to the extent that we have focused principally on fauna, the RZS being a zoological society. Nevertheless, plant communities are recognised as part and parcel of the natural history of Sydney, as is a sense of the geography of the city, with its magnificent harbour, sandstone backdrop and spectacular national parks surrounding the city. Also of great importance is how others in the past have seen the natural history of what is now called Sydney. All these ideas are captured in this book. One of the strengths of being a naturalist, i.e. ‘one who is versed in or devoted to natural history, especially a zoologist or botanist’ (Macquarie Dictionary), is the opportunity to look across the individual disciplines, be it a specialist in birds, mammals or polychaetes, a taxonomist, or an ecologist or writer. Their advantage is the ability to see the richness of a place such as Sydney. Consequently, most botanists and zoologists have one or two highly specialised skills, but a keen interest in the broader picture and can thus appreciate the importance of, for example, cave art or fish diversity in the harbour, and recognise that the vertebrate fauna of Sydney has changed over the 222 years since European settlement, and no doubt the invertebrate fauna has changed although it is less easily assessed. Our aim in this book is to draw attention to the natural history of Sydney for scholars, as well as those who have the task of looking after a particular area, such as within a local government area, or a particular taxon, such as reptiles or fish, and those who have the opportunity to conserve areas, taxa or institutions through their employment or legislative responsibilities. It is also for teachers and lecturers, colleagues in other cities and towns in Australia, and those with a keen interest in managing our urban wildlife, our cultural heritage or promoting the profound value of our natural heritage within a city landscape. It also displays the importance of museum and herbarium collections in documenting the changes since 1770.